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Len Foster 






Old and New Testament Myths and Miracles 







* ffe who knows only one religion knows none." PROF. MAX MULLER. 

"The same thing which is now called CHRISTIAN RELIGION existed among the 
Ancients. They have begun to call Christian the true religion which existed be 
fore." ST. AUGUSTINE. 

"Our love for what is old, our reverence for what our fathers used, makes us 
keep still in the church, and on the very altar cloths, symbols which would excite 
the smile of an Oriental, and lead him to wonder why we send missionaries to his 
land, while cherishing his faith in ours." JAMES BON WICK. 






SEP 2887 


THE idea of publishing the work here presented did not sug 
gest itself until a large portion of the material it contains had 
been accumulated for the private use and personal gratification of 
the author. In pursuing the study of the Bible Myths, facts per 
taining thereto, in a condensed form, seemed to be greatly needed, 
and nowhere to be found. Widely scattered through hundreds of 
ancient and modern volumes, most of the contents of this book 
may indeed be found ; but any previous attempt to trace exclusively 
the myths and legends of the Old and New Testament to their 
origin, published as a separate work, is not known to the writer 
of this. Many able writers have shown our so-called Sacred Scrip 
tures to be unhistorical, and have pronounced them largely legend 
ary, but have there left the matter, evidently aware of the great 
extent of the subject lying beyond. As Thomas Scott remarks, 
in his English Life of Jesus : "How these narratives (i. e., the 
New Testament narratives), unhistorical as they have been shown 
to be, came into existence, it is not our business to explain ; and 
once again, at the end of the task, as at the beginning and 
throughout, we must emphatically disclaim the obligation." To 
pursue the subject from the point at which it is abandoned by 
this and many other distinguished writers, has been the labor of 
the author of this volume for a number of years. The result of 



this labor is herewith submitted to the reader, but not without a 
painful consciousness of its many imperfections. 

The work naturally begins with the Eden myth, and is fol 
lowed by a consideration of the principal Old Testament 
legends, showing their universality, origin and meaning. Next 
will be found the account of the birth of Christ Jesus, with his 
history until the close of his life upon earth, showing, in con 
nection therewith, the universality of the myth of the Virgin- 
born, Crucified and Resurrected Saviour. 

Before showing the origin and meaning of the myth (which 
is done in Chapter XXXIX.), we have considered the Miracles 
of Christ Jesus, the Eucharist, Baptism, the Worship of the 
Virgin, Christian Symbols, the Birthday of Christ Jesus, the 
Doctrine of the Trinity, Why Christianity Prospered, and the 
Antiyuity of Pagan Religions, besides making a comparison of 
the legendary histories of Cri-shna and Jesus, and Buddha and 
Jesus. The concluding chapter relates to the question, What do 
we really know about Jesus ? 

In the words of Prof. Max Mliller (The Science of Re 
ligion, p. 11) : "A comparison of all the religions of the world, 
in which none can claim a privileged position, will no doubt 
seem to many dangerous and reprehensible, because ignoring that 
peculiar reverence which everybody, down to the mere fetish 
worshiper, feels for his own religion, and for his own god. Let 
me say, then, at once, that I myself have shared these misgivings, 
but that I have tried to overcome them, because I would not and 
could not allow myself to surrender either what I hold to be the 
truth, or what I hold still dearer than truth, the right of testing 
truth. Nor do I regret it. I do not say that the Science of Re 
ligion is all gain. No, it entails losses, and losses of many 
things which we hold dear. But this I will say, that, as far as 
my humble judgment goes, it does not entail the loss of anything 
that is essential to true religion, and that, if we strike the 
balance honestly, the gain is immeasurably greater than the loss" 


" All truth is safe, and nothing else is safe ; and he who keeps 
back the truth, or withholds it from men, from motives of expe 
diency, is either a coward or a criminal, or both." 

But little beyond the arrangement of this work is claimed as 
original. Ideas, phrases, and even whole paragraphs have been 
taken from the writings of others, and in most, if not in all cases, 
acknowledged ; but with the thought in mind of the many hours 
of research this book may save the student in this particular line 
of study ; with the consciousness of having done for others that 
which I would have been thankful to have found done for myself ; 
and more than all, with the hope that it may in some way help to 
hasten the day when the mist of superstition shall be dispelled by 
the light of reason ; with all its defects, it is most cheerfully com 
mitted to its fate by the author. 

BOSTON, MASS., November, 1882. 





LIST OF AUTHORITIES, AND BOOKS QUOTED FROM ........................ xi 

THE CREATION AND FALL OF MAN ...................................... 1 

THE DELUGE ....................................................... 19 

THE TOWER OF BABEL ............................................... 88 

THE TRIAL OF ABRAHAM S FAITH ..................................... 88 

JACOB S VISION OF THE LADDER. ...................................... 43 

THE EXODUS FROM EGYPT ............................................ 48 

RECEIVING THE TEN COMMANDMENTS ................................... 68 

SAMSON AND HIS EXPLOITS ............................................ 62 






OlBCUMCISION ........................... ................. r i ...... 85 

CONCLUSION or PART FIRST ....... ........................ - . .- ....... 88 














" HE DESCENDED INTO HELL." ........................................ 211 



CHRIST JESUS AS JUDGE OF THE DEAD ................................. 244 

CHRIST JESUS AS CREATOR, AND ALPHA AND OMEGA ...................... 247 


CHRIST CRISHNA AND CHRIST JESUS ...................... ............. 252 

CHRIST BUDDHA AND CHRIST JESUS ................................... 289 


THE EUCHARIST OR LORD S SUPPER .................................... 805 

BAPTISM .......................................................... 81 

THE WORSHIP OP THE VIRGIN MOTHER. ............................... 828 

, CHRISTIAN SYMBOLS ............................................... 889 

THE BIRTH-DAT OP CHRIST JESUS ...................................... 869 

THE TRINITY.. . 868 






EXPLANATION , , , 466 







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ment of Greek and Roman Antiquities, British Museum, 
2d Edit. New York : Armstrong & Co., 1876. 

NICODEMUS (Apoc.) The Gospel of Nicodemus the Disciple, concerning the 

Sufferings and Resurrection of Our Master and Saviour 
Jesus Christ. 

OORT (H.) The Bible for Learners, by Dr. H. Oort, Prof, of Oriental 

Languages, &c., at Amsterdam, and Dr. I. Hooykaas, 
pastor at Rotterdam, with the assistance of Dr. A. Kunen, 
Prof, of Theology at Leiden, in 3 vols. Translated 
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Roberts Bros., 1878. 

ORTON (JAMES) The Andes and the Amazon ; or Across the Continent of 

South America, by James Orton, M. A., 3d Edit. New 
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OWEN (RICHARD) Man s Earliest History, an Address delivered before the 

International Congress of Orientalists, by Prof. Richard 
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PKSCHIL (OsciR) .., The Races of Man, and their Geographical Distribution 

from the German of Oscar Peschel. New York : P 
Appleton & Co., 1876. 


POLYCARP The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians, translated by 

Archbishop Wake. 

PORTER (Sm R. K.) Travels in Georgia, Persia, Armenia, Ancient Babylonia, 

&c., by Sir Robert Kir Porter, in 2 vols. London : 
Longmans, Hurt, Rees, Orm & Brown, 1821. 

PRKSCOTT (Wif. H.) History of the Conquest of Mexico, with a preliminary 

view of the Ancient Mexican Civilization, and the life 
of the conqueror, Hernando Cortez, by Wm. H. Prescott, 
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by J. C. Prichard, M. D., F. R. S. London : Sherwood, 
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An Analysis of Egyptian Mythology, and the Philosophy 

of the Ancient Egyptians, compared with those of the 
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the Hindoos and other Ancient Nations, by Joseph Priest 
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PROTKTANGSLION AFOO The Protevangelion, or, An Historical Account of the 

Birth of Christ, and the perpetual Virgin Mary, Hifl 
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Lord Jesus. 

REBBR (Gso.) The Christ of Paul, or the Enigmas of Christianity, by 

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and Culture of Rome on Christianity, and the Develop 
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REVILLE (ALBERT) History of the Dogma of the Deity of Jesus Christ, by 

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SEPTCHENES(M.LECLERCDE). .The Religion of the Ancient Greeks, Illustrated by an 

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SMITH Smith s Comprehensive Dictionary of the Bible, with 

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The Chaldean Account of Genesis; containing the de 
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Beausobres Histoire Critique de Manichee et du Manicheisme, Amsterdam, 1734 ; 
Baronius Annales Ecclesiastici ; Hydes Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum ; Raw- 
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New Testament, in 4 vols. edited by Dr. Herbert Marsh, London, 1828 ; Archbishop 
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Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, Origen, Tertullian and Minucius Felix. 






THE Old Testament commences with one of its most interest 
ing myths, that of the Creation and Fall of Man. The story is 
to be found in the first three chapters of Genesis, the substance of 
which is as follows : 

After God created the u Heavens " and the " Earth," he said : 
" Let there be light, and there was light," and after calling the 
light Day, and the darkness Night, the first day s work was ended. 

God then made the " Firmament," which completed the second 
day s work. 

Then God caused the dry land to appear, which he called 
" Earth," and the waters he called " Seas." After this the earth 
was made to bring forth grass, trees, tfec., which completed the 
third day s work. 

The next things God created were the "Sun," 1 "Moon" and 

1 The idea that the sun, moon and stars 
were set in the firmament was entertained by 
most nations of antiquity, but, as strange as it 
may appear, Pythagoras, the Grecian philoso 
pher, who flourished from 540 to 510 B. c. as 
well as other Grecian philosophers taught that 
the eun was placed in the centre of the uni 
verse, with the planets roving round it in a cir 

cle, thus making day and night. (See Knight s 
Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 59, and note.) 
The Buddhists anciently taught that the uni 
verse is composed of limitless systems or 
worlds, called aakwaias. 

They are scattered throughout space, and 
each sakwala has a sun and moon. (See 
Hardy: Buddhist Legends, pp. 80 and 87.) 


" Stars," and after he had set them in the Firmament, the fourth 
day s work was ended. 1 

After these, God created great "whales," and other creatures 
which inhabit the water, also " winged fowls." This brought the 
fifth day to a close. 

The work of creation was finally completed on the sixth day, 8 
when God made "beasts" of every kind, "cattle," "creeping 
things," and lastly " man," whom he created " male and female," 
in his own image." 

" Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them. 
And on the neve nth 4 day God ended his work which he had made: and he rested 
on the seventh day, from all his work which he had made. And God blessed the 
seventh day, and sanctified it, because that in it he had rested from all his work 
which God created and made." 

After this information, which concludes at the third verse of 
Genesis ii., strange though it may appear, another account of the 
Creation commences, which is altogether different from the one we 
have just related. This account commences thus : 

" These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were 
created, in the day (not days) that the Lord God made the earth and the 

It then goes on to say that " the Lord God formed man of the 
dust of the ground," 5 which appears to be the first thing he made. 
After planting a garden eastward in Eden, 6 the Lord God put the 
man therein, "and out of the ground made the Lord God to grow 
every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food ; the 
Tret -of Life] also in the midst of the garden, and the Tree of 

1 Origen, a Christian Father who flourished 4 The number SEVEN was sacred among al- 

about A. D. Ji). says: " What, man of sense most every nation of antiquity. (See ch. 

will agree with the statement that the first, ii.) 

second, and third days, in which the ertniny is 5 According to Grecian Mythology, the God 

named and the morning, were without sun, Prometheus created men, in the image of the 

moon and stars? 1 (Quoted in Mysteries of gods, out of day (see Bulfinch: The Age of 

Adoni, p. 176.) Fable, p. 25; and Goldzhier: Hebrew Myths, p. 

" The geologist reckons not by days or by 373), and the God Hephaistos was. commanded 

years; the whole six thousand years, which by Zeus to mold of clay the figure of a maiden, 

were until lately looked on as the sum of the into which Athene, the dawn-goddess, breathed 

world s age, are to him but as a unit of meas- the breath of life. This is Pandora the gift of 

nrcmcnt in the Jong succession of past ages." all the gods who is presented to Epimetheus. 

(Sir John Lubbock.) (See Cox: Aryan Myths, vol. ii., p. 208.) 

" It is now certain that the vast epochs of "What man is found such an idiot as to sup- 
time demanded by scientific observation are pose that God planted trees in Paradise, in 
incompatible both with the six thousand Eden, like a husbandman." (Origen : quoted 
years of the Mosaic chronology, and the six in Mysteries of Adonl, p. 176.) "There is no 
days of the Mosaic creation." (Dean Stanley.) way of preserving the literal sense of the first 
" Let us make man in our own likeness." chapter of Genesis, without impiety, and attrib- 
was said by Ormuzd, the Persian God of Gods, nting things to God unworthy of him." (St. 
to his WORD. (See Bunsen s Angel Messiah, Augustine.) 
P- 104 -) 7 " The records about the Tree of Life are 


Knowledge of good and evil. And a river went out of Eden to 
water the garden, and from thence it was parted, and became into 
four heads." These four rivers were called, first Pison, second 
Gihon, third Hiddekel, and the fourth Euphrates. 1 

After the "Lord God " had made the "Tree of Life," and the 
" Tree of Knowledge," he said unto the man : 

"Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, but of the tree of the 
knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it, for in the ckty that thou eatest 
thereof thou shalt surely die." Then the Lord God, thinking that it would not be 
well for man to live alone, formed out of the ground "every beast of the 
field, and every fowl of the air ; and brought them unto Adam to see what 
he would call them, and whatever Adam called every living creature, that was 
the name thereof." 

After Adam had given names to " all cattle, and to the fowls 
of the air, and to every beast of the field," " the Lord God caused 
a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept, and he (the Lord 
God) took one of his (Adam s) ribs, and closed up the flesh instead 

" And of the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he & wo 
man, and brought her unto Adam." " And they were both naked, the man and 
his wife, and they were not ashamed." 

After this everything is snpposed to have gone harmoniously, 
until a serpent appeared before the woman* who was afterwards 
called Eve and said to her : 

" Hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of the garden ?" 
The woman, answering the serpent, said : 

" We may eat of the fruit of the trees of the garden: but of the fruit of the 
tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, 
lest ye die. " 

Whereupon the serpent said to her : 

the eublimest proofs of the unity and continuity the Garden of Paradise issue from the fountain 

of tradition, and of its Eastern origin. The ear- of immortality, which divides itself into four 

liest records of the most ancient Oriental tradi- rivers." (Ibid., p. 150, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, 

tion refer to a Tree of Life, which ivas guard- vol. i., p. 210.) The Hindoos call their Mount 

ed by spirits. The juice of the fruit of this sa- Meru the Paradise, out of which went four 

cred tree, like the tree itself, was called Sotna rivers. (Anacalypsis, vol. i., p. 357.) 
in Sanscrit, and Haoma in Zend; it was re- 2 According to Persian legend, Arimanes, 

vered as the life preserving essence." (Bun- the Evil Spirit, by eating a certain kind of fruit, 

sen: Keys of St. Peter, p. 414 ) transformed himself into & serpent, and went 

1 " According to the Persian account of Par- gliding about on the earth to tempt human be- 

adiee./oj/r great rivers came from Mount Al- ings. His Devs entered the bodies of men and 

borj; two are m the North, and two go towards produced all manner of diseases. They en- 

the South. The river Arduisir nourishes the tered into their minds, and incited them to 

Tree of Immortality, the Holy Horn." (Stiefel- sensuality, falsehood, slander and revenge, 

hagen: quoted in Mysteries of Adorn p. 149.) Into every department of the world they intro- 

" According to the Chinese myth, the waters of duced discord and death. 


" Ye shall not surely die " (which, according to the narrative, was the truth). 

He then told her that, upon eating the fruit, their eyes would 
be opened, and that they would be as gods, knowing good from 

The woman then looked upon the tree, and as the fruit was 
tempting, "she took of the fruit, and did eat, and gave also unto 
her husband, and he did eat." The result was not death (as the 
Lord God had told them), but, as the serpent had said, " the eyes 
of both were opened, and they knew they were naked, and they 
sewed tig leaves together, and made themselves aprons." 

Towards evening (i. e., u in the cool of the day "), Adam and 
his wife " heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the gar 
den, 1 and being afraid, they hid themselves among the trees of the 
garden. The Lord God not finding Adam and his wife, said : 
;i Where art tliou ?" Adam answering, said : " I heard thy voice 
in the garden, and I was afraid, because I was naked, and I hid 

The " Lord God " then told Adam that he had eaten of the 
tree which he had commanded him riot to eat, whereupon Adam 
said : " The woman whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me 
of the tree and I did eat." 

When the " Lord God " spoke to the woman concerning her 
transgression, she blamed the serpent, which she said " beguiled 
her. This sealed the serpent s fate, for the " Lord God " cursed 
him and said : 

"Upon thy belly shalt thou so, and dust shall thou eat all the days of thy 

life." 1 

Unto the woman the u Lord God " said : 

"I will greatly multiply thy sorrow, and thy conception; in sorrow thou 
shalt bring forth children, and thy desire shall be to thy husband, and he shall 

rule over thee." 

Unto Adam he said : 

Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice of thy wife, and hast eaten of 
the tree, of which I commanded thee, saying, Thou shalt not eat of it: cursed 
is the ground for thy sake; in sorrow shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life. 
Thorns also, and thistles shall it bring forth to thee; and thou shalt eat the herb 
of the field. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto 
the ground, for out of it wast thou taken : for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou 

1 Inasmuch as the physical construction of reflect unpleasantly upon the wisdom of 

the serpent never could admit of its moving in such a God as Jehovah is claimed to be. as 

any other way, and inasmuch as it does not well as upon the ineffectualness of his first 

eat dust, does not the narrator of this myth curse ? 


The " Lord God " then made coats of skin for Adam and his 
wife, with which he clothed them, after which he said : 

"Behold, the man is become as one of us, 1 to know good and evil; and now, 
lest he put forth his hand, and take also of the tree of life, and eat, and live for 
ever " (he must be sent forth from Edcnj. 

" So he (the Lord God) drove out the man (and the woman); and he placed at 
the east of the garden of Eden, Cherubims, and a flaming sword which turned 
every way, to keep the way of the Tree of Life." 

Thus ends the narrative. 

Before proceeding to show from whence this legend, or legends, 
had their origin, we will notice a feature which is very prominent 
in the narrative, and which cannot escape the eye of an observing 
reader, i. e., the two different and contradictory accounts of the 

The first of these commences at the first verse of chapter first, 
and ends at the third verse of chapter second. The second account 
commences at the fourth verse of chapter second, and continues to 
the end of the chapter. 

In speaking of these contradictory accounts of the Creation, 
Dean Stanley says : 

"It is now clear to diligent students of the Bible, that the first and second 
chapters of Genesis contain two narratives of the Creation, side by side, differing 
from each other in most every particular of time and place and order. " J 

Bishop Colenso, in his very learned work on the Pentateuch, 
speaking on this subject, says : 

" The following are the most noticeable points of difference between the two 
cosmogonies : 

"1. In the first, the earth emerges from the waters and is, therefore, saturated 
with moisture* In the second, the whole face of the ground requires to be 

1 " Our writer unmistakably recognizes the their day attempted, and each hare totally and 

existence of many gods ; for he makes Yah- deservedly failed. One is the endeavor to wrest 

wen pay: See, the man has become as ONE op the words of the Bible from their natural mean- 

us, knowing good and evil; and so he evi- iug, and force it to gpeak the language of science." 

dently implies the existence of other similar After speaking of the earliest known example, 

beings, to whom he attributes immortality and which was the interpolation of the word - not 

insight into the difference between good and in Leviticus xi. 6, he continues : "This is the 

evil. Yahweh, then, was, in his eyes, the god earliest instance of the falsification of Kcrii)tur<>. 

of gods, indeed, but not the only god." (Bible to meet the demands of science ; and it has been 

for Learners, vol. i. p. 51.) followed in later times by the various efforts 

8 In his memorial sermon, preached in West- which have been made to twist the earlier chap- 
minster Abbey, after the funeral of Sir Charles tersof the book of Genesis into apparent agree 
Lyell. He further said in this address: ment with the last results of geology represent- 

" It is well known that when the science of ing days not to be days, morning and evening 

geology first arose, it was involved in endless not to be morning and evening, the deluge not 

schemes of attempted reconciliation with the to be the deluge, and the ark not to be the 

letter of Scripture. There was, there arc per- ark. 
haps still, two modes of reconciliation of 3 Gen. i. 9. 10. 

Scripture and science, which, have been each in Gen. ii. ti. 


"2. In the first, the birds and the beasts are created before man. 1 In the sec 
ond, man is created before rte birds and the beasts* 

"3. In the first, all fowls that fly are made out of the waters* In the sec 
ond the fowls of the air are made out of the ground.* 

"4. In the first, man is created in the image of God. 5 In the second, man is 
made of the dust of the ground, and merely animated with the breath of life; 
and it is only after his eating the forbidden fruit that the Lord God said, Be 
hold, the man has become as one of us, to know good and evil. 6 

"5. In the first, man is made lord of the whole earth. 1 In the second, he is 
merely placed in the garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it. 8 

"6. In the first, the man and the woman are created together, as the closing 
and completing work of the whole creation, created also, as is evidently im 
plied, in the same kind of way, to be the complement of one another, and, 
thus created, they are blessed together.* 

" In the second, the beasts and birds are created between the man and the 
woman. First, the man is made of the dust of the ground; he is placed by him 
self in the garden, charged with a solemn command, and threatened with a curse 
if he breaks it; then the beasts and birds are made, and the man gives names to 
them, and, lastly, after all this, the woman is made out of one of his ribs, but 
merely as a helpmate for the man. 10 

"The fact is, that the second account of the Creation, 11 together with the story 
of the Fall, 1 2 is manifestly composed by a different writer altogether from him 
who wrote the first. 13 

" This is suggested at once by the circumstance that, throughout the first nar 
rative, the Creator is always spoken of by the name Elohim (God), whereas, 
throughout the second account, as well as the story of the Fall, he is always 
called Jehovah Elohim (Lord God), except when the writer seems to abstain, for 
some reason, from placing the name Jehovah in the mouth of the serpent. 14 
This accounts naturally for the above contradictions. It would appear that, for 
some reason, the productions of two pens have been here united, without any 
reference to their inconsistencies." 15 

Dr. Kalisch, who does his utmost to maintain as far as his 
knowledge of the truth will allow the general historical veracity 
of this narrative, after speaking of the first account of the Crea 
tion, says : 

" But now the narrative seems not only to pause, but to go backward. The 
grand and powerful climax seems at once broken off, and a languid repetition 
appears to follow. Another cosmogony is introduced, which, to complete the perplex 
ity, is, in many important features, in direct contradiction to the former. 

" It would be dishonesty to conceal these difficulties. It would be weakmindedness 
and cowardice. It would be flight instead of combat. It would be an ignoble retrea , 
instead of victory. We confess tJiere is an apparent dissonance." 11 

1 Gen. i. 20, 24, 26. Gen. ii. 7, 8, 15, 22. 

2 Gen. ii. 7, 9. Gen. ii. 4-25. 
Gen. i. 20. " Gen. iii. 
Gen. ii. 19. " Gen . i. i_n 3. 
Gen. i. 27. " Gen. iii. 1,3, 5. 

Gen. ii. 7: iii. 22. 16 The Pentateuch Examined vol. ii. pp. 171- 

Gen. i. 28. 173. 

8 Gen. ii. 8, 15. i Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 59. 
Gen. i. 28. 


Dr. Knap pert says : 

" The account of the Creation from the hand of the Priestly author is utterly 
different from the other narrative, beginning at the fourth verse of Genesis ii. 
Here we are told that God created Heaven and Earth in six days, and rested on 
the seventh day, obviously with a view to bring out the holiness of the Sabbath 
in a strong li^ht." 

Now that we have seen there are two different and contradictory 
accounts of the Creation, to be found in the first two chapters 
of Genesis, we will endeavor to learn if there is sufficient reason to 
believe they are copies of more ancient legends. 

We have seen that, according to the first account, God divided 
the work of creation into six days. This idea agrees with that of 
the ancient Persians. 

The Zend-Avesta the sacred writings of the Parsees states 
that the Supreme being Ahuramazdii (Onnuzd), created the universe 
and man in six successive periods of time, in the following order : 
First, the Heavens; second, the Waters; third, the Earth ; fourth, 
the Trees and Plants ; fifth, Animals ; and sixth, Man. After the 
Creator had finished his work, he rested. 3 

The A vesta account of the Creation is limited to this announce 
ment, but we find a more detailed history of the origin of the 
human species in the book entitled Bundehesh, dedicated to the 
exposition of a complete cosmogony. This book states that 
Ahuramazda created the first man and women joined together at 
the back. After dividing them, he endowed them with motion and 
activity, placed within them an intelligent soul, and bade them " to 
be humble of heart ; to observe the law ; to be pure in their thoughts, 
pure in their speech, pure in their actions." Thus were born 
Mashya and Mashyana, the pair from which all human beings are 
descended. 3 

The idea brought out in this story of the first human pair 
having originally formed a single androgynous being with two 
faces, separated later into two personalities by the Creator, is to be 
found in the Genesis account (v. 2). "Male and female created 
he them, and blessed them, and named their name Adam." 
Jewish tradition in the Targum and Talmud, as well as among 
learned rabbis, allege that Adam was created man and woman at 
the same time, having two faces turned in two opposite directions, 
and that the Creator separated the feminine half from him, in 
order to make of her a distinct person. 4 

1 The Relig. of Israel, p. 186. Lenormant: Beginning of Hist. vol. i. p. 61. 

Von Bohlen: Intro, to Gen. vol. ii. p. 4. * See Ibid. p. 64 ; and Legends o/ the 

Patriarchs, p. 31. 


The ancient Etruscan legend, according to Delitzsch, is almost 
the same as the Persian. They relate that God created the world 
in six thousand years. In the first thousand he created the Heaven 
and Earth ; in the second, the Firmament ; in the third, the Waters 
of the Earth ; in the fourth, the Sun, Moon and Stars ; in the fifth, 
the Animals belonging to air, water and land ; and in the sixth, 
Man alone. 1 

Dr. Delitzsch, who maintains to the utmost the historical truth 
of the Scripture story in Genesis, yet says : 

"Whence comes the surprising agreement of the Etruscan and Persian 
legends with this section ? How comes it that the Babylonian cosmogony in 
Berosus, and the Phoenician in Sanchoniathou, in spite of their fantastical oddity, 
come in contact with it in remarkable details ?" 

After showing some of the similarities in the legends of these 
different nations, he continues : 

" These are only instances of that which they have in common. If or suck an 
account outside of Israel, we must, however, conclude, that the author of Genesis i. 
has no vision before him, but a tradition"* 

Yon Bohlen tells us that the old ChaLdcean cosmogony is also 
the same? 

To continue the Persian legend ; we will now show that 
according to it, after the Creation man was tempted, and fell. 
Kalisch 4 and Bishop Colenso 5 tell us of the Persian legend 
that the first couple lived originally in purity and innocence. 
Perpetual happiness was promised them by the Creator if they 
persevered in their virtue. But an evil demon carne to them in the 
form of a serpent, sent by Ahriman, the prince of devils, and gave 
them fruit of a wonderful tree, which imparted immortality. 
Evil inclinations then entered their hearts, and all their moral 
excellence was destroyed. Consequently they fell, and forfeited 
the eternal happiness for which they were destined. They killed 
beasts, and clothed themselves in their skins. The evil demon 
obtained still more perfect power over their minds, and called 
forth envy, hatred, discord, and rebellion, which raged in the 
bosom of the families. 

Since the above was written, Mr. George Smith, of the British 
Museum, has discovered cuneiform inscriptions, which show 
conclusively that the Babylonians had this legend of the Creation and 

1 " The Etruscans believed in a ereation of 2 Quoted by Bishop Colenso: The Penta- 

eix thousand years, and in the successive pro- teuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 115. 
duction of different beings, the last of which 3 Intro, to Genesis, vol. ii. p. 4. 

was man. 1 (Dunlap: Spirit Hist. p. 357.) 4 Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 63. 

8 The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 152. 



Fall of Man, some 1,500 years or more before the Hebrews heard 
of it. 1 The cuneiform inscriptions relating to the Babylonian 
legend of the Creation and Fall of Man, which have been discovered 
by English archaeologists, are not, however, complete. The portions 
which relate to the Tree and Serpent have not been found, but 
Babylonian gem engravings show that these incidents were evi 
dently a part of the original legend. 2 The Tree of Life in the 
Genesis account appears to correspond with the sacred grove of 
Aim, which was guarded by a sword turning to all the four points 
of the compass. 3 A 
representation of this 
Sacred Tree, with " at 
tendant cherubim" 
copied from an As 
Syrian cylinder, may be 
seen in Mr. George 
Smith s " Chaldean 
Account of Genesis." 4 
Figure No. 1, which 
we have taken from the same work, 5 shows the tree of knowl 
edge, fruit, and the serpent. Mr. Smith says of it : 

"One striking and important specimen of early type in the British Museum 
collection, has two figures sitting one on each side of a tree, holding out their 
hands to the fruit, while at the back of one (the woman) is scratched a serpent. 
We know well that in these early sculptures none of these figures were chance 
devices, but all represented events, or supposed events, and figures in their 
legends; thus it is evident that a form of the story of the Fall, similar to that of 
Genesis, was known in early times in Babylonia." 5 

This illustration might be used to illustrate the narrative of 
Genesis, and as Friedrich Delitzsch has remarked (G. Smith s 
Ckalddische Genesis] is capable of no other explanation. 

M. Renan does not hesitate to join forces with the ancient 
commentators, in seeking to recover a trace of the same tradition 
among the Phenicians in the fragments of Sanchoniathon, 
translated into Greek by Philo of Byblos. In fact, it is there 
said, in speaking of the first human pair, and of ^Eon, 
which seems to be the translation of Ilavvdh (in Phenician 

See Chapter xi. 

s Mr. Smith says, "Whatever the primitive 
account may have been from which the earlier 
part of the Book of Genesis was copied, it is 
evident that the brief narration given in the 
Pentatench omits a number of incidents and 
explanations for instance, as to the origin of 

evil, the fall of the angels, the wickedness of 
the serpent. &c. Such points as these are in 
cluded in the cuneiform narrative." (Smith: 
Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 13, 14.) 

3 Smith: Chaldean Account of Geneeis, p. 88. 

Ibid. p. 89. 

Ibid. p. 91. 


IlavatK) and stands in her relation to the other members of the 
pair, that this personage " has found out how to obtain nourishment 
from the fruits of the tree." 

The idea of the Edenic happiness of the first human beings 
constitutes one of the universal traditions. Among the Egyptians, 
the terrestial reign of the god 11 a, who inaugurated the existence 
of the world and of human life, was a golden age to which they 
continually looked back with regret and envy. Its "like has never 
been seen since." 

The ancient Greeks boasted of their " Golden Age," when 
sorrow and trouble were not known. Hesiod, an ancient Grecian 
poet, describes it thus : 

"Men lived like Gods, without vices or passions, vexation or toil. Iii 
happy companionship with divine beings, they passed their days in tranquillity 
and joy, living together in perfect equality, united by mutual confidence and 
love. The earth was more beautiful than now, and spontaneously yielded an 
abundant variety of fruits. Human beings and animals spoke the same 
language and conversed with each other. Men were considered mere boys at a 
hundred years old. They had none of the infirmities of age to trouble them, 
and when they passed to regions of superior life, it was in a gentle slumber." 

In the course of time, however, all the sorrows and troubles 
came to man. They were caused by inquisitiveness. The story is 
as follows : Epimetheus received a gift from Zeus (God), in the 
form of a beautiful woman (Pandora). 

" She brought with her a vase, the lid of which was (by the command of 
God), to remain closed. The curiosity of her husband, however, tempted him 
to open it, and suddenly there escaped from it troubles, weariness and illness 
from which mankind was never afterwards free. All that remained was liopc." l 

Among the Thibetans, the paradisiacal condition was more 
complete and spiritual. The desire to eat, of a certain sweet herb 
-deprived men of their spiritual life. There arose a sense of shame, 
and the need to clothe themselves. Necessity compelled them to 
agriculture ; the virtues disappeared, and murder, adultery and 
other vices, stepped into their place. 2 

The idea that the Fall of the human race is connected with 
ityi ff n/f t(/ r is found to be also often represented in the legends of 
the Enst African negroes, especially in the Calabar legend of the 
Creation, which presents many interesting points of comparison 
with the biblical story of the Fall. The first human pair are 
called by a bell at meal-times to Abasi (the Calabar God), in heaven; 
and in place of the forbidden tree of Genesis are put agriculture 

Murray s Mythology, p. 208- 2 Kalisch a Com. vol. i. p. 64. 


and propagation, which Abasi strictly denies to the first pair. The 
Fall is denoted by the transgression of both these commands, 
especially through the use of implements of tillage, to which the 
woman is tempted by a female friend who is given to her. From 
that moment man fell ami became mortal, so that, as the Bible 
story has it, he can cat bread only in the sweat of his face. There 
agriculture is a curse, a fall from a- more perfect stage to a lower 
and imperfect one. 1 

Dr. Kalisch, writing of the Garden of Eden, says: 

"The PaTCidise is no exclusive feature of the early history of the Hebrews. 
Most of the ancient nation* Jiace x/ rni/ar narratives <(b</nt a. Jiappy abode, which care 
docs not approach, and which re-echoes with (he rounds of the- }mrt><t bit**." 1 

The Persians supposed that a region of bliss and delight called 
Hedcn, more beautiful than all the rest of the world, traversed l>y 
a -mighty rirer, was the original abode of the first men, before they 
were tempted by the evil spirit in the form of a serpent, to partake 
of the fruit of the forbidden tree IL nn. 3 

Dr. Delitzsch, writing of the Persian legend, observes: 

" Innumerable attendants of the Holy One keep watch against the attempts of 
Ahriman, over the tree lloni, which contains in itself the power of the resur 
rection. 4 

The ancient Greeks had a tradition concerning the "Islands of 
the Blessed," the u Elysium," on the borders of the earth, abounding 
in every charm of life, and the "Garden of the Ilesperides, 5 the 
Paradise, in which grew a tree bearing the golden apples of Immor 
tality. It was guarded by three nymphs, and a ISerpeut, or I >ragon, 
the ever-watchful Ladon. It was one of the labors of Hercules to 
gather some of these apples of life. When he arrived there he 
found the garden protected by a Dragon. Ancient medallions 
represent a tree with a serpent twined around it. Hercules has 
gathered an apple, and near him stand the three nymphs, called 
llesperides. 6 This is simply a parallel of the Eden myth. 

The Rev. Mr. Faber, speaking of Hercules, says : 

"On the Sphere he is represented in the act of contending with the Serpent, 
the head of which is placed under his foot ; and this Serpent, we are told, is that 
which guarded the tree with golden fruit in the midst of the garden of the llesper 
ides. But the garden of the llesperides wax none other than the yanh //. of Para 
dise; consequently the serpent of that garden, the head of which is crushed be 
neath the heel of Hercules, and which itself is described as encircling with its 

i Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 87. Life be^at immortality." (Lomvick: Egyptian 

Com. on the Old Test. vol. i. p. 70. Belief, p. 240.) 

i ibid. 5 SPP MontfnnfT : T. Antiqnite Expli<iuee, 

Ibid. " The fruit and eap of this TTM of vol. i. p. 211. and i i rxxxiii. 


folds the trunk of the mysterious tree, must necessarily be a transcript of that 
Serpent whose form was assumed by the tempter of our first parents. We may 
observe- the same ancient tradition in the Phoenician fable representing Ophion or 

Ophioneus. " 

And Professor Fergusson says : 

" H<-rcni( J adventures in the garden of the Hesperides, is the Pagan form of 
the myth that most resembles the piveious Serpent-guarded fruit of the Garden 
of Eden, though the moral of the fable is so widely different. " 2 

The ancient Egyptians also had the legend of the " Tree of 
Life." It is mentioned in their sacred books that Osiris ordered 
the names of some souls to be written on this "Tree of Life," the 
fruit of which made those who ate it to become as irods. 3 


Among the most ancient traditions of the Hindoos, is that of the 
Tree of Life called Soma in Sanskrit the juice of which 
imparted immortality. This most wonderful tree was guarded by 
spirits. 4 

Still more striking is the Hindoo legend of the "Elysium" or 
" Paradise," which is as follows : 

" In the sacred mountain Meru, which is perpetually clothed in the golden 
rays of the Sun, and whose lofty summit reaches into heaven, no sinful man 
can exist. It in guarded by a dreadful dragon. It is adorned with many celestial 
plants and trees, and is watered by/emr rivers, which thence separate and flow to 
the four chief directions." 5 

The Hindoos, like the philosophers of the Ionic school (Thales, 
for instance), held water to be the first existing and all-pervading 
principle, at the same time allowing the co-operation and influence 
of an immaterial intelligence in the work of creation. 6 A Yedic 
poet, meditating on the Creation, uses the following expressions: 

Nothing that is was then, even what is not, did not exist then." "There 
was no space, no life, and lastly there was no time, no difference between day and 
night, no solar torch by which morning might have been told from evening." 
Darkness there was, and all at first was veiled in gloom profound, as ocean 
without light." 7 

The Hindoo legend approaches very nearly to that preserved in 
the Hebrew Scriptures. Thus, it is said that Siva, as the Supreme 
Being, desired to tempt Brahma (who had taken human form, and 
was called Swayamblmra son of the self-existent), and for this 
object lie dropped from heaven a blossom of the sacred Jig tree. 

iv cnso: The penteteucLi Examined 


* See Bauson s Keys of St. Peter, p. 414. 7 Miiller: Hist. Sanskrit Literature, p. 559. 


Sway am bli lira, instigated by his wife, Satarupa, endeavors to ob 
tain this blossom, thinking its possession will render him immortal 
and divine ; but when he has succeeded in doing so, he is cursed by 
Siva, and doomed to misery and degradation. 1 The sacred Indian 
fi-tj is endowed by the Brahmins and the Buddhists with mysterious 
significance, as the " Tree of Knowledge " or u Intelligence. * 

There is no Hindoo legend of the Creation similar to the Per- 
fiiun and Hebrew accounts, and Ceylon was never believed to have 
been the Paradise or home of our first parents, although such stories 
are in circulation/ The Hindoo religion states as we have 
already seen Mount Meru to be the Paradise, out of which went 
four Ttvcrs. 

We have noticed that the "Gardens of Paradise" are said to 
have been guarded by Dragons, and that, according to the Genesis 
account, it was Cherubim that protected Eden. This apparent 
difference in the legends is owing to the fact that wo have come in 
our modern times to speak of Cherub as though it were an other 
name for an Angel. But the Cherub of the writer of Genesis, the 
Cherub of Assyria, the Cherub of Babylon, the Cherub of the 
entire Orient, at the time the Eden story was written, was not at 
all an Angel, but an animal, and a mythological one at that. The 
Cherub had, in some cases, the body of a lion, with the head of an 
other animal, or a man, and the wings of a bird. In Ezekiel they 
have the body of a man, whose head, besides a human countenance, 
has also that of a Lion, an Ox and an Eagle. They are provided 
with four wings, and the whole body is spangled with innumerable 
eyes. In Assyria and Babylon they appear as winged bulls with 
human faces, and are placed at the gateways of palaces and temples 
as guardian genii who watch over the dwelling, as the Cherubim 
in Genesis watch the " Tree of Life." 

Most Jewish writers and Christian Fathers conceived the 
Cherubim as Angels. Most theologians also considered them as 
Angels, until Michaeiis showed them to be a mythological animal, 
a poetical creation. 4 

1 See Wake: Phallism in Ancient Religions, "bridge of Adima " which he ppeaks of as 
pp. 46. 47; and Maurice: Hist. Hindostau, vol. connecting the island of Ceylon with the main- 
i. p. 408. land, is called " Rama *? bridge;" and the 

2 Hardwick : Christ and Other Masters, " Adam s footprints " are called l> Buddha s 
P- 215. footprints." The Portuguese, who called the 

3 See Jacolliot s "Bible in India," which mountain Pico (TAdama (Adam s Peak), evi- 
John Fisk calls a " very discreditable perform- dently invented these other names. (See Mau- 
aiu o." and "a disgraceful piece of charla- rice s Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. pp. 301, 36:. , and 
tanry " ^Myths, &c. p. 205). This writer also vol. ii. p. 242). 

states that accoruing to Hindoo legend, the See Smith s Bible Die. Art. " Cherubim." 

first man and woman were called 4> Adima and and Lenormant 8 Beginning of History, ch. 
Heva," which ia certainly not the case. The iii. 


We see then, that our Cherub is simply a Dragon. 

To continue our inquiry regarding the prevalence of the Eden- 
myth among nations of antiquity. 

The Chinese have their Age of Virtue, when nature furnished 
abundant food, and man lived peacefully, surrounded by all the 
beasts. In their sacred books there is a story concerning a myste 
rious garden, where grew a tree bearing " apples of immortality," 
guarded by a winged serpent, called a Dragon. They describe a 
primitive age of the world, when the earth yielded abundance of 
delicious fruits without cultivation, and the seasons were untroubled 
by wind and storms. There was no calamity, sickness, or death. 
Men were then good without effort ; for the human heart was in 
harmony with the peacefulness and beauty of nature. 

The "Golden Age" of the past is much dwelt upon by their 
ancient commentators. One of them says : 

"All places were then equally the native county of every man. Flocks 
wandered in the fields without any guide; birds lilied tlie air with their melo 
dious voices; and the fruits grew of their own accord. 3Ien lived pleasantly 
with the animals, and all creatures were members of the same family. Ignorant 
of evil, man lived in simplicity and perfect innocence." 

Another commentator says : 

"In the first age of perfect purity, all was In harmony, and the passions did 
not occasion the slightest murmur. Man, united to sovereign reason within, 
conformed his outward actions to sovereign justice. Far from all duplicity and 
falsehood, his soul received marvelous felicity from heaven, and the purest de 
lights from earth." 

Another says : 

"A delicious r/^rr?^ refreshed with zephyrs, and planted with odoriferous 
trees, was situated in the middle of a mountain, which \vas the avenue of heaven. 
The waters that moistened it flowed from a source called the Fountain of 2m- 
morUilily: He who drinks of it never dies. Thence flowed four rivers A 
Golden River, betwixt the South and East, a lied River, between the North and 
East, the River of the Lamb between the North and West." 

The animal Kaiming guards the entrance. 

Partly by an undue thirst for knowledge, and partly by increas 
ing sensuality, and the seduction of woman, man fell. Then pas 
sion and lust ruled in the human mind, and war with the animals 
began. In one of the Chinese sacred volumes, called the Chi-Kino- 
it is said that : 

"All was subject to man at first, but a woman threw us into slavery The wise 
husband raised up a bulwark of walls, but the woman, by an ambitious desire of 


e , demolished them, Our misery did not come from heaven, but from a 
voman. She lost the human race. Ah, unhappy Poo See ! thou kindled the fire 


that consumes us, and which is every clay augmenting. Our misery has lasted 
many ages. The world is lost. Vice overflows all things like a mortal poison." 1 

Thus we see that the Chinese are no strangers to the doctrine of 
original sin. It is their invariable belief that man is a fallen being ; 
admitted by them from time immemorial. 

The inhabitants of Madagascar had a legend similar to the 
Eden story, which is related as follows : 

" The first man was created of the dnst of the earth, and was placed in a gar 
den, where he was subject to none of the ills which no\v ailed mortality; he 
was also free from all bodily appetites, and though surrounded by delicious 
fruit and limpid streams yet felt no desire to taste of the fruit or to quail the water 
The Creator, had, moreover, strictly forbid him either to eat or to drink. The 
great enemy, however, came to him, and painted to him, in glowing colors, the 
sweetness of the apple, and the lusciousness of the date, and the succulence 
of the orange." 

After resisting the temptations for a while, he at last ate of the 
fruit, and consequently fell." 1 

A legend of the Creation, similar to the Hebrew, was found by 
Mr. Ellis among the Tahitians, and appeared in his " Polynesian 
Researches." It is as follows : 

After Taarao had formed the world, he created man out of anea, 
red earth, which was also the food of man until bread was made. 
Taarao one day called for the man by name. "When he came, he 
caused him to fall asleep, and while he slept, he took out one of hi.s 
ivi, or bones, and with it made a woman, whom he gave to the man 
as his wife, and they became the progenitors of mankind. The 
woman s name was 7vv, which signifies a bone." 

The prose Edda, of the ancient Scandinavians, speaks of the 
"Golden Age" when all was pure and harmonious. This age 
lasted until the arrival of woman out of Jotunheim the region of 
the giants, a sort of " land of Nod" who corrupted it. 4 

In the annals of the Mexicans, the first woman, whose name 
was translated by the old Spanish writers, " the woman of our flesh," 
is always represented as accompanied by a great male serpent, who 
seems to be talking to her. Some writers believe this to be the 
tempter speaking to the primeval mother, and others that it is in 
tended to represent the father of the human race. This Mexican 
Eve is represented on their monuments as the mother of twins. 5 

1 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 200-210. 4 See Mallei s Northern Antiquities, p. 
The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. pp. 152, 400. 

153. and Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 38. 5 See Baring Gould s Legends of the Patri- 

2 Legends of the Patriarchs, p. 31. nrchs ; Squire s Serpent Symbol, p. 161. and 

3 Quoted by Miiller: The Science of Relig., Wake s Phallism in Ancient Religions, p. 
p. 302. 41. 



Mr. Franklin, in his " Buddhists and Jeynes," says : 

"A striking instance is recorded by the very intelligent traveler (Wilson), re 
garding a representation of the Fall of our first parents, sculptured in the magnifi 
cent temple of Ipsambul, in Nubia. He says that a very exact representation of 
Adam and Eve in the garden of Eden is to be seen in that cave, and that the 
,-erpent climbing round the tree is especially delineated, and the whole subject of 
the tempting of our first parents most accurately exhibited." 1 

Nearly the same thing was found by Colonel Coombs in the 
South of India. Colonel Tod, in his "Hist. Rajapoutana, " says: 

"A drawing, brought by Colonel Coombs from a sculptured column in a cave- 
temple in the South of India, represents the first pair at the foot of the ambro 
sial tree, and a serpent entwined among the heavily-laden boughs, presenting to 
them some of the fruit from his mouth. The tempter appears to be at that part 

of his discourse, when 

his words, replete with guile, 

Into her heart too easy entrance won: 
Fixed on the fruit she gazed. 

" This is a curious subject to be engraved on an ancient Pagan temple."* 
So the Colonel thought, no doubt, but it is not so very curieus 

work of Mont- 

after all. It is 
the same myth 
which we have 
found with but 
such small vari 
ations only as 
time and circum 
stances may be 
expected to pro 
duce - - among 

different nations, 
in both the Old 
and New Worlds. 
Fig. No. 2, 
taken from the 
feet being, and 
of what he once 
ogy, not only unfounded in fact, but, beyond intelligent question, 

is now r only 
was, we have 

a fallen and 
seen to be a piece 

faucon, 3 repre 
sents one of 
these ancient 
Pagan sculp 
tures. Can any 
one doubt that it 
is allusive to the 
myth of which 
we have been 
treating in this 
chapter ? 

That man 
was originally 
created a per- 
broken remnant 
of mythol- 

many Christian divines who 

implies that with it although 
admit this to be a legend, do not, 

Anacal ^ i9 > vol. i. 

> Tod s Hist. Raj., p. 581, quoted by Hig- 
gins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 404. 
8 L Antiquite Expliquee, vol. i. 


or do not profess, to see it must fall tlie whole Orthodox scheme, 
for upon this MYTH the theology of Christendom is built. The 
doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures, the Fall of man, 
his total depravity, the Incarnation, the Atonement, the devil, 
hell, in fact, the entire theology of the Christian church, falls to 
pieces with the historical inaccuracy of this story, for upon it is 
it built tis the foundation of the whole structure. 1 

According to Christian dogma, the Incarnation of Christ Jesus 
had become necessary, merely because he had to redeem the evil in 
troduced into the world by the fall of man. These two dogmas 
cannot be separated from each other. If there was no fall, there 
is no need of an atonement, and no Redeemer is required. Those, 
then, who consent in recognizing in Christ Jesus a God and Re 
deemer, and who, notwithstanding, cannot resolve upon admitting 
the story of the Fall of man to be historical, should exculpate them 
selves from the reproach of inconsistency. There are a great 
number, however, in this position at the present day. 

Although, as we have said, many Christian divines do not, or 
do not profess to, see the force of the above argument, there are 
many who do ; and they, regardless of their scientific learning, cling 
to these old myths, professing to believe them, well knowing what 
must follow with their fall. The following, though written some 
years ago, will serve to illustrate this style of reasoning. 

The Bishop of Manchester (England) writing in the " Man 
chester Examiner and Times," said : 

" The very foundation of our faith, the very basis of our hopes, the very nearest 
and dearest of our consolations are taken from us, when one line of that sacred 
volume, on which we base everything, is declared to be untruthful and untrust 

The " English Churchman," speaking of clergymen who have 
" doubts," said, that any who are not throughly persuaded " that 
the Scriptures cannot in any particular be untrue," should leave 
the Church. 

The Rev. E. Garbett, M. A., in a sermon preached before the 
University of Oxford, speaking of the "historical truth" of the 
Bible, said : 

1 Sir William Jones, the first president of learned Thomas Maurice, for he pays: "If the 

the Royal Asiatic Society, saw this when he Mosaic History be indeed a fable, the whole 

said : " Either the first eleven chapters of fabric of the national religion is false, since 

Genesis, all due allowance being made for a the main pillar of Christianity rests upon that 

figurative Eastern style, are true, or the whole important original promise, that the seed of the 

fabric of our religion is false." (In Asiatic Re- woman should bruise the head of the serpent." 

searches, vol. i. p. 225.) And eo also did the (Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. p. 29.) 


" It is the clear teaching of tliose doctrinal formularies, to which we of the 
Church of England have expressed our solemn assent, and no honest interpretation 
<>f fie r language can get rid of it 

And that : 

"In all consistent reason, we must accept the whole of the inspired autographs, or 
reject (he: whole . " 

Dr. Baylce, Principal of a theological university St. Aiden s 
College -at Birkcnlieacl, England, and author of a "Manual," 
called Bailee s " Verbal Inspiration^ written "chiefly for the 

youth* of St. Aiders College" makes use of the following words, 
in that work : 

"Tim whole nibk, as a revelation, is a declaration of the mind of God towards 
his creatures on all the subjects of which the Bible treats." 

" The ruble ix God n iwd, in the same sense as if lie had made use of no hu 
man agi iii, but had Jlimsclf 8jtokcn it" 

" Tiie JJihl." cannot be less than verbally inspired. Krcry iwd, erery syllable, 
trcry letter, is just what it would be, had God spoken from heaven without any 
human infervenlion." 

"Every scientific statement is infallibly correct, all its history and narrations 
of every kind, arc tritltoni any inaccuracy." 1 

A whole volume might be filled with such quotations, not only 
from religious works and journals published in England, but from 
those published in the United States of America. 8 

1 The above extracts are quoted by Bishop regard to the geological antiquity of the world, 

C oienso, in The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. evolution, atheism, pantheism. &c. He be- 

pp. 10-1 3, from which \ve take Iliem. lieves and rightly too that, " if the account 

*" Cosmogony" is the title of a volume of Creation i/t Gt-ntsis falls. Christ and the 

lately written by Prof. Thomas Mitchell, and apostles follow : if the book of Genesis is erro- 

published by the American Xe\vs Co., in which tieoun, so also are the Gospels," 
the author attacks all the modern scientists in 



AFTER " man s shameful fall," the earth began to be populated 
at a very rapid rate. "The sons of God saw the daughters of men 
that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they 

chose There were giants in the earth in those days, 2 

and also . . . mighty men . . . men of renown." 

But these " giants " and " mighty men " were very wicked, " and 
God saw the wickedness of man . . . and it repented the Lord 
that he had made man upon the earth* and it grieved him at his 
heart. And the Lord said ; I will destroy man whom I have created 
from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and the creeping 
tiling, and the fowls of the air, for it repenteth me that I have 
made them. But Noah found grace in the eyes of the Lord (for) 
Noah was a just man . . . and walked with God. . . . And 
God said unto Xoah, The end of all liesh is come before me, fur the 
earth is filled with violence through them, and, behold, I will de- 

1 Sec "The Deluge in the Light of Modem 
Science," by Prof. Win. Denton: J. P. Men- 
dum, Boston. 

2 " There were gian ts in the earth in those 
clays." It is a scientific fact that most races of 
men, informer ages, instead of being /////,/, 
were smaller than at the present time. Tl 

is hardly a suit of armor in the Tower of 1 
don, or in the old castles, that is large eno 
for the average Englishman of to-day to put 
Man has grown in stature as well as inteil 
and there is no proof whatever in fart, the op 
posite is certain that there ever was a race of 
what might properly be called giant*, inhabit 
ing the earth. Fossil remains of large animals 
having been found by primitive man, and a 
legend invented to account for them, it would 
naturally be that : " There were giants in the 
earth in those days." As an illustration we 
may mention the story, recorded by the trav 
eller Jamos Orton. we believe (in " The Andes 
and the Amazon"), that, near Punin, in South 
America, was found the remains of an extinct 

species of the horse, the mastodon, and other 
large animals. This discovery was made, ow 
ing to the assurance of the natives that </ia/tfx 
at one time had lived in that country, and that 
they /tad seen their remains at tlti* certain place. 
Many legends have had a similar origin. Hut 
the originals of all the Ogres and (;iani* to be 
found in the mythology of almost all nations 
of antiquity, are the famous Hindoo demons, 
the Rakshasas of OUT Aryan ancestors. The 
Kakshasas were very terrible creatures indeed, 
and in the minds of many people, in India, 
are so still. Their natural form, so the sto 
ries say, is that of huge, unshapely mint*, like 
cfoudft, with hair and beard of the color of the 
red lightning. This description explains their 
origin. They are the dark, wicked and cruel 
clouds, personified. 

3 " And it repented the Lord that he had 
made man." (Gen. iv.) "God is not a man 
that he should lie, neither the son of man that 
he should repent." (Numb, xsiii. 19.) 



stroy them with the earth. Make thee an ark of gopher wood, 
rooms shalt thou make in the ark, (and) a window shalt thou make 
to the ark; .... And behold I, even I, do bring a flood of 
waters upon the earth, to destroy all flesh, wherein is the breath of 
life, from under heaven, and every thing that is in the earth shall 
die. But with thee shall I establish my covenant ; and thou shalt 
come into the ark, thou, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons 
waves, with thee. And of every living thing of all flesh, two of 
every sort shalt thou bring into the ark, to keep them alive with 
thee ; they shall be male and female. Of fowls after their kind, 
and of cattle after their kind, of every creeping thing of the earth 
after his kind, two of every sort shall come in to thee, to keep them 
alive. And take thou unto thee of all food that is eaten, and thou 
shalt gather it to thee ; and it shall be for food for thee and for 
them. Thus did Noah, according to all that God commanded 
him." 1 

When the ark was finished, the Lord said unto Noah : 

" Come thou and all thy house into the ark. ... Of every clean beast 
thou shalt take to thee by sevens, the male and his female; and of beasts that are 
not clean by two, the male and his female. Of fowls also of the air by sevens, 
the male and the female." 2 

Here, again, as in the Eden myth, there is a contradiction. We 
have seen that the Lord told Noah to bring into the ark " of every 
living thing, of all flesh, two of every sort" and now that the ark 
is finished, we are told that he said to him : " Of every clean 
beast thou shalt take to thee by sevens" and, " of fowls also of the 
air by sevens." This is owing to the story having been written by 
two different writers the Jehovistic, and the Elohistic one of 
which took from, and added to the narrative of the other. 3 The 
account goes on to say, that : 

"Noah went in, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons wives w r ith him, 
into the ark. ... Of dean beasts, and of beasts that are not clean, and of 
fowls, and of every thing that creepeth upon the earth, there went in two and two, 
unto Noah into the ark, the male and the female, as God had commanded Noah."* 

We see, then, that Noah took into the ark of all kinds of 
beasts, of fowls, and of every thing that creepeth, two of every sort, 
and that this was " as God had commanded Noah" This clearly 
shows that the writer of these words knew nothing of the command 

1 Gen. iv. 2 Gen . vi _ 1 _ 3- Athyr (Nov. 13th), the very day and month on 

3 See chapter xi. which Noah is said to have entered his ark. 

4 The image of Osiris of Egypt was by the (See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 165, and 
priests shut up in a sacred ark on the 17th of Bunsen s Angel Messiah, p. 22.) 


to take in clean beasts, and fowls of the air, by sevens. We are 
further assured, that, " Noah did according to all that the Lord 
commanded hi?n." 

After Noah and his family, and every beast after his kind, and 
all the cattle after their kind, the fowls of the air, and every creep 
ing thing, had entered the ark, the Lord shut them in. Then u were 
all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows <>f 
heaven were opened. And the rain was upon the earth forty days 
and forty nights And the waters prevailed exceeding 
ly upon the earth ; and all the hills, that were under the whole heaven, 
were covered. Fifteen cubits upwards did the w r aters prevail ; and 
the mountains were covered. And all flesh died that moved upon 
the earth, both of fowl and of cattle, and of beast, and of every 
creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth, and every man. 
And Noah only remained alive, and they that were with him 
in the ark." 1 The object of the flood was now accomplished, "all 
flesh died that moved upon the earth." The Lord, therefore, 
" made a wind to pass over the earth, and the waters assuaged. 
The fountains of the deep, and the windows of heaven, were 
stopped, and the rain from heaven was restrained. And tin 

waters decreased continually And it came to pass ;n. 

the end of forty days, that Noah opened the window of the ark, 
which he had made. And he sent forth a raven, which went 
forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from off the 
earth. He also sent forth a dove, . . . but the dove found no 
rest for the sole of her foot, and she returned unto him into the 
ark." . . . 

At the end of seven days he again " sent forth the dove out of 
the ark, and the dove came in to him in the evening, and lo, in her 
mouth was an olive leaf, plucked off." 

At the end of another seven days, he again "sent forth the dove, 
which returned not again to him any more." 

And the ark rested in the seventh month, on the seventeenth day 
of the month, upon the mountains of Ararat. Then Noah and 
his wife, and his sons, and his sons wives, and every living thing 
that was in the ark, went forth out of the ark. "And Noah 
builded an altar unto the Lord, . . . and offered burnt offer 
ings on the altar. And the Lord smelled a sweet savour, and the 
Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more 
for man s sake." 2 

Gen. vi. a Geti. viii. 


We shall now see that there is scarcely any considerable race of 
men among whom there does not exist, in some form, the tradition 
of a great deluge, which destroyed all the human race, except their 
own progenitors. 

The first of these which we shall notice, and the one with which 
the Hebrew agrees most closely, having been copied from it, 1 is the 
Chaldean, as given by Berosus, the Chaldean historian. 2 It is as 
follows : 

"After the death of Ardates (the ninth king of the Chaldeans), his son 
Xisuthrus reigned eighteen sari. In his time happened a great deluge, the his 
tory of which is thus described: The deity Cronos appeared to him (Xisuthrus) 
in a vision, and warned him that upon the fifteenth day of the month Desius 
there would be a flood, by which mankind would be destroyed. He therefore 
enjoined him to write a history of the beginning, procedure, and conclusion of 
all things, and to bury it in the City of the Sun at Sippara; and to build a 
vessel, and take with him into it his friends and relations, and to convey on 
board everything necessary to sustain life, together with all the different ani 
mals, both birds and quadrupeds, and trust himself fearlessly to the deep. Hav 
ing asked the deity whither he was to sail, he was answered: To the Gods; 
upon which he offered up a prayer for the good of mankind. He then obeyed 
the divine admonition, and built a vessel five stadia in length, and two in 
breadth. Into this he put everything which he had prepared, and last of all 
conveyed into it his wife, his children, and his friends. After the flood hud 
been upon the earth, and was in time abated, Xisuthrus sent out birds from the 
vessel; which not finding any food, nor any place whereupon they might rest 
their feet, returned to him again. After an interval of some days, he sent them 
forth a second time; and they now returned with their feet tinged with mud. 
He made a trial a third time with these birds; but they returned to him no more: 
from whence he judged that the surface of the earth had appeared above the 
waters. He therefore made an opening in the vessel, and upon looking out 
found that it was stranded upon the side of some mountain; upon which he 
immediately quitted it with his wife, his daughter, and the pilot. Xisuthrus 
then paid his adoration to the earth, and, having constructed an altar, offered 
sacrifices to the gods." 3 

This account, given by Berosus, which agrees in almost every 
particular with that found in Genesis, and with that found by 
George Smith of the British Museum on terra cotta tablets in 
Assyria, is nevertheless different in some respects. But, says 
Mr. Smith : 

"When w r e consider the difference between the two countries of Palestine 
and Babylonia, these variations do not appear greater than we should expect. 
. . . It was only natural that, in relating the same stories, each nation should 

1 Sec chapter xi. a Quoted by George Smith : Chaldean Ac- 

2 Joseplms, the Jewish historian, speaking of count of Genesis, pp. 42-44 ; see also, The Pen- 
the flood of Noah (Antiq. hk. 1, ch. iii.), says : tateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 211 ; Dunlap s 
"All the writers of the Babylonian histories Spirit Hist. p. 138; Cory s Ancient Fragments, 
make mention of this flood and this ark. 1 p. 61, et seq. for similar accounts. 


color them in accordance with its own ideas, and stress would naturally in each 
case be laid upon points with which they were familiar. Thus we should expect 
beforehand that there would be differences in the narrative such as we actually 
find, and we may also notice that the cuneiform account does not always coin 
cide even with the account of the same eveuts given by Berosus from Chaldean 
sources." 1 

The most important points are the same however, i. e., in loth 
cases the virtnous man is informed by the Lord that a Hood is 
about to take place, which would destroy mankind. Iti loth cases 
they are commanded to build a vessel or ark, to enter it with their 
families, and to take in beasts, birds, and everything that creepeth, 
also to provide themselves with food. Iti lotli cases they send out 
a bird from the ark three times the third time it failed to return. 
In loth cases they land on a mountain, and upon leaving the ark 
they offer up a sacrifice to the gods. Xisuthrus was the tenth 
king, 2 and Noah the tenth patriarch. 3 Xisuthrus had three sous 
(Zerovanos, Titan and Japetosthes), 4 and Noah had three suns 
(Slieni, Ham and Japhet). 5 

As Cory remarks in his "Ancient Fragments/ " The history 
of the flood, as given by Berosus, so remarkably corresponds with 
the Biblical account of the Noachian Deluge, that no one can 
doubt that both proceeded from one source they are evi 
dently transcriptions, except the names, from some ancient docu 
ment. 6 

This leg-end became known to the Jews from Chaldean sources, 7 


it was not known in the country (Egypt) out of which they 
evidently came. 9 Egyptian history, it is said, had gone on un- 

1 Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 285, 286. Germans said that Muiums (sou of the god 

a Volney : New Researches, p. 119; Chal- Tuisco) had thrte sons, who were the original 

dean Acct. of Genesis, p. 290 ; Hist. Ilindos- ancestors of the three principal nations of 

tan, vol. i. p. 417, and Dunlap s Spirit Hist. p. Germany. The Scythians said that Targy- 

277. tagus, the founder of their nation, had three 

3 Ibid. sons, from whom they were descended. A 

4 Legends of the Patriarchs, pp. 109, 110. tradition among the Romans was that the Cy- 

5 Gen. vi. 8. clop Polyphemus had by Galatea three eons. 

6 The Hindoo ark-preserved Menu had Saturn had three son?, Jupiter, Neptune, and 
three sons ; Sama, Cania, and Pra-Japati. Pluto ; and Hesiod speaks of the thrte sons 
(Faber: Orig. Pagan Idol.) The Bhattias, who which sprung from the marriage of heaven 
live between Belli and the Panjab, insist that and earth. (.See Mallet s Northern Antiquities, 
they are descended from a certain king called p. 509.) 

Salivahana, who had three sons, Bhat, Maha ~ See chap. xi. 

and Thamaz." (Col. Wilford, in vol. ix. Asi- 8 j t j^ o f no plight moment that the Egyp- 

atic Researches.) The Iranian hero Thraetona tians, with whom the Hebrews are represented 

had three sons. The Iranian Sethite Lamoch as in earliest and closest intercourse, had no 

had three eons, and Hellen, the son of Deu- traditions of a flood, while the Babylonian 

calion, during whose time the flood is said to and Hellenic tales bear a strong resemblance 

have happened, had three sons. (Bunsen : The in many points to the narrative in Genesis." 

Angel-Messiah, pp. 70, 71.) All the ancient na- (Rev. George W. Cox : Tales of Ancient Greece, 

tions of Europe also describe their origin from p. 340. See also Owen : Man s Earliest His- 

the three sons of some king or patriarch. The tory, p. 28, and ch. xi. this work.) 


interrupted for ten thousand years before the time assigned for the 
birth of Jesus. 1 And it is known as absolute fact that the land 
of Egypt was never visited by other than its annual beneficent 
overflow of the river Kile. 2 The Egyptian Bible, which is ly 
far the most ancient of all holy looks* knew nothing of the 
Deluge The Phra (or Pnaiuoli) Khoufou-Cheops was building 
his pyramid, according to Egyptian chronicle, when the whole 
world was under the waters of a univcrsa, deluge, according to th<3 
Hebrew chronicle. 5 A number of other nations of antiquity are 
found destitute of any story of a flood," which they certainly would 
have had if a universal deluge had ever happened. Whether this 
legend is of high antiquity in India has even been doubted by dis 
tinguished scholars. 7 

The Hindoo legend of the Deluge is as follows : 

"Many ages after the creation of the world, Brahma resolved to destroy it 
with a deluge, on account of the wickedness of the people. There lived at that 
time a pious man named Satyacrata, and as the lord of the universe loved this 
pious man, and wished to preserve him from the sea of destruction which was 
to appear on account of the depravity of the age, he appeared before him in the 
form of Vishnu (the Preserver) and said: In seven days from the present time 
. . . the worlds will be plunged in an ocean of death, but in the midst of 
the destroying waves, a large vessel, sent by me for thy use, shall stand before 
thee. Then shalt thou take all medicinal herbs, all the variety of feeds, and, 
accompanied by seven saints, encircled by pairs of all brute animals, thou shalt 
enter the spacious ark, and continue in it, secure from the flood, on one immense 
ocean without light, except the radiance of thy holy companions. When the 
ship shall be agitated by an impetuous wind, thou shalt fasten it with a large 
sea-serpent on my horn; for I will be near thee (in the form of a fish), drawing 
the vessel, with thee and thy attendants. I will remain on the ocean, O chief 
of men, until a night of Brahma shall be complete!} ended. Thou shalt then 

1 See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 198, and Knight s priest places an image of himself there during 
Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 107. " Plato his life-time ; the priests, therefore, reckoning 
was told that Egypt had hymns dating back them and showing tlieni to me, pointed out that 
ten thousand years before his time." (Bon- each was the son of his own father ; going 
wick : Egyptian Belief, p. 185.) Plato lived 429 through them all, from the image of him who 
B. c. Herodotus relates that the priests of died last until they had pointed them all out." 
Egypt informed him that from the first king to (Herodotus, book ii. chs. 142, 143.) The discov- 
the present priest of Vulcan who last reigned, cry of mummies of royal and priestly person- 
were three hundred forty and one generations ages, made at Deir-el-Bahari (Aug., 1881), near 
of men, and during these generations there Thebes, in Egypt, would seem to confirm thin 
were the same number of chief priests and statement made by Herodotus. Of the thirty- 
kings. " Now (says he) three hundred gener- nine mummies discovered, one that of King 
ations are equal to ten thousand years, for Raskenen is about three thousand eeven 
three generations of men are one hundred hundred years old. (See a Cairo [Aug. 8th,] 
years ; and the forty-one remaining genera- Letter to the London Times.) 
tions that were over the three hundred, make 2 Owen : Man s Earliest History, p. 28. 
one thousand three hundred and forty years," 3 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 185. 
making eleven thousand three hundred and forty 4 Ibid. p. 411. 

years. " Conducting me into the interior of -in 5 Owen : Man s Earliest History, pp. 27, 

edifice that was spacious, and showing me 28. 

wooden colossuses to the number I have men- 6 Goldzhier : Hebrew Mytho. p. 319. 

tloned, they reckoned them up ; for every high 7 Ibid. p. 320. 


know my true greatness, rightly named the Supreme Godhead; by my favor, all 
thy questions shall be answered, and thy mind abundantly instructed." 

Being thus directed, Satyavrata humbly waited for the time 
which the ruler of our senses had appointed. It was not long, 
however, before the sea, overwhelming its shores, began to deluge 
the whole earth, and it was soon perceived to be augmented by 
showers from immense clouds. He, still meditating on the com 
mands of the Lord, saw a vessel advancing, and entered it with the; 
saints, after having carried into effect the instructions which had 
been given him. 

Vishnu then appeared before them, in the form of a fish, as lie 
had said, and Satyavrata fastened u cable to his horn. 

The deluge in time abated, and Satyavrata, instructed in all 
divine and human knowledge, w r as appointed, by the favor of 
Vishnu, the Seventh Menu. After coming forth from the ark he 
offers up a sacrifice to Brahma. 1 

The ancient temples of Ilindostan contain representations of 
Vishnu sustaining the earth while overwhelmed by the waters of 
the deluge. A rainbow is seen on the surface of the wibsifting 

The Chinese believe the earth to have been at one time covered 
with water, which they described as flowing abundantly and then 
subsiding. This great flood divided the higher from the lower age 
of man. It happened during the reign of Yaou. This inundation, 
which is termed hung-shwuy (great water), almost ruined the 
country, and is spoken of by Chinese writers with sentiments of 
horror. The Shoo-King, one of their sacred books, describes the 
waters as reaching to the tops of some of the mountains, covering 
the hills, and expanding as wide as the vault of heaven. 3 

The Parsccs say that by the temptation of the evil spirit men 
became wicked, and God destroyed them with a deluge, except a 
few, from whom the world was peopled anew. 4 

In the Zend-Avesta, the oldest sacred book of the Persians, of 
whom the Parsees are direct descendants, there are sixteen countries 
spoken of as having been given by Ormuzd, the Good Deity, for 
the Aryans to live in ; and these countries are described as a land 
of delight, which was turned by Ahriman, the Evil Deity, into a 

1 Translated from the Bhagavat by Sir Wm. a See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 55., and published in the first volume of the See Thornton s Hist. China, vol. i. p. 30. 

"Asiatic Researches," p. 230, et seq. See also Prop. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 205, and Priestley, 

Maurice: Ind. Ant. ii. 277, et seq., and Prof. p. 41. 
Max Muller B Hist. Ancient Sanskrit Litera- Priestley, p. 42. 

tare, p. 425, et seq. 


land of death and cold, partly, it is said, by a great flood, which is 
described as being like Noah s flood recorded in the Book of 
Genesis. 1 

The ancient Greeks had records of a flood which destroyed 
nearly the whole human race. 2 The story is as follows : 

" From his throne in the high Olympos, Zeus looked down on the children of 
men, and saw that everywhere they followed only their lusts, and cared nothing 
for risht or for law. And ever, as their hearts waxed grosser in their wicked 
ness, they devised for themselves new rites to appease the anger of the gods, till 
the whole earth was filled with blood. Far away in the hidden glens of the 
Arcadian hills the sous of Lykaon feasted and spake proud words against the 
majesty of Zeus, and Zeus himself came down from his throne to see their way 
and their doings. . . . Then Zeus returned to his home on Olyrnpos, and 
he gave the word that a flood of waters should be let loose upon the earth, that 
the sons of men might die for their great wickedness. So the west wind rose 
in its might, and the dark rain-clouds veiled the whole heaven, for the winds of 
the north which drive away the mists and vapors were shut up in their prison 
house. On hill and valley burst the merciless rain, and the rivers, loosened from 
their courses, rushed over the whole plains and up the mountain-side. From 
his home on the highlands of Phthia, Deukalion looked forth on the angry sky, 
and, when he saw the waters swelling in the valleys beneath, he called Pyrrlui, 
his wife, and said to her: The time has conic of which my father, the wise 
Prometheus, forewarned me. Make ready, therefore, the ark which 1 have 
built, and place in it all that we may need for food while the flood of waters is 
out upon the earth. . . . Then Pyrrha hastened to make all things ready, 
and they waited till the waters rose up to the highlands of Phthia and floated 
away the ark of Duuktiliou. The iishes swam amidst the old elm-groves, and 
twined amongst the gnarled boughs on the oaks, while on the face of the waters 
were tossed the bodies of men; and Deukalion looked on the dead faces of 
stalwart warriors, of maidens, and of babes, as they rose and fell upon the 
heavy waves. " 

When the flood began to abate, the ark rested on Mount Par 
nassus, and Deucalion, with his wife Pyrrha, stepped forth upon 
the desolate earth. They then immediately constructed an altar, 
and offered up thanks to Zeus, the mighty being who sent the flood 
and saved them from its waters. 3 

According to Ovid (a Grecian writer born 43 B. a), Deucalion 
does not venture out of the ark until a dove which he sent out re 
turns to him with an olive branch. 4 

1 Bunco: Fairy Talcs, Origin and Meaning, c., having mentioned Deucalion consigned 

to the ark, takes notice, upon his quitting it, 

2 The oldest Greek mythology, however, has of his offering up an immediate sacrifice to 
no such idea ; it cannot be proved to have God." (Chambers Encyclo., art. Deluge.) 
been known to the Greeks earlier than the 6th < In Lnndy s Monumental Christianity (p. 
century B.C. (See Goldzhier : Hebrew My tho., 299, Fig. 137) may be seen a representation of 

319.) This could not have been the case Deucalion and Pyrrha landing from the ark. 

had there ever been a universal deluge. A dove and olive branch are depicted in the 

3 Tales of Ancient Greece, pp. 72-74. " Apol- scene, 
lodorus a Grecian mythologist, born 140 B. 


It -vas at one time extensively believed, even by intelligent 
scholar*, that the myth of Deucalion was a corrupted tradition of 
the Noachian deluge, but this untenable opinion is now all but 
universally abandoned. 1 

The legend was found in the West among the Kelts. They be 
lieved that a great deluge overwhelmed the world and drowned all 
men except Drayan and Droyvach, who escaped in a boat, and 
colonized Britain. This boat was supposed to have been built by 
the u Heavenly Lord," and it received into it a pair of every kind 
of beasts. a 

The ancient Scandinavians had their legend of a deluge. The 
Edda describes this deluge, from which only one man escapes, with 
his faniily, by means of a bark. 1 It was also found among the 
ancient Mexicans. They believed that a man named Coxcox, and 
his wife, survived the deluge. Lord Kingsborough, speaking of 
this legend, 4 informs us that the person who answered to Noah 
entered the ark with six others; and that the story of sending 
birds out of the ark, &c., is the same in general character 
with that of the Bible. 

Dr. Brinton also speaks of the Mexican tradition. 5 They 
had not only the story of sending out the bird, but related that 
the ark landed on a mountain. The tradition of a delude was 


also found among the Brazilians, and among many Indian tribes. 8 
The mountain upon which the ark is supposed to have rested, 
was pointed to by the residents in nearly every quarter of the globe. 
The mountain-chain of Ararat was considered to be by the 
Chaldeans and Hebrews the place where the ark landed. The 
Greeks pointed to Mount Parnassus ; the Hindoos to the Himalayas ; 
and in Armenia numberless heights were pointed out with becom 
ing reverence, as those on which the few survivors of the dreadful 
scenes of the deluge were preserved. On the Red River (in 
America), near the village of the Caddoes, there was an eminence to 
which the Indian tribes for a great distance around paid devout 
homage. The Cerro Naztarny on the Rio Grande, the peak of Old 
Zuni in New Mexico, that of Colhuacan on the Pacific coast, 
Mount Apoala in Upper Mixteca, and Mount Neba in the province 
of Guaymi, are some of many elevations asserted by the neigh bor- 

1 Chambers Encyclo., art. Deucalion. See Mallet s Northern Antiquities, p. 99. 

1 Baring-Gould : Legends of the Patriarchs, * Mex. Antiq. vol. viii. 

p. 114. See also Myths of the British Druids, Myths of the New World, pp. 203, 204. 

p. 95. S*e Squire : Serpent Symbol, pp. 189, 190. 


ing nations to have been places of refuge for .heir ancestors when 
the fountains of the great deep broke forth. 

The question now may naturally be asked, How could such a 
story have originated unless there was some foundation for it ? 

In answer to this question we will say that we do not think 
such a story could have originated without some foundation for it, 
and that most, if not all, legends, have a basi of truth underlying 
the fabulous, although not always discernible. This story may have 
an astronomical basis, as some suppose, 1 or it may not. At any 
rate, it would be very easy to transmit by memory the fact of the 
sinking of an island, or that of an earthquake, or a great flood, 
caused by overflows of rivers, &c., which, in the course of time, 
would be added to, and enlarged upon, and, in this way, made into 
quite a lengthy tale. According to one of the most ancient ac 
counts of the deluge, we are told that at that time u the forest trees 
were dashed against each other ; " " the mountains were involved 
with smoke and flame ;" that there was "fire, and smoke, and wind, 
which ascended in thick clouds replete with lightning." u The 
roaring of the ocean, whilst violently agitated with the whirling of 
the mountains, was like the bellowing of a mighty cloud, &c." 2 

A violent earthquake, with eruptions from volcanic mountains, 
and the sinking of land into the sea, would evidently produce such 
a scene as this. We know that ai one period in the earth s history, 
such scenes must have been of frequent occurrence. The science 
of geology demonstrates this fact to us. Local deluges were of 
frequent occurrence, and that some persons may have been saved on 
one, or perhaps many, such occasions, by means of a raft or boat, 
and that they may have sought refuge on an eminence, or mountain, 
does not seem at all improbable. 

During the Cham/plain period in the history of the world 
which came after the Glacial period the climate became warmer, 
the continents sank, and there were, consequently, continued local 
floods which must have destroyed considerable animal life, includ 
ing man. The foundation of the deluge myth may have been laid 
at this time. 

1 Count cle Volney says : " The Deluge men- himself up in the ark. that the priests of Egypt 

tioned by Jews, Chaldeans, Greeks and Indians, shut up in their sacred coffer or ark the image 

a* having destroyed the world, are one and the of Osiris, a personification of the Sun. This 

*ame physico-astronamical event which is still was on the 17th of the month Athor, in which 

repeated every year," and that " all those the Sun enters the Scorpion. (See Kenrick s 

personages that figure in the Deluge of Noah Egypt, vol. i. p. 410.) The history of Noah 

and Xisuthus, are still in the celestial sphere. also corresponds, in some respects, with that 

It was a real picture of the calendar." (Re- of Bacchus, another personification of the Sun. 
searches in Ancient Hist., p. 124.) It was on 2 See Maurice s Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. 

the same day that Noah is said to have shut p. 268. 


Some may suppose that tins is dating the history of man to j far 
back, making his history too remote ; but such is not the case. 
There is every reason to believe that man existed for ages before the 
Glacial epoch. It must not be supposed that we have yet found 
remains of the earliest human beings ; there is evidence, however, 
that man existed during the Pliocene, if not during the Miocene 
periods, when hoofed quadrupeds, and Proboscidians abounded, 
human remains and implements having been found mingled with 
remains of these animals. 1 

Charles Darwin believed that the animal called man, might have 
been properly called by that name at an epoch as remote as the 
Eocene period. 2 Man had probably lost his hairy covering by that 
time, and had begun to look human. 

Prof. Draper, speaking of the antiquity of man, says : 

" So far as investigations have gone, they indisputably refer the existence of 
man to a date remote from us by many hundreds of thousands of years," and that, 
"it is difficult to assign a shorter date from the last glaciation of Europe than a 
quarter of a million of years, and human existence antedates that." 3 

Again he says : 

" Recent researches give reason to believe that, under low and base grades, 
the existence of man can be traced back into the Tertiary times. He was con 
temporary with the Southern Elephant, the Rhinoceros-leptorhinus, the great 
Hippopotamus, perhaps even in the Miocene, contemporary with the Mastodon." 4 

1 " In America, along with the bones of the member of an order no longer represented in 
Mastodon imbedded in the alluvium of the that part of the world." (Herbert Spencer : 
Bourbense, were found arrow heads and other Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 17.) 

traces of the savages who had killed this 

2 Darwin : Descent of Man, p. 15C. We think it may not be out of place to insert here what 
might properly be called : " The Drama of Life ," which is as follows : 

Act i. Azoic : Conflict of Inorganic Forces. 

Act ii. Paleozoic : Age of Invertebrates. 

(Scene i. Eozoic : Enter Protozoans and Protophytes. 
" ii. Silurian : Enter the Army of Invertebrates. 
" iii. Devonian : Enter Fishes. 
" iv. Carboniferous : (Age of Coal Plants) Enter First Air breather*. 
Act iii. Mesozoic : Enter Reptiles. 

(Scene i. Tnaesic : Enter Batrachians. 
" ii. Jurassic : Enter huge Reptiles of Sea, Land and Air. 
" iii. Cretaceous : (Age of Chalk) Enter Ammonites. 
Act iv. Cenozoic : (Age of Mammals.) 

(Scene i. Eocene : Enter Marine Mammals, and probably Man. 
" ii. Miocene : Enter Hoofed Quadrupeds. 
" iii. Pliocene : Enter Proboscidians and Edentates. 
Act v. Post Tertiary : Positive Age of Man. 

f Scene i. Glacial : Ice and Drift Periods. 

p f T .. I " ii. Champlain : Sinking Continents; Warmer; Tropical Animals go Norik. 
niertiary.j m Ten-ace : Rising Continents ; Colder. 

[ " iv. Present: Enter Science, Iconoclasts, &c., &c. 
Draper : Religion and Science, p. 199. 4 Ibid. pp. 195, 196. 


Prof. Huxley closes his " Evidence as to Man s Place in Nature," 
"by saying : 

"Where must we look for primeval man? Was the oldest Homo Sapiens 
Pliocene or Miocene, or yet more ancient J . . . If any form of the doctrine 
of progressive development is correct, we must extend by long epochs the most lib 
eral estimate that has yet been made of the antiquity of man." 1 

Prof. Oscar Paschel, in his work on " Mankind," speaking of 
the deposits of human remains which have been discovered in 
caves, mingled with the bones of wild animals, says : 

" The examination of one of these caves at Brixham, by a geologist as trust 
worthy as Dr. Falconer, convinced the specialists of Great Britain, as early as 
1858, that man was a contemporary of the Mammoth, the Woolly Rhinoceros, 
the Cave-lion, the Cave-hyena, the Cave-bear, and tfarefo-re of the Mammalia of 
tfie Geological -period antecedent to our own "* 

The positive evidence of man s existence during the Tertiary 
period, are facts which must firmly convince every one who is 
willing to be convinced of the great antiquity of man. We might 
multiply our authorities, but deem it unnecessary. 

The observation of shells, corals, and other remains of aquatic 
animals, in places above the level of the sea, and even on high 
mountains, may have given rise to legends of a great flood. 

Fossils found imbedded in high ground have been appealed to, 
both in ancient and modern times, both by savage and civilized 
man, as evidence in support of their traditions of a flood ; and, more 
over, the argument, apparently unconnected with any tradition, is 
to be found, that because there are marine fossils in places away 
from the sea, therefore the sea must once have been there. 

It is only quite recently that the presence of fossil shells, &c., 
on high mountains, has been abandoned as evidence of the 
Noachic flood. 

Mr. Tylor tells us that in the ninth edition of " Home s Intro 
duction to the Scriptures," published in 1846, the evidence of fossils 
is confidently held to prove the universality of the Deluge ; but the 
argument disappears from the next edition, published ten years 

Besides fossil remains of aquatic animals, boatsk&ve been found 
on tops of mountains. 4 A discovery of this kind may have given 
rise to the story of an ark having been made in which to preserve 
the favored ones from the waters, and of its landing on a mountain. 

1 Huxley : Man s Place in Nature, p. 184. 6 We know that many legends have origin- 

2 Paschel : Races of Man, p. 36. ated in this way. For example, Dr. Robinson, 
Tylor : Early History of Mankind, p. 328. in his " Travels in Palestine " (ii. 586), raen- 
4 Ibid. pp. 329, 330 tions a tradition that a city had once stood in a 


Before closing this chapter, it may be well to notice a striking 
incident in the legend we have been treating, i. e., the frequent oc 
currence of the number seven in the narrative. For instance : the 
Lord commands Noah to take into the ark clean beasts by sevens, 
and fowls also by sevens, and tells him that in seven days he will 
cause it to rain upon the earth. We are also told that the ark 
rested in the seventh month, and the seventeenth day of the month, 
upon the mountains of Ararat. After sending the dove out of the 
ark the first time, Noah waited seven days before sending it out 
again. After sending the dove out the second time, kt he stayed yet 
another seven days" ere he again sent forth the dove. 

This coincidence arises from the mystic power attached to the 
number seven, derived from its frequent occurrence in astrology. 

We find that in all religions of antiquity the number seven 
which applied to the sun, moon and the Jive planets known to the 
ancients is a sacred number, represented in all kinds and sorts of 
forms ; for instance : The candlestick with seven branches in the 
temple of Jerusalem. The seven inclosures of the temple. The 
seven doors of the cave of Mithras. The seven stories of tne tower 
of Babylon. 2 The seven gates of Thebes. 3 The flute of sevenpipos 
generally put into the hand of the god Pan. The lyre of seven 
strings touched by Apollo. The book of " late," composed of seven 
books. The seven prophetic rings of the Bralmiaus. 4 The seven 
stones consecrated to the seven planets in Laconia. 6 The division 
into seven castes adopted by the Egyptians and Indians. The seven 
idols of the Bonzes. The seven altars of the monument of Mithras. 
The seven great spirits invoked by the Persians. The seven arch 
angels of the Chaldeans. The seven archangels of the Jews.* 

desert between Petra and Hebron, the people of selves." (Related by Mr. Tylor, in hia " Early 

which had perished for their vices, and been History of Mankind," p. 3^6.) 
converted into stone. Mr. Seetzen, who went " Everything of importance was calculated 

to the spot, found no traces of ruins, but a by, and fitted into, this number (SEVEN) by the 

number of etony concretions, resembling in Aryan philonophers, ideas as well as locah- 

form and size the human head. They had been ties." ^Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 407.) 
ignorant ly supposed to be petrified heads, and a 2 Each one being consecrated to a planet, 

legend framed to account for their owners suf- First, to Saturn ; second, to Jupiter; third, to 

fering so terrible a fate. Another illustration Mars; fourth, to the Sun; fifth, to Venus; 

is as follows : The Kamchadals believe that sixth, to Mercury ; seventh, to the Moon, 

volcanic mountains are the abode of devils, (The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 269. See 

who, after they have cooked their meals, fling also The Angel Messiah, p. 100.) 
the fire-brands out of the chimney. Being 3 Each of which had the name of a planet. 

asked what these devils eat, they said " whales." * On each of which the name of a planet wa 

Here we see,. first, a story invented to account engraved. 

for the volcanic eruptions from the mountains ; 6 " There was to be seen in Laconia, seven 

and, second, a story invented to account for the columns erected in honor of the seven planet* ." 

remains of whales found on the mountains. The (Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 34.) 
savages knew that this was true, " because their " The Jews believed that the Throne of 

old people had said BO, and believed it them- Jehovan was surrounded by hid teien high 


The seven days in the week. 1 The seven sacraments of the Chris 
tians. The seven wicked spirits of the Babylonians. The sprinkling 
of blood seven times upon the altars of the Egyptians. The seven 
mortal sins of the Egyptians. The hymn of seven vowels chanted 
by the Egyptian priests. 2 The seven branches of the Assyrian 
" Tree of Life." Agni, the the Hindoo god, is represented with 
seven arms. Sura s 3 horse was represented with seven heads. 
Seven churches are spoken of m the Apocalypse. Balaam builded 
seven altars, and offered seven bullocks and seven rams on each 
altar. Pharaoh saw seven kine, &c., in his dream. The u Priest of 
Midian " had seven daughters. Jacob served seven years. Before 
Jericho seven priests bare seven horns. Samson was bound with 
seven green withes, and his marriage feast lasted seven days, &c., 
fec. We might continue with as much more, but enough has 
been shown to verify the statement that, " in all religions of anti 
quity, the number SEVEN is a sacred number." 

chiefs : Gabriel, Michael, Raphael, Uriel, &c." VENUS. Saturday, sacred to SATURN. " The 

(Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 46.) (ancient) Egyptians assigned a day of the week 

1 Each one being consecrated to a planet, to the SUN, MOON, and five planets, and the 

and the Sun and Moon. Sunday, " Dies Soils" number SEVEN was held there in great rever 

sacred to the SUN. Monday, "DiesLunae," ence." (Kenrick : Egypt, i. 238.) 
sacred to the MOON. Tuesday, sacred to Tuiso a " The Egyptian priests chanted the seven 

or MARS. Wednesday, sacred to Odin or vowels as a hymn addressed to Serapis" (The 

Woden, and to MERCURY. Thursday, sacred to Kosiirucians, p. 143.) 
Thor and others. Friday, sacred to Freia and Sura : the Sun-god of the Hindoo*. 



WE are informed that, at one time, " the whole earth v;as of 
one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they 
(the inhabitants of the earth) journeyed from the East, that they 
found a plain in the land of Shinar, and they dwelt there. 

" Arid they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and 
burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and shine 
had they for mortar. 

" And they said, Go to, let us build us a city, and a tower, whose 
top may reach unto heaven, and let us make us a name, lest we be 
scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. And the Lord 
came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of 
men builded. And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and 
they have all one language ; and this they begin to do : and now 
nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined 
to do. Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, 
that they may not understand one another s speech. So the Lord 
scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth : 
and they left off to build the city. Therefore is the name of it 
called JBabel, because the Lord did there confound the language of 
all the earth ; and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad 
upon the face of all the earth." 1 

Such is the " Scripture" account of the origin of languages, 
which differs somewhat from the ideas of Prof. Max Miiller and 
other philologists. 

Bishop Colenso tells us that : 

"The story of the dispensation of tongues is connected by the Jehovistic 
writer with the famous unfinished temple of Belus, of which probably some 
wonderful reports had reached him. . . . The derivation of the name Babel 
from the Hebrew word babal (confound) which seems to be the connecting point 
between the story and the tower of Babel, is altogether incorrect. " 1 

1 Genesis xi. 1-9. a The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 208. 

3 [33] 


The literal meaning of the word being house, or court, or gate 
oi Bel, or gate of God. 1 

John Fiske confirms this statement by saying : 

"The name Babel is really Bab-il, or The Gate of God ; but the Hebrew 
writer erroneously derives the word from the root babal to confuse and 
hence arises the mystical explanation, that Babel was a place where human speech 
became confused." 2 

The " wonderful reports " that reached the Jehovistic writer 
who inserted this tale into the Hebrew Scriptures, were from the 
Chaldean account of the confusion of tongues. It is related by 
Uerosus as follows : 

The first inhabitants of the earth, glorying in their strength and 
size, 3 and despising the gods, undertook to raise a tower whose top 
should reach the sky, in the place where Babylon now stands. But 
when it approached the heavens, the winds assisted the gods, and 
overthrew the work of the contrivers, and also introduced a diver 
sity of tongues among men, who till that time had all spoken the 
same language. The ruins of this tower are said to be still in 
Babylon. 4 

Josephus, the Jewish historian, says that it was Nivirod who 
built the tower, that he was a very wicked man, and that the tower 
was built in case the Lord should have a mind to drown the world 
again. He continues his account by saying that when Niinrod 
proposed the building of this tower, the multitude were very ready 
to follow the proposition, as they could then avenge themselves on 
God for destroying their forefathers. 

" And they built a tower, neither sparing any pains nor being in any degree 
negligent about the work. And by reason of the multitude of hands employed 

on it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect It was 

built of burnt brick, cemented together, with mortar made of bitumen, that it 
might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they had acted so 
madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser 
by tJte destruction of the former sinners, but he caused a tumult among them, by 
producing in them divers languages, and causing, that through the multitude of 
those languages they should not be able to understand one another. The place 
where they built the tower is now called Babylon." 5 

The tower in Babylonia, which seems to have been a foundation 
for the legend of the confusion of tongues to be built upon, was 

1 Ibid. p. 268. See also Bible for Learners, 4 Quoted by Rev. S. Baring-Gould : Legends 
vol. i. p. 90. of the Patriarchs, p. 147. See also Smith : 

2 Myths and Myth-makers, p. 72. See also Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 48, and Vol- 
Encyclopaedia Biitannica, art. "Babel." ney s Researches in Ancient History, pp. 130, 

3 " There we**, giants in the earth in those 131. 

days." (Genesis vi. 4.) * Jewish Antiquities, book 1, ch. iv. p. 30. 


evidently originally built for astronomical purposes. 1 This is 
clearly seen from the fact that it was called the 4 Stages of the 
Seven Spheres," 2 and that each one of these stages was consecrated 
to the Sun, Moon, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Venus, and Mercury. 
Nebuchadnezzar says of it in his cylinders : 

" The building named the Stages of the Seven Spheres, which was the tower 
of Borsippa (Babel), had been built by a former king. He had completed forty- 
two cubits, but he did not finish its head. From the lapse of time, it had become 
ruined ; they had not taken care of the exits of the waters, so the rain and 
wet had penetrated into the brick-work; the casing of burnt brick had bulged 
out, and the terraces of crude brick lay scattered in heaps. Merobach, my great 
Lord, inclined my heart to repair the building. I did not change its site, nor 
did I destroy its foundation, but, in a fortunate month, and upon an auspicious 
day, I undertook the rebuilding of the crude brick terraces and burnt brick 
casing, &c., &c." 4 

There is not a word said here in these cylinders about the con 
fusion of tongues, nor anything pertaining to it. The ruins of this 
ancient tower being there in Babylonia, and a legend of how the 
gods confused the speech of mankind also being among them, it 
was very convenient to point to these ruins as evidence that the 
story was true, just as the ancient Mexicans pointed to the ruins of 
the tower of Cholula, as evidence of the truth of the similar story 
which they had among them, and just as many nations pointed to 
the remains of aquatic animals on the tops of mountains, as evidence 
of the truth of the deluge story. 

The Armenian tradition of the " Confusion of Tongues " was 
to this effect : 

The world was formerly inhabited by men " with strong bodies 
and huge size " (giants). These men being full of pride and envy, 
" they formed a godless resolve to build a high tower ; but whilst 
they were engaged on the undertaking, a fearful wind overthrew it, 
which the wrath of God had sent against it. Unknown words 
were at the same time blown about among men, wherefore arose 
strife and confusion." 5 

The Hindoo legend of the " Confusion of Tongues," is as follows : 

There grew in the centre of the earth, the wonderful " World 

1 "Diodorus states that the great tower of seven stages. Within the upper dwelt Brahm. 

the temple of Belus was used by the Chaldeaus (See Squire s Serpent Symbol, p. 107.) Hcro- 

as an observatory. " (Smith s Bible Dictionary, dotus tells us that the upper stage of the tower 

art. " Babel. 11 ) of Babel was the abode of the god Belus. 

8 The Hindoos had a sacred Mount Meru, a The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 

the abode of the gods. This mountain was 269. See also Bunsen : The Angel Messiah, p. 

supposed to consist of seven stages, increasing 106. 

in sanctity is they ascended. Many of the Rawlinson s Herodotus, vol. ii. p. 484. 

Hindoo temples, or rather altars, were " studied Legends of the Patriarch?, pp. 148, 149. 

transcripts of the sacred Mount Meru ;" that 
is, they were built, like the tower of Babel, in 


Tree? or the " Knowledge Tree? It was so tall that it reached 
almost to heaven. " It said in its heart : i I shall hold my head in 
heaven, and spread my branches over all the earth, and gather all 
men together under my shadow, and protect them, and prevent 
them from separating. But Brahma, to punish the pride of the 
tree, cut off its branches and cast them down on the earth, when 
they sprang up as Wata trees, and made differences of belief, and 
speech, and customs, to prevail on the earth, to disperse men over 
its surface." 1 

Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been met with 
among the Mongolian Tharus in the north of India, and, according to 
.Dr. Livingston, among the Africans of Lake-ZV</a?tw. a The ancient 
Esthonians* had a similar myth which they called " The Cooking 
of Languages;" so also had the ancient inhabitants of the continent 
of Australia." The story was found among the ancient Mexicans, 
and was related as follows: 

Those, with their descendants, who were saved from the deluge 
which destroyed all mankind, excepting the few saved in the ark, 
resolved to build a tower which would reach to the skies. The ob 
ject of this was to see what was going on in Heaven, and also to 
have a place of refuge in case of another deluge. 5 

The job was superintended by one of the seven who were saved 
from the flood. 6 He was a giant called Xelhua, surname d " the 
Architect." 7 

Xelhua ordered bricks to be made in the province of Tlamanalco, 
at the foot of the Sierra of Cocotl, and to be conveyed to Cholula, 
where the tower was to be built. For this purpose, he placed a tile 
of men reaching from the Sierra to Cholula, who passed the bricks 
from hand to hand. 8 The gods beheld with wrath this edifice, 
the top of which was nearing the clouds, and were much irritated 
at the daring attempt of Xelhua. They therefore hurled fire from 
Heaven upon the pyramid, which threw it down, and killed many 
of the workmen. The work was then discontinued, 9 as each family 
interested in the building of the tower, received a language of their 
own and the builders could not understand each other. 

1 Ibid. p. 148. The ancient Scandinavians * Encyclopaedia Britannica, art. "Babel." 
had a legend of a somewhat similar tree. " The 6 Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 27. 
Mundane Tree," called YggdrasM, was in the Brinton : Myths of the New World, p. 
centre of the earth ; its branches covered over 204. 

the surface of the earth, and its top reached to 7 Humboldt : American Researches, vol. i. 

the highest heaven. (See Mallet s Northern p. 90. 
Antiquities.) 8 ibid. 

2 Encyclopaedia Britannica, art. "Babel." Ibid, and Brinton: Myths of the New 

3 Esthonia is one of the three Baltic, or so- World, p. 204. 

called, provinces of Russia. 10 The Pentateuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 272. 


Dr. Delitzsch must have been astonished upon coming across 
this legend ; for he says : 

" Actually the Mexicans had a legend of a tower-building as well as of a flood. 
Xelhua, one of the seven giants rescued from the flood, built the great pyramid 
of Cholula, in order to reach heaven, until the gods, angry at his audacity, 
threw tire upon the building and broke it down, whereupon every separate 
family received a language of its own." 1 

The ancient Mexicans pointed to the ruins of a tower at Cholnla 
as evidence of the truth of their story. This tower was seen by 
Humboldt and Lord Kingsbo rough, and described by them. 2 

We may say then, with Dr. Kalisch, that : 

"Most of the ancient nations possessed myths concerning impious giants 
who attempted to storm heaven, either to share it with the immortal gods, or to 
expel them from it. In some of these fables the, confusion, of tongues is represented 
as the punishment inllicted by the deities for such wickedness." 3 

Quoted by Bishop Colenso: The Penta- p. 97. Lord Kingsborough: Mexican Antiqui- 
teuch Examined, vol. iv. p. 272. ties. 

Humboldt: American Researches, vol. i. Com. on Old Test. vol. i. p. 196. 



THE story of the trial of Abraham s faith when he is ordered 
by the Lord to sacrifice his only son Isaac is to be iound in Genesis 
xxii. 1-19, and is as follows : 

" And it came to pass . . . that God did tempt Abraham, and said unto 
Mm: Abraham, and he said: Behold, here I am. And he (God) said: Take 
now thy son, thine only son, Isaac, whom thou lovest, and get thee into the laud 
of Moriah, and offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains 
which I will tell thee of. 

"And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his ass, and took 
two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son, and clave the wood for the 
burnt offering, and rose up and went into the place which God had told him. 
. . . (When Abraham was near the appointed place) he said unto his young 
men: Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go yonder and worship, 
and come again to thee. And Abraham took the wood for the burnt offering, 
and laid it upon (the shoulders of) Isaac his son, and he took the tire in his hand, 
and a knife, and they went both of them together. And Isaac spake unto 
Abraham his father, and said: Behold the fire and the wood, but where is the 
lamb for the burnt offering ? And Abraham said : My son, God will provide 
himself a lamb for a burnt offering. So they went both of them together, and 
they came to the place which God had told him of. And Abraham built an altar 
there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on 
the altar upon the wood. And Abraham stretched forth his hand, and took the 
knife to slay his son. And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, 
and said: Abraham ! Abraham! lay not thine hand upon the lad, neither do thou 
anything unto him, for now I know that thou fearest God, seeing that thou hast 
not withheld thy son, thine only son from me. 

"And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind him a ram 
caught in a thicket by his horns, and Abraham went and took the ram, and 
offered him up for a burnt offering in the stead of his son. . . . And the 
angel of the Lord called unto Abraham, out of heaven, the second time, and said: 
By myself have I sworn saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this thing, 
and hast not withheld thy son. thine only son, ... I will bless thee, and 
. . . I will multiply thy seed as the stars in the heaven, and as the sand 
which is upon the sea shore, and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies. 
And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blest, because thou hast 
obeyed my voice. So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up 
and went together to Beer-sheba, and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba." 


There is a Hindoo story related in the Sankliayaiia-sutras, 
which, in substance, is as follows : King Hariscandra had no son ; 
he then prayed to Varuna, promising, that if a son were born to 
him, he would sacrifice the child to the god. Then a son was born 
to him, called Rohita. When Kohita was grown up his father one 
day told him of the vow he had made to Varuna, and bade him 
prepare to be sacrificed. The son objected to being killed and ran 
away from his father s house. For six years he wandered in the 
forest, and at last met a starving Brahman. Him he persuaded to 
sell one of his sons named Sunahsepha, for a hundred cows. This 
boy was bought by Kohita and taken to Ilariscandra and about to 
be sacrificed to Varuna as a substitute for Rohita, when, on praying 
to the gods with verses from the Veda, he was released by them. 1 

There was an ancient Phenician story, written by Sanchoniathon, 
who wrote about 1300 years before our era, which is as follows : 

Saturn, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, had by a nymph of the country a 
male child whom he named Jeoud, that is, one and only. On the breaking out of 
a war, which brought the country into imminent danger, Saturn erected an altar, 
brought to it his son, clothed in royal garments, and sacrificed him." 8 

There is also a Grecian fable to the effect that one Agamemnon 
had a daughter whom he dearly loved, and she was deserving of 
his affection. He was commanded by (rod, through the Delphic 
Oracle, to offer her up as a sacrifice. Her father long resisted the 
demand, but finally succumbed. Before the fatal blow had been 
struck, however, the goddess Artemis or Ashtoreth interfered, and 
carried the maiden away, whilst in her place was substituted a stag. 1 

Anothe" similar Grecian fable relates that : 

" When the Greek army was detained at Aulis, by contrary winds, the augurs 
being consulted, declared that one of the kings had offended Diana, and she 
demanded the sacrifice of his daughter Iphigenia. It was like taking the father s 
life-blood, but he was persuaded that it was his duty to submit for the good of 
his country. The maiden was brought forth for sacrifice, in spite of her tears 
and supplications; but just as the priest was about to strike the fatal blow, 
Iphigenia suddenly disappeared, and a goat of uncommon beauty stood in her 
place." 4 

There is yet still another, which belongs to the same country, 
and is related thus : 

" In Sparta, it being declared upon one occasion that the gods demanded a 
human victim, the choice was made by lot, and fell on a damsel named Helena. 

1 See Miiller s Hist. Sanscrit Literature; and See Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 

Williams Indian Wisdom, p. 29. 104. 

3 Quoted by Count de Volney: New Re- * Prog. Kelig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 302, 

searches in Anc t Hist., p. 144. 


But when all was in readiness, an eagle descended, carried away the priest s 
knife, and laid it on the head of a heifer, which was sacrificed in her stead." 1 

The story of Abraham and Isaac was written at a time when the 
Mosaic party in Israel was endeavoring to abolish idolatry among 
their people. They were offering up human sacrifices to their 
gods Moloch, Baal, and Chemosh, and the priestly author of this 
story was trying to make the people think that the Lord had abol 
ished such offerings, as far back as the time of Abraham. The 
Grecian legends, which he had evidently heard, may have given 
him the idea.* 

Human offerings to the gods were at one time almost universal. 
In the earliest ages the offerings were simple, and such as shepherds 
and rustics could present. They loaded the altars of the gods with 
the first fruits of their crops, and the choicest products of the earth. 
Afterwards they sacrificed animals. When they had once laid it 
down as a principle that the effusion of the blood of these animals 
appeased the anger of the gods, and that their justice turned aside 
upon the victims those strokes which were destined for men, their 
great care was for nothing more than to conciliate their favor by 
so easy a method. It is the nature of violent desires and excessive 
fear to know no bounds, and therefore, when they would ask for any 
favor which they ardently wished for, or would deprecate some 
public calamity which they feared, the blood of animals was not 
deemed a price sufficient, but they began to shed that of men. It 
is probable, as we have said, that this barbarous practice was formerly 
almost universal, and that it is of very remote antiquity. In time of 
war the captives were chosen for this purpose, but in time of peace 
they took the slaves. The choice was partly regulated by the opinion 
of the bystanders, and partly by lot. But they did not always sacrifice 
such mean persons. In great calamities, in a pressing famine, for 
example, if the people thought they had some pretext to impute 
the cause of it to their king, they even sacrificed him without 
hesitation, as the highest price with which they could purchase the 
Divine favor. In this manner, the first King of Yermaland (a 
province of Sweden) was burnt in honor of Odin, the Supreme 
God, to put an end to a great dearth ; as we read in the history of 
Norway. The kings, in their turn, did not spare the blood of their 
subjects ; and many of them even shed that of their children. 
Earl Hakon, of Norway, offered his son in sacrifice, to obtain of 
Odin the victory over the Jomsburg pirates. Aun, King of Sweden, 

1 Ibid. a See chapter xi. 


devoted to Odiii the blood of his nine sons, to prevail on that god 
to prolong his life. Some of the kings of Israel offered up their 
first-born sons as a sacrifice to the god Baal or Moloch. 

The altar of Moloch reeked with blood. Children were sacri 
ficed and burned in the fire to him, while trumpets and flutes 
drowned their screams, and the mothers looked on, and were bound 
to restrain their tears. 

The Phenicians offered to the gods, in times of war and drought, 
the fairest of their children. The books of Sanchouiathon and 
Byblian Philo are full of accounts of such sacrifices. In Byblos 
boys were immolated to Adonis ; and, on the founding of a city or 
colony, a sacrifice of a vast number of children was solemnized, in 
the hopes of thereby averting misfortune from the new settlement. 
The Phenicians, according to Eusebius, yearly sacrificed their 
dearest, and even their only children, to Saturn. The bones of the 
victims were preserved in the temple of Moloch, in a golden ark, 
which was carried by the Phenicians with them to war. 1 Like the 
Fijians of the present day, those people considered their gods as 
beings like themselves. They loved and they hated ; they were 
proud and revengeful, they were, in fact, savages like themselves. 

If the eldest born of the family of Athamas entered the temple 
of the Laphystian Jupiter, at Alos, in Acliaia, lie was sacrificed, 
crowned with garlands, like an animal victim. 3 

The offering of human sacrifices to the Sun was extensively 
practiced in Mexico and Peru, before the establishment of Chris 
tianity. 3 

1 Baring-Gould : Orig. Belig. Belief, vol. i. * Kenrlck e Egypt, vol. 1. p. 443. 

p. 868. See Acosta : Hist. Indies, rol. 11. 



IN the 28th chapter of Genesis, we are told that Isaac, after 
blessing his son Jacob, sent him to Padan-aram, to take a daughter 
of Laban s (his mother s brother) to wife. Jacob, obeying his 
father, " went out from Beer-sheba (where he dwelt), and went 
towards Haran. And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried 
there all night, because the sun was set. And he took of the 
stones of the place, and put them for his pillow, and lay down in 
that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold, a ladder set upon 
the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. And he beheld the 
angels of God ascending and descending on it. And, behold, the 
Lord stood above it, and said : I am the Lord God of Abraham 
thy father, and the God of Isaac, the land whereon thou liest, to 
thee will I give it, and to thy seed. .... And Jacob 
awoke out of his sleep, and he said : Surely the Lord is in this 
place, and I know it not. And he was afraid, and said : c How 
dreadful is this place, this is none other than the house of God, 
and this is the gate of Heaven? And Jacob rose up early in the 
morning, and took the stone that lie had put for Ins pillow, and set 
it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. And he 
called the name of that place Beth-el" 

The doctrine of Metempsychosis has evidently something to 
do with this legend. It means, in the theological acceptation of 
the term, the supposed transition of the soul after death, into 
another substance or body than that which it occupied before. The 
belief in such a transition was common to the most civilized, and 
the most uncivilized, nations of the earth. 1 

It was believed in, and taught by, the Braliminical Hindoos, 
the Buddhists* the natives of Egypt* several philosophers of 

1 See Chambers s Encyclo., art. " Transmi- 3 ibid. Ernest de Bunsen says : " The first 

gration." traces of the doctrine of Transmigration of 

Chambers s Encyclo., art. " Transmigra- souls is to be found among the Brahmins and 

ichard s Mythology, p. 213, and Prog. Buddhists." (The Angel Messiah, pp. 63, 64.) 
5. vol. i. p. 59. 4 Prichard s Mythology, pp. 213, 214. 


ancient Greece] the ancient Druids? the natives of Madagascar* 
several tribes of Africa* and Worth America* the ancient Mexi 
cans,* and by some Jewish arid Christian sects. 5 

" It deserves notice, that in both of these religions (i. <?., Je,oixh and Christian), 
it found adherents as well in ancient as in modern times. Among the Jews, the 
doctrine of transmigration the Gilgul Neshamoth was taught in the mystical 
system of the Kabl/ala."* 

"All the souls," the spiritual code of this system says, " are subject to the 
trials of transmigration; and men do not know which are the ways of the Most 
High in their regard." "The principle, in short, of the Kabbala, is the same as 
that of Brahmanism." 

" On the ground of this doctrine, which was shared in by Rabbis of the highest 
renown, it was held, for instance, that the soul of Adam migrated into David, 
and will come in the Messiah ; that the soul of Japhet is the same as that of 
Simeon, and the soul of Terah, migrated into Job." 

"Of all these transmigrations, biblical instances are adduced according to 
their mode of interpretation in the writings of Rabbi Manasse ben Israel, Rabbi 
Naphtali, Rabbi Meyer ben Gabbai, Rabbi Ruben, in the Jalkut Khadash, and 
olher works of a similar character." 4 

The doctrine is thus described by Ovid, in the language of 

Dryden : 

" What feels the body when the soul expires, 
By time corrupted, or consumed by fires 1 
Nor dies the spirit, but new life repeats 
Into other forms, and only changes seats. 
Ev n I, who these mysterious truths declare, 
Was once Euphorbus in the Trojan war; 
My name and lineage I remember well, 
And how in fight by Spartan s King I fell. 
In Argive Juno s fane 1 late beheld 
My buckler hung on high, and own d my former shield 
Then death, so called, is but old matter dressed 
In some new figure, and a varied vest. 
Thus all things are but alter d, nothing dies, 
And here and there the unbodied spirit flies." 

The Jews undoubtedly learned this doctrine after they had been 
subdued by, and become acquainted with other nations ; and the 
writer of this story, whoever he may have been, was evidently 
endeavoring to strengthen the belief in this doctrine he being 
an advocate of it by inventing this story, and making Jacob a 
witness to the truth of it. Jacob would have been looked upon at 
the time the story was written (* <?., after the Babylonian captivity), 

> Gross: The Heathen Religion. Also * Ibid. See also Bunsen : The Angl-Mes- 

Chambers s Encyclo., art. "Transmigration." siah, pp. 63, 64. Dupuie, p. 357. Josephus : 

a Ibid. Mallet s Northern Antiquities, p. 13; Jewish Antiquities, book zviii. ch. 13. Dun- 

and Myths of the British Druids, p. 15 lap : Son of the Man, p. 94 ; and Beal : Hist. 

3 Chambers s Encyclo. Buddha. 

4 Ibid. Chambers, art. "Transmigration. 1 


as of great authority. We know that several writers of portions of 
the Old Testament have written for similar purposes. As an illus 
tration, we may mention the book of Esther. This book was written 
for the purpose of explaining the origin of the festival of Purim, 
and to encourage the Israelites to adopt it. The writer, who was 
an advocate of the feast, lived long after the Babylonish captivity, 
and is quite unknown. 1 

The writer of the seventeenth chapter of Matthew has made 
Jesus a teacher of the doctrine of Transmigration. 

The Lord had promised that he would send Elijah (Elias) the 
prophet, " before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the 
Lord," 2 and Jesus is made to say that he had already come, or, that 
his soid had transmigrated unto the body of John the Baptist, and 
they knew it not. 

And in Mark (viii. 27) we are told that Jesus asked his disciples, 
saying unto them; "Whom do men say that 1 am?" whereupon 
they answer : " Some say Elias ; and others, one of the prophets ;" 
or, in other words, that the soul of Elias, or one of the prophets, 
had transmigrated into the body of Jesus. In John (ix. 1, 2), we are 
told that Jesus and his disciples seeing a man " which was Hind 
from his "birth" the disciples asked him, saying ; " Master, who did 
sin, this man (in some former state) or his parents." Being born 
blind, how else could he sin, unless in some former state f These 
passages result from the fact, which we have already noticed, that 
some of the Jewish and Christian sects believed in the doctrine of 

According to some Jewish authors, Adam was re-produced in 
Noah, PJlijah, and other Bible celebrities. 4 

The Rev. Mr. Eaber says : 

;< Adam, and Enoch, and Noah, might in outward appearance be different 
men, but they were really the self-same divine persons who had been promised as 
the seed of the woman, successively animating various human bodies." 5 

We have stated as our belief that the vision which the writer of 
the twenty-eighth chapter of Genesis has made Jacob to witness, was 
intended to strengthen the belief in the doctrine of the Metempsy 
chosis, that he was simply seeing the souls of men ascending and de- 
cending from heaven on a ladder, during their transmigrations. 

We will now give our reasons for thinking so. 

The learned Thomas Maurice tells us that : 

1 See The Religion of Israel, p. 18. < See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 78. 

a JJ ala ^ hl iv 5 6 Faber : Orig. Pagan Idol, vol. iii. p. 812 ; 

Matthew xvii. 12, 13. in Anacalypais, vol. i. p. 210. 


The Indians had, in remote ages, in their system of theology, 
the sidereal ladder of seven gates, which described, in a symbolical 
manner, the ascending and descending of the souls of men. 1 

We are also informed by Origen that : 

This descent (i. e., the descent of souls from heaven to enter into some body), 
was described in a symbolical manner, by a ladder which was represented as reaching 
from heaven to earth, and divided into seven stages, at each of which was figured 
a gate; the eighth gate was at the top of the ladder, which belonged to the sphere 
of the celestial firmament. 2 

That souls dwell in the Galaxy was a thought familiar to the 
Pythagoreans, who gave it on their master s word, that the souls 
that crowd there, descend and appear to men as dreams? 

The fancy of the Manicheans also transferred pure souls to this 
column of light, whence they could come down to earth and again 

Paintings representing a scene of this kind may be seen in works 
of art illustrative of Indian Mytlwlogy. 

Maurice speaks of one, in which he says : 

" The souls of men are represented as ascending and descending (on a ladder), 
according to the received opinion of the sidereal Atetempsychosis in Asia." 5 

Mons. Dupuis tells us that : 

" Among the mysterious pictures of the Initiation, in the cave of the Persian 
God Mithras, there was exposed to the view the descent of the souls to the earth, 
and tJieir return to heaven, through the seven planetary spheres." 6 

And Count de Volney says : 

" In the cave of Mithra was a ladder with seven steps, representing the seven 
spheres of the planets by means of which souls ascended and descended. This 
is precisely the ladder of Jacob s vision. There is in the Royal Library (of 
France) a superb volume of pictures of the Indian gods, in which the ladder is 
represented with the souls of men ascending it." 1 

In several of the Egyptian sculptures also, the Transmigration 
of Souls is represented by the ascending and descending of souls 
from heaven to earth, on a flight of steps, and, as the souls of 
kicked men were supposed to enter pigs and other animals, there 
fore pigs, monkeys, &c., are to be seen on the steps, descending from 
heaven. 8 

" And he dreamed, and beliold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it 
reached to heaven / and behold tlw angels of God ascending and descending on it." 

1 Indian Antiquities, vol. 11. p. 262. Indian Antiqities, vol. ii. p. 262. 

a Contra Celsna, lib. vi. c. ixii. * Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 844. 

8 Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 324. 7 Volney s Ruins, p. 147, note. 

Ibid. 8 See Child s Prog Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 

160. 182. 


are the words of the sacred text. Can anything be more 
convincing ? It continues thus : 

And Jacob awoke out of his sleep ... and be was afraid, and said 
tbis is none other but the bouse of God, and this is the gate of heaven." 

Here we have " the gate of heaven," mentioned by Origen in 
describing the Metempsychosis. 

According to the ancients, the top of this ladder was supposed 
to reach the throne of the most high God. This corresponds exactly 
with the vision of Jacob. The ladder which he is made to see 
reached unto heaven, and the Lord stood above it. 1 

" And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he bad 
put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it."* 

This concluding portion to the story has evidently an allusion 
to Phallic* worship. There is scarcely a nation of antiquity 
which did not set up these stones (as emblems of the reproductive 
power of nature) and worship them. Dr. Oort, speaking of this, 
says : 

Few forms of worship were so universal in ancient times as the 
homage paid to sacred stones. In the history of the religion of even 
the most civilized peoples, such as the Greeks, Romans, Hindoos, 
Arabs and Germans, we find traces of this form of worship.* 
The ancient Druids of Britain also worshiped sacred stones, which 
were set up on end* 

Pausanias, an eminent Greek historian, says : 

"The Ilermiac statue, which they venerate in CyllenS above other symbols, 
is an erect Phallus on a pedestal." 6 

This was nothing more than a smooth, oblong stone, set erect 
on a flat one. 7 

The learned Dr. Ginsburg, in his " Life of Levita," alludes to 
the ancient mode of worship offered to the heathen deity Hermes, 
or Mercury. A " Hermes " (i. e., a stone) was frequently set 
up on the road-side, and each traveller, as he passed by, paid his 
homage to the deity by either throwing a stone on the heap (which 
was thus collected), or by anointing it. This "Hermes" was 
the symbol of Phallus. 8 

1 Genesis xrviii. 12, 13. See Myths of the British Druids, p. 300; 

2 Genesis xxviii. 18, 19. and Higgins: Celtic Druids. 

" Phallic," from " Phallus," a represents- Quoted by R. Payne Knight: Ancient Art 

tion of the male generative organs. For further and Mythology, p. 114, note. 
information on this subject, see the works of 7 See Illustrations in Dr. Inman s Pagan 

B. Payne Knight, and Dr. Thomas Inman. and Christian Symbolism. 

4 Bible for Learners, vol., i. pp. 175, 276. See Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. pp. 

See, also, Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology; 543. 544. 
and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. and ii. 


, when we find that this form of worship was very 
prevalent among the Israelites* that these sacred stones which 
were " set up," were called (by the heathen), B^ETY-LI," (which is 
not unlike BETH-KL), and that they were anointed with oil, 3 I 
think we have reasons for believing that the story of Jacob s setting 
up a stone, pouring oil upon it, and calling the place Beth-el, u has 
evidently an allusion to Phallic worship." 4 

The male and female powers of nature were denoted respect 
ively by an upright and an oval emblem, and the conjunction of 
the two furnished at once the altar and the Ashera, or grove, 
against which the Hebrew prophets lifted up their voices in earnest 
protest. In the kingdoms, both of Judah and Israel, the rites 
connected with these emblems assumed their most corrupting form. 
Even in the temple itself, stood theAskera, or the upright emblem, 
on the circular altar of Baal-Peor, the Priapos of he Jews, thus 
reproducing the Linga and Yoni of the Hindu. 6 For this sym 
bol, the women wove hangings, as the Athenian maidens embroid 
ered the sacred peplos for the ship presented to Athene, at the 
great Dionysiac festival. This Ashera, which, in the authorized 
English version of the Old Testament is translated "grove" was, 
in fact, a pole, or stem of a tree. It is reproduced in our modern 
"Maypole," around which maidens dance, as maidens did of 
yore. 6 

1 Bible for Learners, vol. 1. pp. 177, 178, 317, generative organs among the ancients, when 

321, 322, the subject is properly understood. Being the 

3 Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 356. most intimately connected with the reproduc- 

3 Ibid. tion of life on earth, the Linga became the 

4 We read in Bell s " Pantheon of the Gods symbol under which the Sun, invoked with a 
and Demi-Gods of Antiquity," under the head thousand names, has been worshiped through- 
of BAELYLION, BAELYLIA, or BAETYLOS, that out the world &? the restore? of the poivers of 
they are " Anointed Stones, worshiped among nature after the long sleep or death of winter. 
the Greeks, Phrygians, and other nations of But if the Linga is the Sun-god in his majesty, 
the East;" that " these Baetylia were greatly the Yoni is the earth who yields her fruit under 
venerated by the ancient Heathen, many of his fertilizing warmth. 

their idols being no other;" and that, " in re- The Phallic tree is introduced into the nar- 

ality no sort of idol was more common in the rative of tho book of Genesis : but it is herf 

East, than that of oblong stones erected, and called a tree, not of life, but of the knowledge of 

hence termed by the Greeks pillars. 1 The good and evil, that knowledge which dawns in 

Rev. Geo. W. Cox, in his Aryan Mythology the mind with the first consciousness of differ- 

(vol. ii. p. 113), says: "The erection of these ence between man and woman. In contract 

etone columns or pillars, the forms of which in with this tree of carnal indulgence, tending to 

most cases tell their own story, are common death, is the tree of life, denoting the higher 

throughout the East, some of the most ela- existence for which man was designed, and 

borate being found near Gbizni." And Mr. which would bring with it the happiness and 

Wake (Phallism in Ancient Religions, p. 60), the freedom of the children of God. In the 

says: " Kiyun, or Kivan, the name of the brazen serpent of the Pentateuch, the two 

deity said by Amos (v. 26), to have been wor- emblems of the cross and serpent, the quiee- 

Bhiped in the wilderness by the Hebrews, cent and energising Phallos, are united. (See 

signifies GOD OP THJC PILLAR." Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 113, 116, 

6 We find that there was nothing group or im- 118.) 
moral in the worship of tbe male and female See Cox : Aryan Mytho., ii. 112, 113. 



THE children of Israel, who were in bondage in Egypt, mak 
ing bricks, and working in the field, 1 were looked upon with coin- 
passion by the Lord. 7 He heard their groaning, and remembered 
his covenant with Abraham, 3 with Isaac, and witli Jacob. He, 
therefore, chose Moses (an Israelite, who had murdered an Egyp 
tian, 4 and who, therefore, was obliged to nee from Egypt, as Pharaoh 
sought to punish him), as his servant, to carry out his plans. 

Moses was at this time keeping the flock of Jeruth, his father- 
in-law, in the land of Midian. The angel of the Lord, or the 
Lord himself, appeared to him there, and said unto him : 

"I am the God of thy Father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and 
the God of Jacob. ... I have seen the affliction of my people which are in 
Egypt, and have heard their cry by reason of their tormentors; for I know their 
sorrows. And I am come down to deliver them out of the hands of the Egyptians, 
and to bring them up out of that land into a good land and a large, unto a land 
flowing with milk and honey. I will send thee unto Pharaoh, that thou mayest 
bring forth my people, the children of Israel, out of Egypt." 

Then Moses said unto the Lord : 

" Behold, when I come unto the children of Israel, and shall say unto them, 
the God of your fathers hath sent me unto you, and they shall say unto me : 
What is his name ? What shall I say unto them ?" 

Then God said unto Moses : 

" I AM THAT I AM." 5 " Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM 
hath sent me unto you." 6 

1 Exodus i. 14. understood by all the initiated among the 

2 Exodus ii. 24, 25. Egyptians." "The I AM of the Hebrews, 

3 See chapter x. and the I AM of the Egyptians are identical." 
* Exodus ii. 12. (Bunsen : Keys of St. Peter, p. 38.) The name 
6 The Egyptian name for God was " Nuk- "Jehovah," which was adopted by the He 

Pa-Nuk," or "I AM THAT I AM." (Bonwick : brews, was a name esteemed eacred among the 

Egyptian Belief, p. 395.) This name was found Egyptians. They called it Y-HA-HO, or Y-AH- 
on a temple in Egypt. (Higgins Anacalypsis, 
vol. ii. p. 17.) "I AM was a Divine name Exodus iii. 1, 14. 



And God said, moreover, unto Moses : 

"Go and gather the Elders of Israel together, and say unto them: the Lord 
God of your fathers . . . appeared unto me, saying: I have surely visited 
you, and seen that which is done to you in Egypt. And I have said, I will 
brirg you up out of the affliction of Egypt . . . unto a land flowing with 
niilk and honey. And they shall hearken to thy voice, and thou shall come, thou 
and the Elders of Israel, unto the king of Egypt, and ye shall say unto him: 
the Lord God of the Hebrews hath met with us, and now let us go, we beseech 
thee, three days journey in the wilderness, that we may sacrifice to the Lord our 

"2 am sure that the king of Egypt will not let you go, no, not by a mighty 
hand. And I will stretch out my hand, and smite Egypt with all my wonders, 
which I will do in the midst thereof: and after that lie will let you go. And I will 
give this people (the Hebrews) favor in the sight of the Egyptians, and it shall 
come to pass, that when ye go, ye shall not go empty. But every woman shall 
borrow of her neighbor, and of her that sojourneth in her house, jewels of 
silver and jewels of gold, and raiment. And ye shall put them upon your sons 
and upon your daughters, and ye shall spoil, the Egyptians."* 

The Lord again appeared unto Moses, in Midian, and said: 

" *trO, return into Eg3 r pt, for all the men are dead which sought thy life, 
^xnd Moses took his wife, and his son, and set them upon an ass, and he returned 
to the land of Egypt. And Moses took the rod of God (which the Lord had given, 
him) in his hand." 3 

Upon arriving in Egypt, Moses tells his brother Aaron, " all the 
words of the Lord," and Aaron tells all the children of Israel. 
Moses, who was not eloquent, but had a slow speech/ uses Aaron 
as his spokesman. 6 They then appear unto Pharaoh, and falsify, 
" according to the commands of the Lord" saying : u Let us go, we 
pray thee, three- days journey in the desert, and sacrifice unto the 
Lord our God."" 

The Lord hardens Pharaoh s heart, so that he does not let the 
children of Israel go to sacrifice unto their God, in the desert. 

WBH. (See the Religion of Israel, pp. 42, 43; very title by which God tells Moees he WM 

and Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 329, and vol. ii. p. known to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob." 

17.) "None dare to enter the temple of Sera- (I rof. Renouf : Relig. of Anc t Egypt, p. 

pis, who did not bear on his breast or forehead 99.) 

the name of JAO, or J-HA-HO, a name almost J Exodns iii. 15-18. 

equivalent in sound to that of the Hebrew Je- a Exodus iii. 19-22. Here is a command 

hovah, and probably of identical import ; and from the Lord to deceive, and lie, and iteal, 

no name was uttered in Egypt with more rev- which, according to the narrative, was carried 

erence than this IAO." (Trans, from the Gor. out to the letter (Ex. xii. 35, 36) ; and yet we 

of Schiller, in Monthly Repos.. vol. xx.; and are told that this same Lord said : " Thau shall 

Voltaire: Commentary on Exodus; Higgins not steal." (Ex. xx. 15.) Again he says: 

Anne., vol. i. p. 329; vol. ii. p. 17.) " That this " Thou shalt not defraud thy neighbor, neither 

divine name was well-known to the Heathen rob him." (Leviticus xix. 13.) Surely this if 

there can be no doubt. 1 (Parkhurst : Hebrew inconsistency. 

Lex. in Anac., i. 327.) So also with the name 3 Exodus iv. 19,20. 

El Shaddai. The extremely common Egyp- * Exodus iv. 10. 

tian expression Nutar Nutra exactly corre- 8 Exodus tv. 16. 

spends iu sense to the Hebrew El Shaddai, the Exodus v. 3. 


Moses and Aaron continue interceding with him, however, and, 
for the purpose of showing their miraculous powers, they change 
their rods into serpents, the river into blood, cause a plague of frogs 
and lice, and a swarm of flies, &c., &c., to appear. Most of these 
feats were imitated by the magicians of Egypt. Finally, the first- 
born of Egypt are slain, when Pharaoh, after having had his heart 
hardened, by the Lord, over and over again, consents to let Moses 
and the children of Israel go to serve their God, as they had said, 
that is, for three days. 

The Lord having given the people favor in the sight of the 
Egyptians, they borrowed of them jewels of silver, jewels of gold, 
and raiment, " according to the commands of the Lord" And 
they journeyed toward Succoth, there being six hundred thousand, 
besides children. 1 

" And they took their journey from Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the 
edge of the wilderness. And the Lord went before them by day, in a pillar of a 
cloud, to lead them the way ; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light to 
go by day and night." 2 

"And it was told the king of Egypt, that the people flea. . . . And h 
made ready his chariot, and took his people with him. And he took six hundred 
chosen chariots, and all the chariots of Egypt, . . . and he pursued after the 
children of Israel, and overtook them encamping beside the sea. . . . And 
when Pharaoh drew nigh, the children of Israel . . . were sore afraid, and 
. . . (they) cried out unto the Lord. . . . And the Lord said unto Moses, 
. . . speak unto the children of Israel, that they go forward. But lift thou 
up thy rod, and stretch out thine hand over the Red Sea, and divide it, and the 
children of Israel shall go on dry ground through the midst of the sea. . . . 
And Moses stretched out his hand o.ver the sea, 3 and the Lord caused the sea to go 
back by a strong east wind that night, and made the sea dry land, and the waters 
were divided. And the children of Israel went into the midst of the sea upon the 
dry ground; andthe waters were a wall unto them upon the right Jiand, and on their 
left. And the Egyptians pursued, and went in after them to the midst of the 
sea, even all Pharaoh s horses, and his chariots, and his 7wrse-men." 

After the children of Israel had landed on the other side of 
the sea, the Lord said unto Moses : 

" Stretch out thine hand over the sea, that the waters may come again upon 
the Egyptians, upon their chariots, and upon their horse-men. And Moses 
stretched forth his hand over the sea, and the sea returned to his strength. . . . 
And the Lord overthrew the Egyptians in the midst of the sea. And the waters 
returned, and covered the chariots, and the horse-men, and all the host of Pharaoh 

1 Exodus vii. 35-37. Bishop Colenso shows, walls while he passes through, must surely have 
in his Pentateuch Examined, how ridiculous been originally the Sea of Clouds. ... A 
this statement is. German story presents a perfectly similar fea- 

2 Exodus xiii. 20, 21. ture. The conception of the cloud as sea, rock 
The sea over which Moees stretches out and wall, recurs very frequently in mythology." 

his hand with the staff, and which he divides, (Prof. Steinthal : The Legend of Samson, p. 
BO that the waters stajid up on either side like 429.) 


that came into the sea after them; there remained not so much as one of them. 
But the children of Israel walked upon dry land in the midst of the sea, and the 
waters were a wall unto them on their right hand, and on their left. . . . And 
Israel saw the great work which the Lord did upon the Egyptians, and the 
people feared the Lord, and believed the Lord and his servant Moses." 1 

The writer of this story, whoever he may have been, was evi 
dently familiar with the legends related of the Sun-god, Bacchus, 
as he has given Moses the credit of performing some of the mira 
cles which were attributed to that god. 

Is is related in the hymns of Orpheus," that Bacchus had a 
rod with which he performed miracles, and which he could change 
into a serpent at pleasure. lie passed the Red Sea, dry shod, at 
the head of his army. He divided the waters of the rivers Oron- 
tes and Hydaspus, by the touch of his rod, and passed through 
them dry-shod. 3 By the same mighty wand, he drew water 
from the rock* and wherever they marched, the land flowed 
with wine, milk and honey. 5 

Professor Stein thai, speaking of Dionysus (Bacchus), says : 

Like Moses, he strikes fountains of wine and water out of the 
rock. Almost all the acts of Moses correspond to those of the 

Mons. Dupuis says : 

"Among the different miracles of Bacchus and his Bacchantes, there are 
prodigies very similar to those which are attributed to Moses; for instance, such 
as the sources of water which the former caused to sprout from the innermost of 
the rocks." 7 

In Bell s Pantheon of the Gods and Heroes of Antiquity, 8 an 
account of the prodigies attributed to Bacchus is given ; among 
these, are mentioned his striking water from the rock, with his 
magic wand, his turning a twig of ivy into a snake, his passing 
thr ugh the Red Sea and the rivers Orontes and Hydaspus, and of 
his enjoying the light of the Sun ( while marching with his army 
in India), when the day was spent, and it was dark to others. All 
these are parallels too striking to be accidental. 

We might also mention the fact, that Bacchus, as well as Moses 

1 Exodus xiv. 5-13. pass through (2 Kings ii. 8), and also the chil 

a Orpheus is said to have been the earliest dren of Israel. (Joshua iii. 15-17.) 
poet of Greece, where he first introduced the 4 Mo?os, with his rod, drew water from the 

rites of Bacchus, which he brought from Egypt. rock. (Exodus xvii. 6.) 
(See Roman Antiquities, p. 134.) 5 See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 191, and Higgins: 

3 The Hebrew fable writers not wishing to Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19. 
be outdone, have made the waters of the river 6 The Legend of Samson, p. 420. 

Jordan to be divided to let Elijah and Elisha 7 Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 165. 

s Vol. i. p. 122. 

52 BIBLE 30THS. 

was called the " Law-giver" and that it was said of Bacchus, as 
well as of Moses, that his laws were written on two table* of 
stone. 1 Bacchus was represented horned, and so was Moses. 8 
Bacchus " was picked up in a box, that floated on the water," 1 
and so was Moses. 4 Bacchus had two mothers, one by nature, and 
one by adoption, 6 and so had Moses. 6 And, as we have already 
seen, Bacchus and his army enjoyed the light of the Sun, during 
the night time, and Moses and his army enjoyed the light of "a 
pillar of fire, by night." 7 

In regard to the children of Israel going out from the land of 
Egypt, we have no doubt that such an occurrence took place, 
although not in the manner, and not for such reasons, as is recorded 
by the sacred historian. We find, from other sources, what is evi 
dently nearer the truth. 

It is related by the historian Choeremon, that, at one time, the 
land of Egypt was infested with disease, and through the advice of 
the sacred scribe Phritiphantes, the king caused the infected people 
(who were none other than the brick-making slaves, known as the 
children of Israel), to be collected, and driven out of the coun 

Lysimachiis relates that : 

" A. filthy disease broke out in Egypt, and the Oracle of A.mmon, being con 
sulted on the occasion, commanded the king to purify the land by driving out the 
Jews (who were infected with leprosy, &c.), a race of men who were hateful to 
the Gods." 9 The whole multitude of the people were accordingly collected and driven 
out into the wilderness." 

Diodorus Siculus* referring to this event, says : 

"In ancient times Egypt was afflicted with a great plague, which was attrib 
uted to the anger of God, on account of the multitude of foreigners in Egypt: 
by whom the rites of the native religion were neglected. The Egyptians accord 
ingly drove them out. The most noble of them went under Cadmus and Danaus 
to Greece, but the greater number followed Moses, a wise and valiant leader, to 
Palestine." 11 

1 Bell s Pantheon, vol. !. p. 122; and Hig- Exodus ii. 1-11. 
gins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19. 1 Exodus xiii. 20, 21. 

2 Ibid, and Dupuis : Origin of Religious Be- 8 See Prichard s Historical Records, p. 74 ; 
lief, p. 174. also Dunlap s Spirit Hist., p. 40; and Cory s An- 

3 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 190 ; Bell s Pantheon, cient Fragments, pp. 80, 81, for similar ac- 
vol. i. under " Bacchus ;" and Higgins: Anaca- counts. 

lypsis ii. 19. ""All persons afflicted with leprosy were 

considered displeasing in the pight of the Sun- 

6 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 191 ; Bell s Pantheon, god, by the Egyptians." (Dunlap : Spirit Hist 
vol. i. under "Bacchus;" and Higgina : p. 19, p. 40.) 

To1 - " 10 Prichard s Historical Records, p. 75. 

11 Ibid. p. 78. 


After giving the different opinions concerning the origin of the 
Jewish nation, Tacitus, the Kornan historian, says : 

" In this clash of opinions, one point seems to be universally admitted. A pesti 
lential disease, disfiguring the race of man, and making the body an object of 
loathsome deformity, spread all over Egypt. Bocchoris, at that time the reigning 
monarch, consulted the oracle of Jupiter Ilamrnon, and received for answer, that 
the kingdom must be purified, bv exterminating the infected multitude, as a rare 
of men detested by the gods. After diligent search, the wretched sufferers were 
collected together, and in a wild and barren desert abandoned to their misery. 
In that distress, while the vulgar herd was sunk in deep despair. Moses one of 
their number, reminded them, that, by the wisdom of his councils, they had been 
already rescued out of impending danger. Deserted as they were by men and 
gods, he told them, that if they did not repose their confidence in him, as their 
chief by divine commission, they had no resource left. His oiler was accepted. 
Their march began, they knew not whither. Want of water was their cliief 
distress. Worn out with fatigue, they lay stretched on the ban; earth, heart 
broken, ready to expire, when a troop of wild asses, returning from pasture, 
went up the steep ascent of a rock covered with a grove of trees. The verdure 
of the herbage round the place suggested the idea of springs near at hand. 
Moses traced the steps of the anrnals, and discovered a plentiful vein of water. 
By this relief the fainting multitude was raised from despair. They pursued 
their journey for six days without intermission. On the seventh day they made 
halt, and, having expelled the natives, took possession of the country, where 
they built their city, and dedicated their temple." 1 

Other accounts, similar to these, might be added, among which 
may be mentioned that given by Manetho, an Egyptian priest, which 
is referred to by Josephus, the Jewish historian. 

Although the accounts quoted above are not exactly alike, yet 
the main points are the same, which are to the effect that Egypt 
was infected with disease owing to the foreigners (among whom 
were those who were afterwards styled u the children of Israel 1 ) that 
were in the country, and who were an unclean people, and that they 
were accordingly driven out into the wilderness. 

When we compare this statement with that recorded in Genesis, 
it does not take long to decide which of the two is nearest the 

Everything putrid, or that had a tendency to putridity, was care 
fully avoided by the ancient Egyptians, and so strict were the 
Egyptian priests on this point, that they wore no garments made 
of any animal substance, circumcised themselves, and shaved 
their whole bodies, even to their eyebrows, lest they should un 
knowingly harbor any filth, excrement or vermin, supposed to be 
bred from putrefaction. 2 We know from the laws set down in 
Leviticus, that the Hebrews were not a remarkably clean race. 

1 Tacitus : Hist, book v. ch. iii. and Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 447. "The 

Knight : Anc t Art and Mythology, p. 89, cleanliness of the Egyptian priests was extreme. 


Jewish priests, in making a history for their race, have given 
us but a shadow of truth here and there ; it is almost wholly 
mythical. The author of " The Keligion of Israel," speaking on 
this subject, says : 

"The history of the religion of Israel must start from the sojourn of the 
Israelites in Egypt. Formerly it was usual to take a much earlier starting-point, 
and to begin with a religious discussion of the religious ideas of the Patriarchs. 
And this was perfectly right, so long as the accounts of Abraham, Isaac and 
Jacob were considered historical. But now that a strict investigation has shown us 
that all these stories are entirely unhistorical, of course we have to begin the his 
tory later on." 1 

The author of " The Spirit History of Man," says : 

"The Hebrews came out of Egypt and settled among the Canaanites. They 
need not be traced beyond the Exodus. That is their historical beginning. It was 
very easy to cover up this remote event by the recital of mythical traditions, 
and to prefix to it an account of their origin in which the gods (Patriarchs), 
should figure as their ancestors." 2 

Professor Goldzhier says : 

"The residence of the Hebrews in Egypt, and their exodus thence under the 
guidance and training of an enthusiast for the freedom of his tribe, form a series 
of strictly historical facts, which find confirmation even in the documents of 
ancient Egypt (which we have just shown). But the traditional narratives of 
these events (were) elaborated by the Hebrew people."* 

Count de Yolney also observes that : 

What Exodus says of their (the Israelites) servitude under the king of 
Heliopolis, and of the oppression of their hosts, the Egyptians, is extremely 
probable. It is here their history begins. All that precedes . . . is nothing but 
mythology and cosmogony."* 

In speaking of the sojourn of the Israelites in Egypt, Dr. Knap- 
pert says : 

"According to the tradition preserved in Genesis, it was the promotion of 
Jacob s sou, Joseph, to be viceroy of Egypt, that brought about the migration of 
the sons of Israel from Canaan to Goshen. The story goes that this Joseph was sold 
as a slave by bis brothers, and after many changes of fortune received the vice 
regal office at Pharaoh s hands through his skill in interpreting dreams. Famine 
drives his brothers and afterwards his father to him, and the Egyptian prince 
gives them the land of Goshen to live in. It is by imagining all this that the 

They shaved their heads, and every three days " Thinking it better to be clean than hand- 
shaved their whole bodies. They bathed two or some, the (Egyptian) priests shave their whole 
three times a day, often in the night also. They body every third day, that neither lice nor any 
>re garments of white linen, deeming it more other impurity may be found upon them when 
cleanly than cloth made from the hair of ani- engaged in the service of the gods. 11 (Herodo- 
mals. If they had occasion to wear a woolen tus : book ii. ch. 37.) 
cloth or mantle, they put it off before entering 1 The Religion of Israel, p 27. 
a temple ; so scrupulous were they that noth- a Dunlap : Spirit Hist, of Man, p. 266. 
ing impure should come into the presence of s Hebrew Mythology, p. 23. 
the gods." (Prog. Relig. Ideas, i. 168.) * Researches in Ancient History, p. 149. 


tyend !ries to account for the fact that Israel passed some time in Egypt. But we 
must look for the real explanation in a migration of certain tribes which could 
not establish or maintain themselves in Canaan, and were forced to move 
further on. 

"We find a passage in Flavius Joseplms, from which it appears that in 
Egypt, too, a recollection survived of the sojourn of some foreign tribes in the 
north-eastern district of the country. For this writer gives us two fragments 
out of a lost work by Maiietho, a priest, who lived about 2oO B. c. In one of 
these we have a statement that pretty nearly agrees with the Israelitish tradition 
about a sojourn in Goshen. But the Israelites were looked down on by tlie Egyp 
tians as foreigners, and they are represented as lepers and unclean. Moses himself 
is mentioned by name, and we are told that he was a priest and joined himself 
to these lepers and gave them laws." 1 

To return now to the story of the Red Sea being divided to let 
Moses and his followers pass through of which we have already 
seen one counterpart in the legend related of Bacchus and his army 
passing through the same. sea dry-shod there is another similar 
story concerning Alexander the Great. 

The histories of Alexander relate that the Pamphylian Sea was 
divided to let him and his army pass through. Josephus, after 
speaking of the Red Sea being divided for the passage of the 
Israelites, says : 

" For the sake of those who accompanied Alexander, king of Macedonia, who 
yet lived comparatively but a little while ago, the Pamphylian Sea retired and 
offered them a passage through itself, when they had no other way to go . . . 
and this is confessed to be true by all wJw have written about the actions of Alex 
ander." 1 

He seems to consider both legends of the same authority, 
quoting the latter to substantiate the former. 

" Callisthenes, who himself accompanied Alexander in the ex 
pedition," " wrote, how the Pamphylian Sea did not only open a 
passage for Alexander, but, rising and elevating its waters, did pay 
him homage as its king." 3 

It is related in Egyptian mythology that Isis was at one time on 
a journey with the eldest child of the king of Byblos, when coming 
to the river Phoedrus, which was in a " rough air," and wishing to 

1 The Religion of Israel, pp. 31, 32. by long-continued north winds; and Alexander, 

a Jewish Antiq. bk. ii. ch. xvi. taking advantage of such a moment, may have 

3 Ibid. note. dashed on without impediment ; and we accept 

"It was said that the waters of the Pam- the explanation as a matter of course. Cut the 

phylian Sea miraculously opened a passage for waters of the Red Sea are said to have miracu- 

the army of Alexander the Great. Admiral lously opened a passage for the children of 

Beaufort, however, tells us that, though there Israel ; and we insist on the literal truth of thi 

are no tides in this part of the Mediterranean, etory, and reject natural explanations aa mon- 

considerable depression of the sea is caused strous." (Matthew Arnold.) 


cross, she commanded the stream to be dried up. This being done 
she crossed without trouble. 1 

There is a Hindoo fable to the effect that when the infant 
Crishna was being sought by the reigning tyrant of Madura (King 
Kansa) 2 his foster-father took him and departed out of the country. 
Coining to the river Yumna, and wishing to cross, it was divided 
for them by the Lord, and they passed through. 

The story is related by Thomas Maurice, in his " History of 
riindostan," who has taken it from the Bhayavat Pooraun. It is 
as follows : 

" Yasodha took the child Oishna, and carried him off (from where he was 
born), but, coming- to the river Yumna, directly opposite to Gokul, Crishna s 
father perceiving the current to be very strong, it being in the midst of the rainy 
season, and not knowing which way to pass it, Crishna commanded the water to 
give way on both sides to his father, wlw accordingly passed dry-footed, across the 
river. " 3 

This incident is illustrated in Plate 58 of Moore s " Hindu 

There is another Hindoo legend, recorded in the Rig Veda, and 
quoted by Viscount Amberly, from whose work we take it, 4 to 
the effect that an Indian sage called Yisvimati, having arrived at a 
river which he wished to cross, that holy man said to it : " Listen 
to the Bard w r ho has come to you from afar with wagon and chariot. 
Sink down, become fordable, and reach not up to our chariot axles. 
The river answers: "I will bow down to thee like a woman with 
full breast (suckling her child), as a maid to a man, will I throw my 
self open to thee." 

This is accordingly done, and the sage passes through. 

We have also an Indian legend which relates that a courtesan 
named Bindumati, turned lack the streams of the river Ganges* 

We see then, that the idea of seas and rivers being divided 
for the purpose of letting some chosen one of God pass through^ 
is an old one peculiar to other peoples beside th - Hebrews, and 
the probability is that many nations had legends of this kind. 

That Pharaoh and his host should have been drowned in the 
Red Sea, and the fact not mentioned by any historian, is simply 
impossible, especially when they have, as we have seen, noticed the 
fact of the Israelites being driven out of Egypt. 6 Dr. Iirnau, 
speaking of this, says : 

1 See Prichard s Egyptian Mytho. p. 60. Analysis Relig. Belief, p. 552. 

See ch. xviii. See Hardy : Buddhist Legends, p. 140. 

8 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 312. In a cave discoyered at Deir-el-Bahar 


"We seek in vain amongst the Egyptian hieroglyphs for scenes which recall 
such cruelties as those we read of in the Hebrew records; and in the writings 
which have hitherto been translated, we find nothing resembling the wholesale 
destructions described and applauded by the Jewish historians, as perpetrated 
by their own people." 1 

That Pharaoh should have pursued a tribe of diseased slaves, 
whom he had driven out of his country, is altogether improbable. 
In the words of Dr. Knappert, we may conclude, by saying that : 

" This story, ichichwas not written until more titan Jive It H mind ycur* ofter the 
exodus it-self, can lay no claim to be considered historical. 

(Aug., 1881X near Thebes, in Egypt, was found colored and yellow linen of a texture finer than 

thirty-nint mummies of royal and priestly per- the finest Indian muslin, upon which lolus 

eouages. Among these was King Ram PCS II., flowers are strewn. It is in a perfect state of 

the third king of the Nineteenth Dynasty, and perservatiou. (See a Cairo [Aug. 8th] letter to 

the veritable Pharoah of the Jewish captivity. the London Times.) 
It is very strange that he should be here, among l Ancient FaithB, vol. ii. p. 58. 

a number of other kings, if he had been lost in 2 The Religion of Israel, p. 41. 

the Red Sea. The mummy is wrapped in rose- 



THE receiving of the Ten Commandments by Moses, fiom the 
Lord, is recorded in the following manner : 

"In the third month, when the children of Israel were gone forth o:it of the 
land of Egypt, the same clay came they into the wilderness of Sinai, . . . 
and there Israel camped before the Mount. . . . 

" And it came to pass on the third day that there were thunders and lightnings, 
and a thick cloud upon the Mount, and the voice of the tempest exceedingly 
loud, so that all the people that was in the camp trembled. . . . 

" And Mount tSiuai was altogether on a smoke, because the Lord descended 
upon it in fire, and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and 
the whole Mount quaked greatly. And when the voice of the tempest sounded 
long, and waxed louder and louder, Moses spake, and God answered him by a 

" And the Lord came down upon the Mount, and called Moses up to the top of 
the Mount, and Moses went up." 1 

The Lord there communed with him, and " he gave unto 
Moses .... two tables of testimony, tables of stone, written with 
the finger of God"* 

When Moses came down from off the Mount, he found the 
children of Israel dancing around a golden calf, which his brother 
Aaron had made, and, as his " anger waxed hot," he cast the tables 
of stone on the ground, and broke them. 3 Moses again saw the 
Lord on the Mount, however, and received two more tables of 
stone. 4 When he came down this time from off Mount Sinai, 
"the skin of his face did shine. 5 

1 Exodus six. called Chemmis, situated in the Thebaic dis- 

2 Exodus xxxi. 18. trict, near Ncapolis, in which is a quadrangular 

3 Exodus xxii. 19. temple dedicated to (the god) Perseus, son of 

4 Exodus xxxiv. (the Virgin) Danae ; palm-trees grow round it, 
6 l^id. and the portico is of stone, very spacious, and 
It was a common belief among ancient over it are placed two large stone statues. In 

Pagan nations that the gods appeared and this inclosure is a temple, and in it is placed a 

conversed with men. As an illustration we may statue of Perseus. The Chemmitse (or inhabi- 

cite the following, related by Herodotus, the tants of Chemmis), affirm that Perseus has fre- 

Grecian historian, who, in speaking of Egynt quently appeared to them on earth.and frequently 

and the Egyptians, says : " There is a large city within the temple." (Herodotus, bk. ii. ch. 91.) 


These two tables of stone contained the Ten Commandments? 
so it is said, which the Jews and Christians of the present day are 
supposed to take for their standard. 

They are, in substance, as follows : 

1 To have no other God but Jehovah. 

2 To make no image for purpose of worship. 

3 Not to take Jehovah s name in vain. 

4 Not to work on the Sabbath-day. 

5 To honor their parents. 

6 Not to kill. 

7 Not to commit adultery. 

8 Not to steal. 

9 Not to boar false witness against a neighbor. 
10 Not to covet. 3 

We have already seen, in the last chapter, that Bacchus was 
called the " Law-giver, " and that his laws were written on two 
tables of stone? This feature in the Hebrew legend was evi 
dently copied from that related of Bacchus, but, the idea of his 
(Moses) receiving the commandments from the Lord on a mountain 
was obviously taken from the Persian legend related of Zoroaster. 

Prof. Max M tiller says : 

"What applies to the religion of Moses applies to that of Zoroaster. It is 
placed before us as a complete system from the first, revealed by Ahuramazda 
(Ormuzd), proclaimed by Zoroaster."* 

The disciples of Zoroaster, in their profusion of legends of 
the master, relate that one day, as he prayed on a high mountain, 
in the midst of thunders and lightnings ("fire from heaven"), the 
Lord himself appeared before him, and delivered unto him the 
"Book of the Law." While the King of Persia and the people 
were assembled together, Zoroaster came down from the mountain 
unharmed, bringing with him the Book of the Law," which had 
been revealed to him by Ormuzd. They call this book the Zend- 
Avesta, which signifies the Living Word.* 

1 Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, had the Sabbath day. Honor your father and your 
TEN commandments. 1. Not to kill. 2. Not to mother. Commit no murder. Break not the 
steal. 3. To be chaste. 4 Not to bear false marriage vow. Steal not. Bear no false wit- 
witness. 5. Not to lie. 6. Not to swear. 7. ness. Covet not." (Bible for Learners, vol. i. 
To avoid impure words. 8. To be disinterested. p. 18.) 

9. Not to avenge one s-sclf. 10. Not to be sn- 3 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 1 2 2. Higgius, 

perstitious. (See Hue s Travels, p. 328, vol. i.) vol. ii. p. 19. Cox: Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 

* Exodus xx. Dr. Oort pays : " The original 2 l .)5. 

ten commandments probably ran as follows : I < Miiller : Origin of Religion, p. 130. 

Yahwah am your God. Worship no other " See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 257, 258. 

gods beside me. Make no image of a god. This book, the Zend-Ai^sta, is similar, in 

Commit no perjury. Remember to keep holy many respects, to the Vedas of the Hindoos. 


According to the religion of the Cretans, Minos, their . aw-giver, 
ascended a mountain (Mount Dicta) and there received from the 
Supreme Lord (Zeus) the sacred laws which he brought down with 
him. 3 

Almost all nations of antiquity have legends of their holy men 
ascending a mountain to ask counsel of the gods, such places 
being invested with peculiar sanctity, and deemed nearer to the 
deities than other portions of the earth. 2 

According to Egyptian belief, it is Thoth, the Deity itself, that 
speaks and reveals to his elect among men the will of God and the 
arcana of divine things. Portions of them are expressly stated 
to have been written by the very linger of Thoth himself ; to 
have been the work and composition of the great god. 3 

Diodorus, the Grecian historian, says : 

The idea promulgated by the ancient Egyptians that their lawn 
were received direct from the Most High God, has been adopted 
with success Ijy many other law-givers, who have thus insured re 
spect for their institutions* 

The Supreme God of the ancient Mexicans was Tezcatlipoca. 
He occupied a position corresponding to the Jehovah of the Jews, 
the Brahma of India, the Zeus of the Greeks, and the Odin of the 
Scandinavians. His name is compounded of Tezcatepec, the name 
of a mountain (upon which he is said to have manifested himself 
to man) tlil, dark, and poca, smoke. The explanation of this des 
ignation is given in the Codex Vatican us, as follows : 

This has led many to believe that Zoroaster " The offerings of the Chinese to the deities 

was a Brahman ; among these are Rawlinson were generally on the summits of high moun- 

(See Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 831) tains, as they seemed to them to be nearer 

and Thomas Maurice. (See Indian Antiquities, heaven, to the majesty of which they were to 

vol. ii. p. 219.) be offered. 1 (Christmas s Mytho. p. 250, in 

The Persians themselves had a tradition Ibid.) "In the infancy of civilization, high 

that he came from some country to the East places were chosen by the people to offer sac- 

of them. That he was a foreigner is indicated rifices to the gods. The first altars, the first 

by a passage in the Zend-Avesta which repre- temples, were erected on mountains." (Hum- 

eents Ormuzd as saying to him: " Thou, OZoro- boldt : American Researches.) The Himalayas 

aster, by the promulgation of my law, shalt are the "Heavenly mountains." In Sanscrit 

restore to me my former glory, which was pure Himala, corresponding to the M. Gothic. Hi- 

light. Up! haste thee to the land of Iran, mins ; Alem., Himil ; Ger., Swed., and Dan., 

which thirsteth after the law, and say, thus Ilimmel ; Old Norse, Himin ; Dutch, Hemel ; 

said Ormuzd, &c." (See Prog. Relig. Ideas, Ang.-Sax., Heofon; Eng., Heaven. (See Mal- 

vol. i. p. 263.) let s Northern Antiquities, p. 42.) 

1 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 301. 3 Bunsen s Egypt, quoted in Isis Unveiled, 

2 "The deities of the niudoo Pantheou vol. ii. p. 307. Mrs. Child says : " The laws of 
dwell on the sacred Mount Meru ; the gods of Egypt were handed down from the earliest 
Persia ruled from Albordj ; the Greek Jove times, and regarded with the utmost veneration 
thundered from Olympus; and the Scandina- as a portion of religion. Their first legislator 
vian gods made Asgard awful with their pres- represented them as dictated by the gods them- 

. Profane history is full of exam- selves, and framed expressly for the benefit of 

pies attesting the attachment to high places for mankind by their secretary Thoth. " (Prog. 

purpose of sacrifice." (Squire : Serpent Sym- Relig. Ideas vol. i. p. 173.) 
bols, p. 78.) 4 Quoted in Ibid. 


Tezcatlipoca was one of their most potent deities ; they say he 
once appeared on the top of a mountain. They paid him great 
reverence and adoration, and addressed him, in their prayers, as 
" Lord, whose servant we are." ~No man ever saw his face, for he 
appeared only " as a shade." Indeed, the Mexican idea of the 
godhead was similar to that of the Jews. Like Jehovah, Tezcat- 
lipoca dwelt in the " midst of thick darkness." When he descend 
ed upon the mount of Tezcatepec, darkness overshadowed the 
earth, while fire and water, in mingled streams, flowed from be 
neath his feet, from its summit. 1 

Thus, we see that other nations, beside the Hebrews, believed 
that their laws were actually received from God, that they had 
legends to that eilect, and that a mountain figures conspicuously 
in the stories. 

Professor Oort, speaking on this subject, says : 

" No one who has any knowledge of antiquity will be surprised at this, for 
similar beliefs were very common. All peoples who had issued from a life of 
barbarism and acquired regular political institutions, more or less elaborate 
laws, and established worship, and maxims of morality, attributed all this 
their birth as a nation, so to speak to one or more great men, all of whom, 
without exception, were supposed to have received their kuowledye from some deity. 

" Whence did Zoroaster, the prophet of the Persians, derive his religion? 
According to the beliefs of his followers, and the doctrines of their sacred writ 
ings, it was from Ahuramazda, the God of light. Why did the Egyptians repre 
sent the god Thoth with a writing tablet and a pencil in his hand, and honor him 
especially as the god of the priests? Because he was the Lord of the divine Word, 
the foundation of all wisdom, from whose inspiration the priests, who were the 
scholars, the lawyers, and the religious teachers of the people, derived all their 
wisdom. Was not Minos, the law-giver of the Cretans, the friend of Zeus, the 
highest of the gods? Nay, was he not even his son, and did he not ascend to the 
sacred cave on Mount Dicte to bring down the laws which his god had placed 
there for him? From whom did the Spartan law-giver, Lycurgus, himself say 
that he had obtained his laws? From no other. than the god Apollo. The Roman 
legend, too. in honoring Numa Pompilius as the people s instructor, at the same 
time ascribed all his wisdom to his intercourse with the nymph Egeria. It was 
the same elsewhere; and to make one more example, this from later times 
Mohammed not oni} believed himself to have been called immediately by God 
to be the prophet of the Arabs, but declared that he had received every page of 
the Koran from the hand of the angel Gabriel." 2 

1 See Squire s Serpent Symbol, p. 175. Bible for Learners, vol. I. p. 301. 



THIS Israelite hero is said to have been born at a time when the 
children of Israel were in the hands of the Philistines. His 
mother, who had been barren for a number of years, is entertained 
by an angel, who informs her that she shall conceive, and bear a 
son, 1 and that the child shall be a Nazarite unto God, from the 
womb, and he shall begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the 

According to the prediction of the angel, " the woman bore a 
son, and called his name Samson / and the child grew, and the 
Lord blessed him." 

"And Sainson (after he had grown to man s estate), went down to Timnath, 
and saw a woman in Timnath of the daughters of the Philistines. And he came 
up and told his father and his mother, and said, I have seen a woman in Timnath 
of the daughters of the Philistines; now therefore get her for me to wife." 

1 The idea of a woman conceiving, and bear 
ing a son in her old age, seems to have been a 
Hebrew peculiarity, as a number of their re 
markable personages were born, so it is said, of 
parents well advanced in years, or of a woman 
who was supposed to have been barren. As 
illustrations, we may mention this case of Sam 
son, and that of Joseph being born of Rachel. 
The beautiful Rachel, who was so much beloved 
by Jacob, her husband, was barren, and she 
bore him no sons. This caused grief and dis 
content on her part, and anger on the part of 
her husband. In her old age, however, she 
bore the wonderful child Joseph. (See Genesis, 
xxx. 1-29.) 

Isaac was born of a woman (Sarah) who had 
been barren many years. An angel appeared 
to her when her lord (Abraham) " was ninety 
years old and nine," and informed her that she 
would conceive and bear a son. (See Gen. xvi.) 

Samuel, the " holy man," was also born of 
a woman (Hannah) who had been barren many 
years. In grief, she prayed to the Lord for a 
child, and was finally comforted by replying 
her wish. (See 1 Samuel, i. 1-20.) 

John the Baptist was also a miraculously con 
ceived infant. His mother, Elizabeth, bore 

him in her old age. An angel also informed her 
and her husband Zacbariah, that this event 
would take place. (See Luke, i. 1-25.) 

Mary, the mother of Jesus, was born of a 
woman (Anna) who was " old and stricken in 
years," and who had been barren all her life. 
An angel appeared to Anna and her husband 
(Joachim), and told them what was about to 
take place. (See The Gospel of Mary," Apoc.) 

Thus we see, that the idea of a wonderful 
child being born of a woman who had passed 
the age which nature had destined for her to 
bear children, and who had been barren all her 
life, was a favorite one among the Hebrews. 
The idea that the ancestors of a race lived to a 
fabulous old age, is also a familiar one among 
the ancients. 

Most ancient nations relate in their fables 
that their ancestors lived to be very old men. 
For instance ; the Persian patriarch Kaiomaras 
reigned 560 years ; Jemshid reigned 300 years ; 
Jahmurash reigned 700 years ; Dahak reigned 
1000 years ; Feridun reigned 120 years ; Manu- 
geher reigned 500 years ; Kaikans reigned 150 
years ; and Bahaman reigned 112 years. (See 
Dunlap : Son of the Man, p. 155, note.) 


Samson s father and mother preferred that he should take a 
woman among the daughters of their own tribe, but Samson wished 
for the maid of the Philistines, "for," said he, "she pleaseth me 

The parents, after coming to the conclusion that it was the will 
of the Lord, that he should marry the maid of the Philistines, 

" Then went Samson down, and bis father and his mother, to Timnath, and 
came to the vineyards of Timnuth, and, behold, a young lion roared against him 
(Samson). And the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him, and he rent 
him (the lion) as he would have rent a kid, and he had nothing in his baud." 

This was Samson s first exploit, which he told not to any one, 
not even his father, or his mother. 

He then continued on his way, and went down and talked with 
the woman, and she pleased him well. 

And, after a time, he returned to take her, and he turned aside 
to see the carcass of the lion, and behold, " there was a swarm of 
bees, and honey, in the carcass of the lion." 

Samson made a feast at his wedding, which lasted for seven 
days. At this feast, there were brought thirty companions to be 
with him, unto whom he said : " I will now put forth a riddle 
unto you, if ye can certainly declare it me, within the seven days 
of the feast, and find it out, then I will give you thirty sheets, 
and thirty changes of garments. But, if ye cannot declare it 
me, then shall ye give me thirty sheets, and thirty changes of gar 
ments." And they said unto him, "Put forth thy riddle, that we 
may hear it." And he answered them : " Out of the eater came 
forth meat, and out of the strong came forth sweetness." 

This riddle the thirty companions could not solve. 

" And it came to pass, on the seventh day, that they said unto 
Samson s wife : Entice thy husband, that he may declare unto 
us the riddle. " 

She accordingly went to Samson, and told him that lie could not 
love her ; if it were so, he would tell her the answer to the riddle. 
After she had wept and entreated of him, he finally told her, and she 
gave the answer to the children of her people. " And the men of 
the city said unto him, on the seventh day, before the sun went 
down, 4 What is sweeter than honey, and what is stronger than a 
lion? " 

Samson, upon hearing this, suspected how they managed to find 
out the answer, whereupon he said unto them: "If ye had not 
ploughed with my heifer, ye had not found out my riddle " 


Samson was then at a loss to know where to get the thirty 
sheets, and the thirty changes of garments ; but, " the spirit of the 
Lord came upon him, and he went down to Ashkelon, and slew 
thirty men of them, and took their spoil, and gave change of gar 
ments unto them which expounded the riddle." 

This was the hero s second exploit. 

His anger being kindled, he went up to his father s house, in 
stead of returning to his wife. 1 I>at ic came to pass, that, after a 
while, Samson repented of his actions, and returned to his wife s 
house, and wished to go in to his wife in the chamber ; but her 
father would not suffer him to go. And her father said : " I 
verily thought that thou hadst utterly hated her, therefore, I gave 
her to thy companion. Is not her younger sister fairer than she ? 
Take her, I pi-ay thee, instead of her/ 

This did not seem to please Samson, even though the younger 
was fairer than the older, for he " went and caught three hundred 
foxes, and took firebrands, and turned (the foxes) tail to tail, and 
put a firebrand in the midst between two tails. And when he had 
set the brands on fire, lie let them go into the standing corn of the 
Philistines, and burned up both the shocks and also the standing 
corn, with the vineyards and olives." 

This was Samson s third exploit. 

When the Philistines found their corn, their vineyards, and 
their olives burned, they said: " Who hath done this?" 

" And they answered, Samson, the son-in-law of the Timnite, because lie bad 
taken bis wife, and given her to bis companion. And tbe Philistines came up, 
and burned her and her father with fire. And Samson said unto them: Though 
ye have done this, yet will I be avenged of you, and after that I will cease. And 
lie smote them hip and thigh with a great slaughter, and he went and dwelt in the 
top of the rock Etam." 

This " great slaughter " was Samson s fourth exploit. 

" Then tbe Philistines went up, and pitched in Judah, and spread themselves 
in Lehi. And the men of Judah said: Why are ye come up against us? And 
they answered: To bind Samson are we come up, and to do to him as he hath 
done to us. Then three thousand men of Judah went up to the top of the 
rock Etam, and said to Samson: Knowest thou not that the Philistines are 
rulers over us? What is this that thou hast done unto us ? And he said 
unto them: As they did unto me, so have I done unto them. And they 
said unto him: We are come down to bind thee, that we may deliver thee 
into tbe bands of the Philistines. And Samson said unto them: Swear 
unto me that ye will not fall upon me yourselves. And they spake unto him, 
saying, No; but we Avill bind thee fast, and deliver thee into their bands: but 
surely we will not kill thee. And they bound him with two new cords, and 

1 Judges, xiv. 


bi ought him up from the rock. And when he came unto Lchi, the Philistines 
shouted against him; and the spirit of the Lord came mightily upon him, and 
the cords that were upon his arms baoa/ne as Jinx that was burned with Jire, and his 
bands loosed from off Jus hands. And he found a new jaw-bone of an ass, and put 
forth his hand and took it, and slew a thousand men with it." 

This was Samson s Jij tft exploit. 

After slaying a thousand men he was " sore athirst," and called 
unto the Lord. And "God clave a hollow place that was in the 
jaw, and there came water thereout, and when he had drunk, his 
spirit came again, and he revived." 1 

" Then went Samson to Gaza and saw there a harlot, and went in unto her. 
And it was told the Ga/ites, saying, Samson is come hither. And they com 
passed him in, and laid wait for him all night in the gate of the city, and were 
quiet all the night, saying: In the morning, when it is day, we shall kill him. 
And Samson lay (with the harlot) till midnight, and arose at midnight, and took 
the doors of the gate of the city, and the two posts, and went away with them, 
bar and all, and put them upon his shoulders, and carried them up to the top of 
a hill that is in Hebron." 

This was Samson s si cth exploit. 

"And it came to pass afterward, that he loved a woman in the valley of 
Soreck, whose name was Delilah. And the lords of the Philistines came up unto 
her, and said unto her: Entice him, and see wherein his great strength lieth, 
and by what means we may prevail against him. " 

Delilah then began to entice Samson to tell her wherein his 
strength lay. 

" She pressed him daily with her words, and urged him, so that his soul was 
vexed unto death. Then he told her all his heart, and said unto her: There 
hath not come a razor upon mine head, for I have been a Nazarite unto God from 
iny mother s womb. If I be shaven, then my strength will go from me, and I 
shall become weak, and be like any other man. And when Delilah saw that he 
had told her all his heart, she went and called for the lords of the Philistines, 
saying: Come up this once, for he hath showed me all his heart. Then the 
lords of the Philistines came up unto her, and brought money in their hands 
(for her). 

"And she made him (Samson) sleep upon her knees; and she called for a 
man, and she caused him to shave off the seven locks of his head; and she began 
to afflict him, and his strength went from him." 

The Philistines then took him, put out his eyes, and put him 
in piison. And being gathered together at a great sacrifice in honor 
of their God, Dagon, they said : k% Call for Samson, that he may 
make us sport." And they called for Samson, and he made them 

" And Samson said unto the lad that held him by the hand, Suiter me that I 
may feel the pillars whereupon the house standeth, that I may lean upon them. 

1 Judges, xv. 


" Now the house was full of men and women; and all the lords of the Philis 
tines were there; and there were upon the roof about three thousand men and 
women, that beheld while Samson made sport. 

" And Damson called unto the Lord, and said: O Lord God, remember me, 
I pray thee, and strengthen me, I pray thee, only this once, O God, that I may 
be at once avenged of the Philistines for my two eyes. 

" And Samson took hold of the two middle pillars upon which the house 
stood and on which it was borne up, of the one with his right hand, and of the 
other with his left. And Samson said: Let me die with the Philistines. And 
he bowed himself with all his might; and (having regained his strength) the 
house fell upon the lords, and upon the people that were therein. So the dead 
which he slew at his death, were more than they which he slew in his life." 1 

Thu* ended the career of the " strong man " of the Hebrews. 

That this story is a copy of the legends related of Hercules, or 
that they have both been copied from similar legends existing 
among some other nations, 9 is too evident to be disputed. Many 
churchmen have noticed the similarity between the history of 
Samson and that of Hercules. In Chambers s Encylopsedia, undei 
" Samson," we read as follows : 

"It has been matter of most contradictory speculations, how far his existence 
is to be taken as a reality, or, in other words, what substratum of historica. 
truth there may be in this supposed circle of popular legends, artistically rounded 
off, in the four chapters of Judges which treat of him. . . . 

"The miraculous deeds he performed have taxed the ingenuity of many 
commentators, and the text has been twisted and turned in all directions, to 
explain, rationally, his slaying those prodigious numbers single-handed; his 
carrying the gates of Gaza, in one night, a distance of about fifty miles, &c., &c." 

That this is simply a Solar myth, no one will doubt, we believe, 
who will take the trouble to investigate it. 

Prof. Goldziher, who has made " Comparative Mythology " 
a special study, says of this story : 

"The most complete and rounded-off Solar myth extant in Hebrew, is that 
of Shimshon (Samson), a cycle of mythical conceptions fully comparable with 
the Greek myth of Hercules." 3 

We shall now endeavor to ascertain if such is the case, by 
comparing the exploits of Samson with those of Hercules. 

The first wonderful act performed by Samson was, as we have 
seen, that of slaying a lion. This is said to have happened when 
he was but a youth. So likewise was it with Hercules. At the 
age of eighteen, he slew an enormous lion. 4 

The valley of Nemea was infested by a terrible lion ; Eurystheus 
ordered Hercules to bring him the skin of this monster. After 

xv. 3 Hebrew Mythology, p. 248. 

a Perhaps that of Izdubar. See chapter xi. * Manual of Mythology, p. 248. The Age of 

Fable, p. 200. 


using in vain his club and arrows against the lien, Hercules 
strangled the animal with his hands. He returned, carrying the 
dead lion on his shoulders ; but Eurystheus was so frightened at 
the sight of it, and at this proof of the prodigious strength of the 
hero, that he ordered him to deliver the accounts of his exploits in 
the future outside the town. 1 

To show the courage of Hercules, it is said that he entered the 
cave where the lion s lair was, closed the entrance behind him, and 
at once grappled with the monster. 3 

Samson is said to have torn asunder the jaws of the lion, and 
we find him generally represented slaying the beast in that manner. 
So likewise was this the manner in which Hercules disposed of the 
Nemean lion. 8 

The skin of the lion, Hercules tore off with his fingers, and 
knowing it to be impenetrable, resolved to wear it henceforth. 4 
The statues and paintings of Hercules either represent him carrying 
the lion s skin over his arm, or wearing it hanging down his back, 
the skin of its head fitting to his crown like a cap, and the fore-legs 
knotted under his chin. 5 

Samson s second exploit was when he went down to Ashkelon 
and slew thirty men. 

Hercules, when returning to Thebes from the lion-hunt, and 
wearing its skin hanging from his shoulders, as a sign of his suc 
cess, met the heralds of the King of the Minyae, coming from 
Orchomenos to claim the annual tribute of a hundred cattle, levied 
on Thebes. Hercules cut off the ears and noses of the heralds, 
bound their hands, and sent them home. 

Samson s third exploit was when he caught three hundred foxes, 
and took fire-brands, and turned them tail to tail, and put a fire 
brand in the midst between two tails, and let them go into the 
standing corn of the Philistines. 

There is no such feature as this in the legends of Hercules, the 
nearest to it in resemblance is when he encounters and kills the 
Learnean Hydra. 7 During this encounter a fire-brand figures 
conspicuously, and tlie neighboring wood is set on fire* 

1 Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 200. T " It haa many heads, one being immortal, 

Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 249. as the Btormmust constantly supply new clouds 
1 Roman Antiquities, p. 134 ; and Mont- while the vapors are driven off by the Sun 

faucon, vol. i. plate cxxvi. into space. Ilence the story went that although 

4 Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 249. Herakles could burn away its mortal heaJp, aa 

See Ibid. Greek and Italian Mythology, p. the Sun burns up the clouds, still he can but 
129, and Montfaucon, vol. i. plate cxxv. and hide away the mist or vapor itself, which at it 
cxxvi. appointed time must again darken tho sky." 

Manual of Mythology, p. 247. (Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 48.) 

See Manual of Mytho., p. 250. 


We have, however, an explanation of this portion of the legend, 
in the following from Prof. Steinthal : 

At the festival of Ceres, held at Rome, in the month of April, 
a fox-hunt through the circus was indulged in, in which burning 
torches were bound to the foxes tails. 

This was intended to be a symbolical reminder of the damage 
done to the fields by mildew, called the " red fox" which was ex 
orcised in various ways at this momentous season (the last third of 
April). It is the time of the Dog-Star, at which the mildew was 
most to be feared ; if at that time great solar heat follows too close 
upon the hoar-frost or dew of the cold nights, this mischief rages 
like a burning fox through the corn-fields. 1 

Tie also says that : 

" This is the sense of the story of the foxes, which Samson caught and sent 
into the Philistines fields, with fire-brands fastened to their tails, to burn the 
crops. Like the lion, the fox is an animal that indicated the solar heat, being 
w r ell suited for this both by its color and by its long-haired tail." 2 

Eouchart, in his " Ilierozoicon," observes that : 

" At this period (L e., the last third of April) they cut the corn in Palestine 
and Lower Egypt, and a few days after the setting of the Hyads arose the Fax, 
in whose train or tail comes the fires or torches of the dog-days, represented 
among the Egyptians by red marks painted on the backs of their animals. " 3 

Count de Volney also tells us that : 

"The inhabitants of Carseoles, an ancient city of Latium, every year, in a 
religious festival, burned a number of foxes with torches tied to their tails. They 
gave, as the reason for this whimsical ceremony, that their corn had been former 
ly burnt by a fox to whose tail a young man had fastened a bundle of lighted 

straw." 4 

He concludes his account of this peculiar " religious festival," 
by saying : 

" This is exactly the story of Samson with the Philistines, but it is a Pheni- 
cian tale. Car-Seol is a compound word in that tongue, signifying town of foxes. 
The Philistines, originally from Egypt, do not appear to have had any colonies. 
The Phenicians had a great many ; and it can scarcely be admitted that they 
borrowed this story from the Hebrews, as obscure as the Druses are in our own 
times, or that a simple adventure gave rise to a religious ceremony; it evidently 
can only be a mythological and allegorical narration." 4 

So much, then, for the foxes and fire-brands. 
Samson s fourth exploit was when he smote the Philistines 
" hip and thigh," " with great slaughter." 

1 Steinthal: The Legend of Samson, p. 398. 3 Quoted by Count de Volney: Researches 
See, also, Biggins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 240, in Ancient History, p. 42, note. 

and Volney: Researches in Anc t History, p. 42. * Volney : Researches in Ancient History, 

2 Ibid - p. 42. 


It is related of Hercules that he had a combat with an army of 
Centaurs, who were armed wit!* pine sticks, rocks, axes, &c. 
They Hocked in wild confusion, and surrounded the cave of 
Pholos, where Hercules was, when a violent fight ensued. Hercules 
was obliged to contend against this large armed force single-handed, 
but he came off victorious, and slew a great number of them. 1 
Hercules also encountered and fought against an army of giants, 
at the Phlegraean fields, near Cumae. 2 

Samson s next wonderful exploit was when " three thousand men 
of Judah " bound him with cords and brought him up into Lehi, 
when the Philistines \vere about to take his life. The cords with 
which he was bound immediately became as ilax, and loosened 
from off his hands. He then, with the jaw-bone of an ass, slew one 
thousand Philistines. 3 

A very similar feature to this is found in the history of Her 
cules. He is made prisoner by the Egyptians, who wish to take 
his life, but while they are preparing to slay him, he breaks loose 
his bonds having been tied with cords and kills Buseris, the 
leader of the band, and the whole retinue. 

On another occasion, being refused shelter from a storm at Kos, 
he was enraged at the inhabitants, and accordingly destroyed the 
whole town? 

Samson, after he had slain a thousand Philistines, was u sore 
athirst," and called upon Jehovah, his father in heaven, to succor 
him, whereupon, water immediately gushed forth from "a hollow 
place that was in the jaw-bone." 

Hercules, departing from the Indies (or rather Ethiopia), and 
conducting his army through the desert of Lybia, feels a burning 
thirst, and conjures Ihou, his father, to succor him in his danger. 

1 See Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 251. 230; Montfaucon : L Antiquite Expliqoee, 

" The slaughter of the Centaurs by Hercules vol. i. p. 213, and Murray: Manual of Mythol- 

is the conquest and dispersion of the vapors ogy, pp. 2r>9-262. 

by the Kun as he rises in the heaven." (Cox: It is evident that Herodotus, the Grecian 
Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 47.) historian, was somewhat of a skeptic, for he 
a Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 257. says: "The Grecians suy that When Hercules 
3 Shamgar also slew six hundred Philistines arrived in Egypt, the Egyptians, having crown- 
with an ox-goad. (See Judges, iii. 31.) ed him with a garland, led him in procession, 
" It is scarcely necessary to eay that these as designing co sacrifice him to Jupiter, and 
weapons are the heritage of all the, S o/a/ 1 heroes, (hat for some time he remained quiet, bur, 
that they are found in the hands of Phebus and when they began the preparatory ceremonies 
Herakles, of (Edipus. Achilleus, Philoktetes, of upon him at the altar, he set about defending 
Sigimrd, Rui*tem, Indra, Isfendujar, of Tele himself and slew every one of them. Now, 
phos, Melcagros, Theseus, Kadmos, Bellero eince Hercules was but one. and, besides, a 
phon, and all other slayers of noxious and mere man, as they confess, how is it possible 
fearful things." (Rev. Geo. Cox: Tales of that he should slay many thousands?" (Herod- 
Ancient Greece, p. xxvii.) otus, book ii. ch. 45). 

See Volney: Researches in Ancient His. Murray: Manual of Mythology, p. 263. 
tory, p. 41. Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 



Instantly the (celestial) Earn appears. Hercules follows him and 
arrives at a place where the Ram scrapes with his foot, and there 
instantly comes forth a spring of water. 1 

Samson s sixth exploit happened when he went to Gaza to 
visit a harlot. The Gazites, who wished to take his life, laid wait 
for him all night, but Samson left the town at midnight, and took 
with him the gates of the city, and the two posts, on his shoulders. 
He carried them to the top of a hill, some fifty miles away, and left 
them there. 

This story very much resembles that of the " Pillars of Her 
cules," called the " Gates of Cadiz."* 

Count de Yolney tells us that : 

" Hercules was represented naked, carrying on his shoulders two columns 
called the Gates of Cadiz." 3 

" The Pillars of Hercules" was the name given by the ancients 
to the two rocks forming the entrance or gate to the Mediterranean 
at the Strait of Gibraltar. 4 Their erection was ascribed by the 
Greeks to Hercules, on the occasion of his journey to the kingdom 
of Geryon. According to one version of the story, they had been 

united, but Hercules 
tore them asunder.* 

Fig. No. 3 is a rep 
resentation of Hercules 
with the two posts or 
pillars on his shoulders, 
as alluded to by Count 
de Volney. We have 
taken it fromMontfau- 
con s " L Antiquite Ex- 
pliquee." 9 

J. P. Lundy says of 
this : 

1 Volney: Kesearches in Anc t History, pp. 

In Bell s " Pantheon of the Goda and Demi- 
Gods of Antiquity," we read, under the head 
of Amman or Ilammon (the name of the 
Egyptian Jupiter, worshiped under the figure 
of a l?am\ that: " Bacchus having subdued 
Asia, and passing with his army through 
the deserts of Africa, was in great want of 
water; but Jupiter, his father, assuming the 
shape of a Ram, led him to a fountain, where 
he refreshed himself and his army ; in re 
quital of which favor, Bacchus built there a 

temple to Jupiter, under the title of Ammon." 
a Cadiz (ancient Gades), being situated near 
the mouth of the Mediterranean. The first 
author who mentions the Pillars of Hercules is 
Pindar, and he places them there. (Charn- 
bers s Encyclo. "Hercules.") 

3 Volney s Researches, p. 41. See also 
Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 357. 

4 See Chambers s Encyclopedia, Art "Her 
cules." Cory s Ancient Fragments, p. 36, note; 
and Bulfinch: The Age of Fable, p. 201. 

6 Chambers s Encyclo., art. "Hercules." 
6 Vol. i. plate cxxvii. 


" Hercules carrying his two columns to erect at the Straits of Gibraltar, 
may have some reference to the Hebrew story." 1 

We think there is no doubt of it. By changing the name Her 
cules into Samson, the legend is complete. 

Sir William Drummond tells us, in his " (Edipus Judaicus," 
that : 

" Gaza signifies a Goat, and was the type of the Sun in Capricorn. The Gates 
of the Sun were feigned by the ancient Astronomers to be in Capricorn and 
Cancer (that is, in Gaza), from which signs the tropics are named. Samson 
carried away the gates from Gaza to Hebron, the city of conjunction. Now, 
Count Gebelin tells us that at Cadiz, where Hercules was anciently worshiped, 
there was a representation of him, with a gate on his shoulders." 2 

The stories of the amours of Samson with Delilah and other 
females, are simply counterparts of those of Hercules with Omphale 
and lole. Montfaucon, speaking of this, says : 

" Nothing is better known in the fables (related of Hercules) than his amours 
with Omphale and lole." 3 

Prof. Steinthal says : 

The circumstance that Samson is so addicted to sexual pleasure, has its origin 
In the remembrance that the Solar godia the god of fruitfulness and procreation. 
"We have as examples, the amours of Hercules and Ornphale; Niuyas, in Assyria, 
with Semiramis; Samson, in Philistia, with Delila, whilst among the Pheuicians, 
Melkart pursues Dido-Anna." 4 

Samson is said to have had long hair. " There hath not come a 
razor upon my head," says he, " for I have been a Nazarite unto 
God from my mother s womb." 

Kow, strange as it may appear, Hercules is said to have had long 
hair also, and he was often represented that way. In Montfaucon s 
" L Antiquite Expliquee " 5 may be seen a representation of Her 
cules with hair reaching almost to his waist. Almost all Sun-gods 
are represented thus. 8 

Prof. Goldzhier says : 

"Long locks of hair and a long beard are mythological attributes of the Sun. 
The Sun s rays are compared with locks of hair on the face or head of the Sun. 

1 Monumental Christianity, p. 399. from representations of the Sun-god amongst 

a (Ed. Jud. p. 300, in Anacalypsis, vol. I. other peoples. These long hairs are the rays 

p. 239. of the Sun." (Bible for Learners, i. 410.) 

"Rien de plus connu dans la fable que The beauty of the sun s rays is signified 

Bee amours avec Omphale et lole." L Anti- by the golden locks of Phoibos, over which no 

quite Expliquee, vol. i. p. 224. razor has ever passed ; by the flowing hair 

4 The Legend of Samson, p. 404. which streams from the head of Kephalos, 

6 Vol. i. plate cxxvii. and falls over the shoulders of Perseus and 

" Samson was remarkable for his long Bellerophon." (Cox: Aryan Mytho., voL 1. 

hair. The meaning of this trait in the orig- p. 107.) 

liial myth is easy to guess, and appears also 


"When the sun sets and leaves his place to the darkness, or when the 
powerful Summer Sun is succeeded by the weak rays of the Winter Sun, then 
Samson s long locks, in which alone his strength lies, are cut off through the 
treachery of his deceitful concubine, Delilah, the languishing, languid, accord 
ing to the meaning of the name (Delilah). The Beaming Apollo, moreover, is 
called the Unshaven ; and Minos cannot conquer the solar hero Nisos, till the 
latter loses his golden hair." 1 

Through the influence of Delilah, Samson is at last made a 
prisoner. He tells her the secret of his strength, the seven locks 
of hair are shaven off, and his strength leaves him. The shearing 
of the locks of the Sun must be followed by darkness and ruin. 

From the shoulders of Phoibos Lykegenes flow the sacred 
locks, over which no razor might pass, and on the head of ISTisos 
they become a palladium, invested with a mysterious power. 3 
The long locks of hair which flow over his shoulders are taken 
from his head by Skylla, while he is asleep, and, like another Deli- 
lah, she thus delivers him and his people into the power of 
Minos. 8 

Prof. Steinthal says of Samson : 

"His hair is a figure of increase and luxuriant fullness. In Winter, when 
nature appears to have lost all strength, the god of growing young life has lost 
his hair. In the Spring the hair grows again, and nature returns to life again. 
Of this original conception the Bible story still preserves a trace. Samson s hair, 
after being cut off, grows again, and his strength comes back with it." 4 

Towards the end of his career, Samson s eyes are put out. 
Even here, the Hebrew writes with a singular iidclity to the old 
mythical speech. The tender light of evening is blotted out by the 
dark vapors ; the light of the Sun is quenched in gloom. Sam 
son s eyes are put out. 

(Edipus, whose history resembles that of Samson and Hercules 
in many respects, tears out his eyes, towards the end of his career. 
In other words, the Sun has blinded himself. Clouds and dark 
ness have closed in about him, and the clear light is blotted out of 
the heaven. 5 

The linal act, Samson s death, reminds us clearly and decisively 
of the Phenician Hercules, as Sun-god, who died at the Winter 
Solstice in the furthest West, where his two pillars are set up to 
mark the end of his wanderings. 

Samson also died at the two pillars, but in his case they are 
not the Pillars of the World, but are only set up in the middle 
of a great banqueting-hall. A feast was being held in honor of 

1 Hebrew Mytho., pp. 137, 138. 4 The Legend of Samson, p. 408. 

a Cox : Aryan Myths, vol.i. p. 84. 6 Cox: Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 72. 

1 Tales of Ancient Greece, p. xxix. 


Dagon, the Fish-god ; the Sun was in the sign of the "Waterman, 
Sam,son, the Sun-god, died. 1 

The ethnology of the name of Samson, as well as his adven 
tures, are very closely connected with the Solar Hercules. " Sam 
son " was the name oftlie Sun? In Arabic, " Shaim-on " means the 
Sun? Samson had seven locks of hair, the number of the plan 
etary bodies. 4 

The author of " The Keligion of Israel," speaking of Samson, 
says : 

" The story of Samson and his deeds originated in a Solar myth, which was 
afterwards transformed by the narrator into a saga about a mighty hero and 
deliverer of Israel. The very name Samson/ is derived from the Hebrew word, 
and means Sun. The hero s flowing locks were originally the rays of the sun, 
and other traces of the old myth have been preserved." 8 

Prof. Oort says : 

" The story of Samson is simply a solar myth. In some of the features of 
the story the original meaning may be traced quite clearly, but in others the 
myth can no longer be recognized. The exploits of some Danite hero, such as 
Shamgar, who slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad (Judges iii. 31), 
have been woven into it; the v;hole has been remodeled after the ideas of the 
prophets of later ages, and finally, it has been fitted into the framework of the 
period of the Judges, as conceived by the writer of the book called after them." 6 

Again he says : 

"The myth that lies at the foundation of this story is a description of the 
sun s course during the six winter months. The god is gradually encompassed 
by his enemies, mist and darkness. At first he easily maintains his freedom, 
and gives glorious proofs of his strength; but the fetters grow stronger and 
stronger, until at last he is robbed of his crown of rays, and loses all his power 
and glory. /Such in the Sun in Winter. But he has not lost his splendor forever. 
Gradually his strength returns, at last he reappears; and though he still seems to 
allow himself to be mocked, yet the power of avenging himself has returned, 
and in the end he triumphs over his enemies once more." 1 

Other nations beside the Hebrews and Greeks had their 
wt mighty men" and lion-killers. The Hindoos had their Samson. 
His name was Bala-Rama, the " Strong Rama" He was con 
sidered by some an incarnation of Vishnu. 8 

1 The Legend of Samson, p. 406. 8 Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 237, and 

3 See Higgins: Anacalypsis. vol. i. p. 237. Volney s Researches, p. 43, note. 

Goldzhier: Hebrew Mythology, p. 22. The * See chapter ii. 

Religion of Israel, p. 61. The Bible for The Religion of Israel, p. 61. " The yellow 

Learners, vol. i. p. 418. Volney s Ruins, p. hair of Apollo was a symbol of the solar 

41, and Stanley: History of the Jewish Church, rays." (Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 

where he says: "His name, which Josephus 679.) 

interprets in the sense of strong, was still 6 Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 414. 

more characteristic. He was the Sunny 7 Ibid, p. 422. 

the bright and beaming, though wayward, like- 8 Williams Hinduism, pp. 103 and 167. 

ness of the great luminary." 


Captain Wilford says, in " Asiatic Eesearches : " 

"The Indian Hercules, according to Cicero, was called Belus. He is the 
same as Bala, the brother of Crishna, and both are conjointly worshiped at 
Mutra; indeed, they are considered as one Avatar or Incarnation of Vishnou. 
Bala is represented as a stout man, with a club in his hand. He is also called 
Bala-rama." 1 

There is a Hindoo legend which relates that Sevah had an enr 
counter with a tiger, " whose mouth expanded like a cave, and 
whose voice resembled thunder." He slew the monster, and, like 
Hercules, covered himself with the skin. 2 

The Assyrians and Lydians, both Semitic nations, worshiped 
a Sun-god named Sandan or Sandon. He also was believed to 
be a lion-kitte-r, and frequently figured struggling with the lion, 
or standing upon the slain lion. 3 

Nineviih, too, had her mighty hero and king, who slew a lion 
and other monsters. Layard, in his excavations, discovered a las- 
relief representation of this hero triumphing over the lion and 
wild bull. 4 

The Ancient Babylonians had a hero lion-slayer, Izdubar by 
name. The destruction of the lion, and other monsters, by Izdu 
bar, is often depicted on the cylinders and engraved gems belong 
ing to the early Babylonian monarchy. 5 

Izdubar is represented as a great or mighty man, who, in the 
early days after the flood, destroyed wild animals, and conquered 
a number of petty kings. 8 

Izdubar resembles the Grecian hero, Hercules, in other re 
spects than as a destroyer of wild animals, &c. We are told 
that he " wandered to the regions where gigantic composite mon 
sters held and controlled the rising and setting sun, from these 
learned the road to the region of the blessed, and passing across a 
great waste of land, he arrived at a region where splendid trees 
were laden with jewels" 7 

He also resembles Hercules, Samson, and other solar-gods, in 
the particular of long flowing locks of hair. In the Babylonian 
and Assyrian sculptures he is always represented with a marked 
physiognomy, and always indicated as a man with masses of curls 
over Jds head and a large curly beard. 8 

1 Vol. v. p. 270. e Smith: Assyrian Discoveries, p. 167, and 

Maurice: Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 174. 

8 Assyrian Discoveries, p. 205, and Chal- 
8 Steinthal : The Legend of Samson, p. dean Account of Genesis, p. 174. 

7 Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 810. 
4 Buckley: Cities of the World, 41, 42. 8 Ibid, pp. 193, 194, 174. 



Here, evidently, is the Babylonian legend of Hercules. He too 
was a wanderer, going from the furthest East to the furthest West. 
He crossed " a great waste of land " (the desert of Lybia), visited 
" the region of the blessed," where there were "splendid trees laden 
with jewels " (golden apples). 

The ancient Egyptians had their Hercules. According to 
Herodotus, he was known several thousand years before the Gre 
cian hero of that name. This the Egyptians affirmed, and that lie 
was born in their country. 1 

The story of Hercules was known in the 
Island of Thasos, by the Phenician colony 
settled there, live centuries before he was 
known in Greece. 2 Fig. No. 4 is from an 
ancient representation of Hercules in con 
flict with the lion, taken from Gorio. 

Another mighty hero was the Grecian 
Bellerophon. The minstrels sang of the 
beauty and the great deeds of Bellerophon 
throughout all the land of Argos. His arm 
was strong in battle; his feet were swift in 
the chase. None that were poor and weak 
and wretched feared the might of Beller 
ophon. To them the sight of his beautiful 
form brought only joy and gladness ; but the proud and boastful, 
the slanderer and the robber, dreaded the glance of his keen eye. 
For a long time he fought the Solymi and the Amazons, until 
all his enemies shrank from the stroke of his mighty arm, and 
sought for mercy. 8 

The second of the principal gods of the Ancient Scandinavians 
was named Thor, and was no less known than Odin among the Teu 
tonic nations. The Edda calls him expressly the most valiant of the 
sons of Odin. He was considered the " defender " and " avenger" 
He always carried a mallet, which, as often as he discharged it, 
returned to his hand of itself ; he grasped it with gauntlets of 
iron, and was further possessed of a girdle which had the virtue of 
renewing his strength as of ten as was needful. It was with these 
formidable arms that he overthrew to the ground the monsters and 
giants, when he was sent by the gods to oppose their enemies. He 
was represented of gigantic size, and as the stoutest and strongest 


1 See Tacitus: Annals, book ii. ch. lix. 
Knight: Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 92. 

See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 153. 


of the gods. 1 Thor was simply the Hercules of the Northern 
nations. He was the Sun personified. 2 

Without enumerating them, we can safely say, that there was 
not a nation of antiquity, from the remotest East to the furthest 
"West, that did not have its mighty hero, and counterpart of Her 
cules and Samson. 3 

1 See Mallet s Northern Antiquities, pp. " Besides the fabulous Hercules, the son of 
94, 417, and 514. Jupiter and Alcmena, there was, in ancient 

2 See Cox : Aryan Mythology. times, no warlike nation who did not boast 
8 See vol. i. of Aryan Mythology, by Rev. of its own particular Hercules." (Arthur Mar- 

G. W. Cox. phy, Translator cf Tacitus.) 



IN the book of Jonah, containing four chapters, we are told 
the word of the Lord came unto Jonah, saying : " Arise, go to Nin- 
evah, that great city, and cry against it, for their wickedness is coine 
up against me." 

Instead of obeying this command Jonah sought to flee " from 
the presence of the Lord," by going to Tarshish. For this pur 
pose he went to Joppa, and there took ship for Tarshish. But 
the Lord sent a great wind, and there was a mighty tempest, so 
that the ship was likely to be broken. 

The mariners being afraid, they cried every one unto his God ; 
and casting lots that they might know which of them was the 
cause of the storm the lot fell upon Jonah, showing him to be the 
guilty man. 

The mariners then said unto him ; " What shall we do unto thee ?" 
Jonah in reply said, " Take me up and cast me forth into the sea, 
for I know that for my sake this great tempest is upon you." So 
they took up Jonah, and cast him into the sea, and the sea ceased 

And the Lord prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah, and 
Jonah ivas in the belly of the fish three days and three nights. 
Then Jonah prayed unto the Lord out of the fish s belly. And the 
Lord spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry 

The Lord again spake unto Jonah and said : 

" Go unto Ninevah and preach unto it." So Jonah arose and 
went unto Ninevah, according to the command of the Lord, and 
preached unto it. 

There is a Hindoo fable, very much resembling this, to be found 
in the Somadeva Bhatta, of a person by the name of Saktideva 
who was swallowed by a huge fish, and finally came out unhurt. 
The story is as follows : 

" There was once a king s daughter who would marry no one 



but the man who had seen the Golden City of legendary fame 
and Saktideva was in love with her ; so he went travelling about 
the world seeking some one who could tell him where this Golden 
City was. In the course of his journeys lie embarked on board a 
ship bound for the Island of Utsthala, where lived the King of the 
Fishermen, who, Saktideva hoped, would set him on his way. On 
the voyage there arose a great storm and the ship went to pieces, 
and a great fish swallowed Saktideva whole. Then, driven by the 
force of fate, the fish went to the Island of Utsthala, and there the 
servants of the King of the Fishermen caught it, and the king, 
wondering at its size, had it cut open, and Saktideva came out 

In Grecian fable, Hercules is said to have been swallowed by a 
whale, at a place called Joppa, and to have lain three days in his 

Bernard de Montfaucon, speaking of Jonah being swallowed by 
a whale, and describing a piece of Grecian sculpture representing 
Hercules standing by a huge sea monster, says : 

"Some ancients relate to the effect that Hercules was also swallowed by 
the whale that was watching Hesione, that lie remained three days in his belly, 
and that he came out bald-pated after his sojourn there." 2 

Bouchet, in his " Hist, d Animal," tells us that : 

"The great fish which swallowed up Jonah, although it be called a whale 
(Matt. xii. 40), yet it was not a whale, properly so called, but a Dog-fish, called 
Carcharias. Therefore in the Grecian fable Hercules is said to have been swal 
lowed up of a Dag, and to have lain three days in his entrails. " 3 

Godfrey Higgins says, on this subject : 

" The story of Jonas swallowed up by a whale, is nothing but part of the 
fiction of Hercules, described in the Heracleid or Labors of Hercules, of whom 
the same story was told, and who was swallowed up at the very same place, 
Joppa, and for the same period of time, three days. Lycophron says that Hercules 
was three nights in the belly of a fish." 4 

We have still another similar story in that of "Arion the Musi 
cian" who, being thrown overboard, was caught on the back of a 
Dolphin and landed safe on shore. The story is related in 
" Tales of Ancient Greece," as follows : 

Arion was a Corinthian harper who had travelled in Sicily and 

> Tylor: Early Hi?t. Mankind, pp. 344, 345. 3 Bouchet: Hist, d Animal, in Anac., vol. i. 

3 " En effet, quelques anciens disent qu Her- p. 240. 

cule fut aussi devora par la beleine qui gurdoit 4 Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 638. Sec also 

Hesione, quMl demenra trois jours dans son Tylot . Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 306, and 

ventre, et qu il sortit chauve de ce sejour." Chambers s Encyclo., art. "Jonah." 
(L Anti^uite Expliquee, vol. i. p. 204.) 


Italy, and had accumulated great wealth. Being desirous of again 
seeing his native city, he set sail from Taras for Corinth. The 
sailors in the ship, having seen the large boxes full of money which 
Arion had brought with him into the ship, made up their minds to 
kill him and take his gold and silver. So one day when he was 
sitting on the bow of the ship, and looking down on the dark 
blue sea, three or four of the sailors came to him and said they 
were going to kill him. Now Arion knew they said this because 
they wanted his money ; so he promised to give them all he 
had if they would spare his life. But they would not. Then 
he asked them to let him jump into the sea. When they had 
given him leave to do this, Arion took one last look at the bright 
and sunny sky, and then leaped into the sea, and the sailors saw 
him no more. But Arion was not drowned in the sea, for a great 
fish called a dolphin was swimming by the ship when Arion leaped 
over; and it caught him on its back and swam away with him 
towards Corinth. So presently the fish came close to the shore and 
left Arion on the beach, and swam away again into the deep sea. 1 

There is also a Persian legend to the effect that Jemshid was 
devoured by a great monster waiting for him at the bottom of 
the sea, but afterwards rises again out of the sea, like Jonah in the 
Hebrew, and Hercules in the Phenician myth. 3 This legend was 
also found in the myths of the New World* 

It was urged, many years ago, by Rosenmuller an eminent 
German divine and professor of theology and other critics, that 
the miracle recorded in the book of Jonah is not to be regarded as 
an historical fact, "but only as an allegory, founded on the Pheni- 
cian myth of Hercules rescuing Hesione from the sea monster ~by 
leaping himself into its yaws, and for three days and three nights 
continuing to tear its entrails" 

That the story is an allegory, and that it, as well as that of 
Saktideva, Hercules and the rest, are simply different versions of 
the same myth, the significance of which is the alternate swallow 
ing up and casting forth of Day, or the Sun, by Night, is now all 
but universally admitted by scholars. The Day, or the Sun, is 
swallowed up by Night, to be set free again at dawn, and from 
time to time suffers a like but shorter durance in the maw of the 
eclipse and the storm-cloud. 6 

Professor Goldzhier says : 

1 Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 296. Chambers s Encyclo., art. Jonah. 

8 See Hebrew Mythology, p. 203. See Fiske : Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77, 

1 See Tyler s Early Hiet. Mankind, and and note ; and Tylor : Primitive Culture, I. 302. 
Primitive Culture, vol. i. 


" The most prominent mythical characteristic of the Etory of Jonah is his 
celebrated abode in the sea in the belly of a whale. This trait is eminently 
Solar. ... As on occasion of the storm the storm-dragon or the storm- 
serpent swallows the Sun, so when he sets, he (Jonah, as a personification of 
the Sun) is swallowed by a mighty fish, waiting for him at the bottom of the 
sea. Then, when he appears again on the horizon, he is spit out on the shore by 
the sea-monster." 1 

The Sun was called Jona, as appears from Grater s inscriptions, 
and other sources. 2 

In the Vedas the four sacred books of the Hindoos when Day 
and Night, Sun and Darkness, are opposed to each other, the one 
is designated Red, the other Black? 

The Red Sun being swallowed up by the Dark Earth at Night 
as it apparently is when it sets in the west to be cast forth 
again at Day, is also illustrated in like manner. Jonah, Hercules 
and others personify the Sun, and a huge Fish represents the 
Earth* The Earth represented as a huge Fish is one of the most 
prominent ideas of the Polynesian mythology? 

At other times, instead of a Fish, we have a great raving Wolf, 
who comes to devour its victim and extinguish the Sun-light* 
The Wolf is particularly distinguished in ancient Scandinavian 
mythology, being employed as an emblem of the Destroying Power, 
which attempts to destroy the Sun. 1 This is illustrated in the 
story of Little Red Riding-Hood (the Sun) 8 who is devoured by 
the great Black Wolf (Night) and afterwards comes out unhurt* 

The story of Little Red Riding-Hood is mutilated in the Eng 
lish version. The original story was that the little maid, in her 
shining Bed Cloak, was swallowed by the great Black Wolf, and 
that she came out safe and sound when the hunters cut open the 
sleeping beast. 10 

i Goldzbier: Hebrew Mythology, pp. 102, 103. See Tylor : Early History of Mankind, p. 

8 This is seen from the following, taken from 345. 

Pictet : " Du Culte des Carabi" p. 104, and Fieke : Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77. 

quoted by Higgins : Anac., vol. i. p. 650 : " Val- See Knight : Ancient Art and Mythology, 

lancy dit que lonn etoit le meme que Baal. pp. 88, 89, and Mallet s Northern Antiquities. 
En Gallois Jon, le Seignenr, Dieu, la cause 8 i n ancient Scandinavian mythology, the 

premiere. En Basque Jawna, Jon, Jona, &c., Sun is personified in the form of a beautiful 

Dieu, et Seigneur, Maitre. Les Scandinaves maiden. (See Mallet s Northern Antiquities, 

appeloient le Soleil John. . . . Une des p. 458.) 

inscriptions de Gruter montre ques les Troyens See Fiske : Myths and Myth Makers, p. 77. 

adoroient le meme astre sous le nom de Jona. Bunce : Fairy Tales, 161. 
En Persan le Soleil est appele Jawnah." Thus Tylor : Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 307. 

we see that the Sun was called Jonah, by dif- " The story of Little Eed Kiding-Hood, as 

ferent nations of antiquity. we call her, or Little Red-Cap, came from the 

8 See Goldzhier : Hebrew Mythology, p. 146. same (i. e., the ancient Aryan) source, and re- 

4 See Tylor : Early History of Mankind, p. fers to the Sun and the Night." 
345, and Goldzhier : Hebrew Mythology, pp. li One of the fancies of the most ancient 

102, 103. Aryan or Hindoo stories was that there was a 


In regard to these heroes remaining three days and three nights 
in the bowels of the Fish, they represent the Sun at the Winter Sol 
stice. From December 22d to the 25th that is, for three days 
and three nights the Sun remains in the Lowest Regions, in the 
bowels of the Earth, in the belly of the Fish ; it is then cast forth 
and renews its career. 

Thus, we see that the story of Jonah being swallowed by a big 
fish, meant originally the Sun swallowed up by Night, and that it 
is identical with the well-known nursery-tale. How such legends 
are transformed from intelligible into unintelligible myths, is very 
clearly illustrated by Prof. Max Miiller, who, in speaking of " the 
comparison of the different forms of Aryan Religion and Mythol 
ogy," in India, Persia, Greece, Italy and Germany, says : 

In each of these nations there was a tendency to change the original concep 
tion of divine powers; to misunderstand the many names given to these powers, 
and to misinterpret the praises addressed to them. In this manner some of the 
divine names were changed into half-divine, half-human u< roes, and at last the 
myths which were true and intelligible as told originally of i!,e Sun, or the Dawn, 
or the Storms, were turned into legends or fables too marvellous to be believed of 
common mortals. This process can be watched in India, in Greece, and in Ger 
many. The same story, or nearly the same, is told of gods, of heroes, and of 
men. The divine myth became an heroic legend, and the heroic legend fades away 
into a nursery tale. Our nursery tales have well been called the modern patois 
of the ancient sacred mythology of the Aryan race." 1 

How striking are these words ; how plainly they illustrate the 
process by which the story, that was true and intelligible as told 
originally of the Day being swallowed up by Night, or the Sun 
being swallowed up by the Earth, was transformed into a legend 
or fable, too marvellous to be believed by common mortals. How 
the divine myth " became an " heroic legend" and how the heroic 
legend faded away into a " nursery tale." 

In regard to Jonah s going to the city of Ninevah, and preach 
ing unto the inhabitants, we believe that the old " Myth of Civiliza- 

grcat dragon that was trying to devour the Sun, clouds, which the evening Sun is not strong 

and to prevent him from shining upon the enough to pierce through. Then, with the 

earth and filling it with brightness and life and darkness of night, he swallows up the evening 

beauty, and that Indra, the Sun-god, killed the Sun itself, and all is dark and desolate. Then, 

dragon. Now, this is the meaning of Little as in the German tale, the night-thunder and 

Red Riding-Hood, as it is told in our nursery the storm-winds are represented by the loud 

tales. Little Red Riding-IIood is the evening snoring of the wolf ; and then the huntsman, 

Sun, which is always described as red or golden ; the morning Sun, comes in all his strength and 

the old grandmother is the earth, to whom the majesty, and chases away the night-clouds and 

rays of the Sun bring warmth and comfort. kills the wolf, and revives old Grandmother 

The wolf which is a well-known figure for the Earth, and brings Little Red Riding-Hood to 

clouds and darkness of night is the dragon in life again." (Bunce, Fairy Tales, their Origin 

another form. First he devours the grand- and Meaning, p. 161.) 
mother ; that is, he wraps the earth in thick > Mailer s Chips, vol. ii. p. 260. 



tion," so called, 1 is partly interwoven here, and that, in tins re 
spect, lie is nothing more than the Indian Fish Avatar of Vish- 
nou, or the Chaldean Cannes. At his first Avatar, Vishnou is 
alleged to have appeared to humanity in form like a fish, 3 or half- 
man and half-fish, just as Cannes and Dagon were represented among 
the Chaldeans and other nations. In the temple of Rama, in India, 
there is a representation of Vishnou which answers perfectly to 
that of Dagon. 3 Mr. Maurice, in his "Hist. Ilindostan," has 
proved the identity of the Syrian Dagon and the Indian Fish 
ivatar, and concludes by saying : 

" From the foregoing and a variety of parallel circumstances, I am inclined 
to think that the Chaldean Oannes, the Phenician and Philistian Dagon, and the 
Pisces of the Syrian and Egyptian Zodiac, were the same deity with the Indian 
Vishnu." 4 

In the old mythological remains of the Chaldeans, compiled by 
Berosus, Abydenus, and Polyhistor, there is an account of one 
Cannes, a fish-god, who rendered great service to mankind. 5 This 
being is said to have come out of the Erythraean Sea. 8 This is 
evidently the Sun rising out of the sea, as it apparently does, in 
the East . 7 

Prof. Goldzhier, speaking of Oannes, says : 

"That this founder of cizilization has a Solar character, like similar heroes 
in all other nations, is shown ... in the words of Berosus, who says: 
1 During the day-time Oannes held intercourse with man, but when the Sun set, 
Oannes fell into the sea, where he used to pass the night. Here, evidently, only 
the Sun can be meant, who, in the evening, dips into the sea, and comes forth 
again in the morning, and passes the day on the dry land in the company of 
men." 8 

Dagon was sometimes represented as a man emerging from a 
fishs mouth, and sometimes as half-man and half-fish. 9 It was 
believed that he came in a ship, and taught the people. Ancient 
history abounds with such mythological personages. 10 There was also 
a Durga, a fish deity, among the Hindoos, represented as a full 
grown man emerging from a fish s mouth.* The Philistines wor- 

1 See Goldzhier s Hebrew Mythology, p. 198, See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. 
et ee< l- Smith : Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 39, 

2 See Maurice : Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. and Cory s Ancient Fragments, p. 57. 

P- 277. 7 civilizing gods, who diffuse intelligence 

1 See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 259. Also, and instruct barbarians, are also Solar Deities. 

Fig. No. 5, next page. Among these Oannes takes his place, as the 

* Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. pp. 418-419. Sun-god, giving knowledge and civilization. 

See Pilchard s Egyptian Mythology, p. 190. (Rev. S. Baring-Gould : Curious Myths, p. 367. 

Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 87. Higgins : s Goldzhier : Hebrew Mythology, pp. 214, 

Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 646. Cory s Ancient 215. 

Fragments, p. 57. See Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 111. 

> See Chamber s Encyclo., art "Dagon." 



shiped Dagon, and in Babylonian Mythology Odakon is applied to 
a fish-like being, who rose from the waters of the Red Sea as one of 
the benefactors of men. 1 

On the coins of Ascalon, where she was held in great honor, 
the goddess Derceto or Atergatis is represented as a woman with 
her lower extremities like a fish. This is Semiramis, who appeared 
at Joppa as a mermaid. She is simply a personification of the 
Moon, who follows the course of the Sun. At times she manifests 
herself to the eyes of men, at others she seeks concealment in the 
Western flood. 3 

The Sun-god Phoibos traverses the sea in the form of a fish, 
and imparts lessons of wisdom and goodness when he has come 
forth from the green depths. All these powers or qualities are 
shared by Proteus in Hellenic story, as well as by the fish-god, 
Dagon or Cannes. 

In the Iliad and Odyssey, Atlas is brought into close connection 
with Helios, the bright god, the Latin Sol, and our Sun. In these 
poems he rises every morning from a beautiful lake by the deep- 
flowing stream of Ocean, and having accomplished his journey 
across the heavens, plunges again into the Western waters. 4 

The ancient Mexicans and Peruvians had likewise semi-fish gods." 

Jonah then, is like these other personages, in so far as they 
are all personifications of the Sun / they all come out of the sea j 
they are all represented as 
a man emerging from a 
jislibS mouth j and they are 
all benefactors of mankind. 
We believe, therefore, 
that it is one and the 
same myth, whether Oan- 
nes, Joannes, or Jonas, 8 dif 

fering to a certain extent 
among different nations, just 
as we find to be the case with 

FfG. 5 

other legends. This we have just 

seen illustrated in the story of u Little Red Riding-Hood," which 
is considerably mutilated in the English version. 

1 See Smith s Dictionary of the Bible, and 
Chambers s Encyclo., art. "Dagon " in both. 
3 See Baring-Gould s Curious Myths. 

* See Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 26. 
Ibid, p. 38. 

6 Curious Myths, p. 372. 

Since writing the above we find that Mr. 
Bryant, in his "Analysis of Ancient Mytlwi- 

ogy" (vol. ii. p. 291), speaking of the mystical 
nature of the name John, which is the same aa 
Jonah, says : " The prophet who was sent upon 
an embassy to the Ninevites, is styled lonas : 
a title probably bestowed upon him as a mes 
senger of the Deity. The great Patriarch who 
preached righteousness to the Antediluvians, 
is styled Oan and Oannes, which ia the samt 
&8 Jonah" 



Fig. No. 5 is a representation of Dagon, intended to illustrate a 
creature half-man and half-fish ; or, perhaps, a man emerging from a 
fish s mouth. It is taken from Layard. Fig. No. 6 1 is a repre 
sentation of the Indian Avatar of Yishnou, 
coming forth from the fish? It would an 
swer just as well for a representation of 
Jonah, as it does for the Hindoo divinity. It 
should be noticed that in both of these, the 
god has a crown on his head, surmounted 
with a triple ornament, both of which had 
evidently the same meaning, i. e., an emblem 
of the trinity.* The Indian Avatar being 
represented with four arms, evidently means 
that he is god of the whole world, \\isfour 
arms extending to tlicfour corners of the 
world. The circle, which is seen in one 
hand, is an emblem of eternal reward. The 
shell, with its eight convolutions, is intended 
to show the place in the number of the cycles which he occupied. 
The look and siuord are to show that he ruled both in the right of 
the book and of the sword. 4 

1 From Maurice : Hist. Hindostan, vol. i. 
p. 495. 

a Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 634. See 
also, Calmet s Fragments, 2d Hundred, p. 78. 

See the chapter on " The Trinity," IE 
part second. 

4 See Higgins : Anacalypeis, vol. i. p. 640. 



IN the words of the Rev. Dr. Giles : 

" The rite of circumcision must not be passed over in any work that concerns 
the religion and literature of that (the Jewish) people." 1 

The first mention of Circumcision, in the Bible, occurs in 
Genesis, 8 where God is said to have commanded the Israelites to 
perform this rite, and thereby establish a covenant between him and 
his chosen people : 

" This is my covenant (said the Lord), which ye shall keep, between me and 
you and thy seed after thce; every male child among you shall be circumcised." 

u We need not doubt" says the Rev. Dr. Giles, " that a Divine 
command was given to Abraham that all his posterity should prac 
tice the rite of circumcision." 8 

Such may be the case. If we believe that the Lord of the 
Universe communes with man, we need not doult this ; yet, we are 
compelled to admit that nations other than the Hebrews practiced 
this rite. The origin of it, however, as practiced among other 
nations, has never been clearly ascertained. It has been maintained 
by some scholars that this rite drew its origin from considerations of 
health and cleanliness, which seems very probable, although doubted 
by many. 4 Whatever may have been its origin, it is certain 
that it was practiced by many of the ancient Eastern nations, 
who never came in contact with the Hebrews, in early times, and, 
therefore, could not have learned it from them. 

The Egyptians practiced circumcision at a very early period, 5 

1 Giles : Ilebrew and Christian Kecords, vol. ated in this way. And Mr. Wake, speaking of if., 
i. p. 249. says: " The origin of thiy custom has not yet, so 

2 Genesis, xvii. 10. far as I am aware, been satisfactorily explained. 
Giles : Hebrew andChristian Records, vol. The idea that, under certain climatic con- 

1. p. 251. ditious, circumcision is necessary for cleanh- 

4 Mr. Herbert Spencer shows (Principles of ness and comfort, does not appear to be well 

Sociology, pp. 290, 295) that the sacrificing of a founded, as the custom is not universal even 

part of the body as a religious offering to their within the tropics. (.Phallism in Ancient 

deity, was, and is a common practice among Religg., p. 36.) 
savage tribes. Circumcision may have origin- "Other men leave their private parti 


at least as early as thefourt/i dynasty pyramid one and therefore, 
long before the time assigned for Joseph s entry into Egypt, from 
whom some writers have claimed the Egyptians learned it. 1 

In the decorative pictures of Egyptian tombs, one frequently 
meets with persons on whom the denudation of the prepuce is 
manifested, 2 

On a stone found at Thebes, there is a representation of the 
circumcision of Ramses II. A mother is seen holding her boy s 
arms back, while the operator kneels in front. 8 All Egyptian 
priests were obliged to be circumcised, 4 and Pythagoras had to 
submit to it before being admitted to the Egyptian sacerdotal 
mysteries. 6 

Herodotus, the Greek historian, says : 

"As this practice can be traced both in Egypt and Ethiopia, to the remotest 
antiquity, it is not possible to say which first introduced it. The Phenicians 
and Syrians of Palestine acknowledge that they borrowed it from Egypt." 6 

It has been recognized among the Kaffirs and other tribes of 
Africa? It was practiced among the Fijians and Samoans of 
Polynesia, and some races of Australia* The Suzees and the 
Mandingoes circumcise their women. 9 The Assyrians, Colchins, 
Phenicians, and others, practiced it. 10 It has been from time im 
memorial a custom among the Abyssinians, though, at the present 
time, Christians. 11 

The antiquity of the custom may be assured from the fact of 
the New Hollanders, (never known to civilized nations until a few 
years ago) having practiced it. 12 

The Troglodytes on the shore of the Red Sea, the Idumeans, 
Ammonites, Moabites and Ishmaelites, had the practice of circum 
cision. 11 

The ancient Mexicans also practiced this rite. 13 It was also 

as they are formed by nature, except those 6 Herodotus: Book ii. ch. 30. 

who have learned otherwise from them; but 7 See Bomvick s Egyptian Belief, p. 114. 

the Egyptians arc eircv incited. . . . They Amberly: Analysis Religious Belief, p. 07, and 

are circumcised for the sake of cleanliness, Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 3U9. 

thinking it better to be clean than handsome." 8 Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 414, and 

(Herodotus, Book ii. ch. 30.) Amberly s Analysis, pp. 03, 73. 

1 We have it also on the authority of Sir 8 Amberly: Analysis of Relig. Belief, p. 73. 
J. G. Wilkinson, that: "this custom was estab- 1 Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 414: Am- 
Jished long before the arrival of Joseph in berly s Analysis, p. 03; Prog. Relig. Ideas, 
Egypt," and that "this is proved by the ancient vol. i. p. 103, and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. 
monuments." ii. pp. ig, 19. 

2 Bomvick: Egyptian Belief, pp. 414, 415. " Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 414. 

Ibid. p. 415. 12 Kendrick s Egypt, quoted by Dunlap; 

4 Ibid, and Knight: Ancient Art and Mythol- Mysteries of Adoni, p. 146. 

gy- !> W) - 13 Ambcrly s Analysis, p. 63, Higgins: Ana- 

5 Bonwick H Egyptian Belief, p. 415. calypsis, vol. ii. p. 309, and Acoata, ii. 369. 


found among the Amazon tribes of South America. 1 These In 
dians, as well as some African tribes, were in the habit of circumcis 
ing their women. Among the Campos, the women circumcised 
themselves, and a man would not marry a woman who was not 
circumcised. They performed this singular rite upon arriving at 
the age of puberty. 3 

Jesus of Nazareth was circumcised, 4 and had he been really the 
founder of the Christian religion, so-called, it would certainly be 
incumbent on all Christians to be circumcised as he was, and to 
observe that Jewish law which he observed, and which he was 
so far from abrogating, that he declared : " heaven and earth 
shall pass away " ere " one jot or one tittle " of that law should be 
dispensed with. 6 But the Christians are not followers of the 
religion of Jesus." They are followers of the religion of the 
Pagans. This, we believe, we shall be able to show in Part Second 
of this work. 

1 Orton : The Andes and the Amazon, p. among the inhabitants of the Friendly Islands, 

322. in particular at Tongataboo, and the younger 

a This was done by cutting off the clytoris. Pritchard bears witness to its practice in the 

8 Orton : The Andes and the Amazon, p. Samoa or Fiji groups." (Oscar Peschel : The 

822. Gibbon s Rome, vol. iv. p. 563, and Bible Races of Man, p. 22.) 

for Learners, vol. i. p. 319. * Luke, ii. 21. 

"At the time of the conquest, the Span- Matthew, v. 18. 

iards found circumcised nations in Central In using the words "the religion of 

America, and on the Amazon, the Tecuna and Jesus," we mean simply (he religion of Israel. 

Mauaos tribes still observe this practice. In We believe that Jesus of Nazareth was a Jew, 

the South Seas it has been met with among in every sense of the word, and that he did 

three different races, but it is performed in a not establish a new religion, or preach a new 

somewhat different manner. On the Austral- doctrine, in any way, shape, or form. "The 

ian continent, not all, but the majority of preacher from the Mount, the prophet of the 

tribes, practiced circumcision. Among the Beatitudes, does but repeat with persuasive 

Papuans, the inhabitants of New Caledonia lips what the law-givers of his race proclaimed 

and the New Hebrides adhere to this custom. in mighty tones of command." (See chap. 

In his third voyage, Captain Cook found it xL) 



THERE are many other legends recorded in the Old Testament 
which might be treated at length, but, as we have considered the 
principal and most important, and as we have so much to examine 
in Part Second, which treats of the New Testament, we shall take 
but a passing glance at a few others. 

In Genesis xli. is to be found the story of 


which is to the effect that Pharaoh dreamed that he stood by a 
river, and saw come up out of it seven fat kine, and seven lean 
kine, which devoured the fat ones. He then dreamed that he 
saw seven good ears of corn, on one stalk, spring up out of the 
ground. This was followed by seven poor ears, which sprang up 
after them, and devoured the good ears. 

Pharaoh, upon awaking from his sleep, and recalling the 
dreams which he dreamed, was greatly troubled, " and he sent and 
called for all the magicians of Egypt, and all the wise men thereof, 
and Pharaoh told them his dreams, but there was none that could 
interpret them unto Pharaoh." Finally, his chief butler tells him 
of one Joseph, who was skilled in interpreting dreams, and Pharaoh 
orders him to be brought before his presence. He then repeats 
his dreams to Joseph, who immediately interprets them to the 
great satisfaction of the king. 

A very similar story is related in the Buddhist Fo-pen-Jiing 
one of their sacred books, which has been translated by Prof. 
Samuel Beal which, in substance, is as follows : 

Suddhodana Eaja dreamed seven different dreams in one night, 
when, " awaking from his sleep, and recalling the visions he had 
seen, was greatly troubled, so that the very hair on his body stood 
erect, and his limbs trembled." He forthwith summoned to his 
side, within his palace, all the great ministers of his council, and 


exhorted them in these words : " Most honorable Sirs ! be it known 
to you that during the present night I have seen in my dreams 
strange and potent visions there were seven distinct dreams, which 
I will now recite (he recites the dreams). I pray yon, honorable 
Sirs ! let not these dreams escape your memories, but in the morn 
ing, when I am seated in my palace, and surrounded by my attend 
ants, let them be brought to my mind (that they may be inter 

At morning light, the king, seated in the midst of his attendants, 
issued his commands to all the Brahmans, interpreters of dreams, 
within his kingdom, in these terms, "All ye men of wisdom, explain 
for me by interpretation the meaning of the dreams I have dreamed 
in my sleep." 

Then all the wise Brahmans, interpreters of dreams, began to 
consider, each one in his own heart, what the meaning of these 
visions could be ; till at last they addressed the king, and said : 
"Maha-raja! be it known to you that we never before have heard 
such dreams as these, and we cannot interpret their meaning" 

On hearing this, Suddhodana was very troubled in his heart, and 
exceeding distressed. lie thought within himself : " AYho is there 
that can satisfy these doubts of mine ?" 

iunaily a kk holy one," called T so-Ping, being present in the 
inner palace, and perceiving the sorrow and distress of the king, 
assumed the appearance of a Brahman, and under this form he 
stood at the gate of the king s palace, and cried out, saying : " I am 
able fully to interpret the dreams of Suddhodana Kaja, and with 
certainty to satisfy all the doubts." 

The king ordered him to be brought before his presence, and 
then related to him his dreams. Upon hearing them, T^so-Ping 
immediately interpreted them, to the great satisfaction of the king. 1 

In the second chapter of Exodus we read of 


which is done by command of the king. 

There are many counterparts to this in ancient mythology; 
among them may be mentioned that of the infant Perseus, who 
was, ly command of the king (Acrisius of Argos), shut up in a 
chest, and cast into the sea. He was found by one Dictys, who 
took great care of the child, and as Pharoah s daughter did with 
the child Moses educated him. 9 

1 See Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. Ill, etseq. Ancient Art and Mytho., p. 178, and Bulflnch : 

Bell s Pantheon, under "Pereeus;" Knight : Age of Fables, p. 161. 


The infant Bacchus was confined in a chest, ly order of Cadmus, 
King of Thebes, and thrown into the Nile. 1 He, like Moses, had 
two mothers, one by nature, the other by adoption. 8 He was also, 
like Moses, represented horned? 

Osiris was also confined in a chest, and thrown into the river 
Nile. 4 

When Osiris was shut into the coffer, and cast into the river, he 
floated to Phenicia, and was there received under the name of 
Adonis. Isis (his mother, or wife) wandered in quest of him, 
came to Byblos, and seated herself by a fountain in silence and 
tears. She was then taken by the servants of the royal palace, and 
made to attend on the young prince of the land. In like manner, 
Demeter, after Aidoneus had ravished her daughter, went in pur 
suit, reached Eleusis, seated herself by a well, conversed with the 
daughters of the queen, and became nurse to her son.* So likewise, 
when Moses was put into the ark made of bulrushes, and cast 
into the Nile, he was found by the daughters of Pharaoh, and his 
own mother became his nurse. 6 This is simply another version of 
the same myth. 

In the second chapter of the second book of Kings, we read oi 


There are many counterparts to this, in heathen mythology. 

Hindoo sacred writings relate many such stories how some oi 
their Holy Ones were taken up alive into heaven and impressions 
on rocks are shown, said to be foot-prints, made when they 
ascended. 7 

According to Babylonian mythology, Xisuthrus was translated 
to heaven. 8 

The story of Elijah ascending to heaven in a chariot of fire may 
also be compared to the fiery, flame-red chariot of Ushas? This 
idea of some Holy One ascending to heaven without dying was 
found in the ancient mythology of the Chinese. 10 

The story of 


by throwing a stone and hitting him in the forehead, 11 may be com- 

i Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 118. Taylor s Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, i. 159. 

Diegesis, p. 190. Iliggins : Anacalypsis, vol. 9 Exodus, ii. 

ii. p. 19. 2 ibid. 7 See Child : Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 6, 

3 BelTa Pantheon, vol. i. p. 132. Dupuis : and most any work on Buddhism. 
Origin of Religious Belief, p. 174. Goldziher: 8 See Smith: Chaldean Account of Genesis. 

Hebrew Mythology, p. 179. Higgins : Anaca- 9 See Goldziher : Hebrew Mythology, p. 128, 

lypsis, vol. ii. p. 19. note. 

* Bell s Pantheon, art. " Osiris ;" and Bui- 1 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 213, 214. 

finch : Age of Fable, p. 891. I. Samuel, xvii. 


pared to the story of Ttior, the Scandinavian hero, throwing a 
hammer at Hrungnir, and striking him in the forehead. 1 
We read in Numbers 3 that 


to his master, and reproved him. 

In ancient fables or stories in which animals play prominent 
parts, each creature is endowed with the power of speech. This 
idea was common in the whole of Western Asia and Egypt. It is 
found in various Egyptian and Chaldean stories. 3 Homer has re 
corded that the horse of Achilles spoke to him. 4 

We have also a very wonderful story in that of 


This story is related in the tenth chapter of the book oi Joshua, 
and is to the effect that the Israelites, who were at battle with the 
Amorites, wished the day to be lengthened that they might con 
tinue their slaughter, whereupon Joshua said : " Sun, stand thou 
still upon Gibeon, and thou, Moon, in the valley of Ajalon. And 
the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had 
avenged themselves upon their enemies. . . . And there was 
no day like that before it or after it." 

There are many stories similar to this, to be found among other 
nations of antiquity. We have, as an example, tiiat which is re 
lated of Bacchus in the Orphic hymns, wherein it says that this 
god-man arrested the course of the sun and the moon. 6 

An Indian legend relates that the sun stood still to hear the 
pious ejaculations of Arjouan after the death of Crislma." 

A holy Buddhist by the name of Matanga prevented the sun, 
at his command, from rising, and bisected the moon. 7 Arresting 
the course of the sun was a common thing among the disciples of 
Buddha. 8 

The Chinese also, had a legend of the sun standing still," and 
a legend was found among the Ancient Mexicans to the effect 
that one of their holy persons commanded the sun to stand still, 
which command was obeyed. 10 

1 See Goldzhier : Hebrew Mythology, p. 430, 8 Ibid, i. 191, and ii. 241; Franklin : Bud. & 

and Bu) finch : Age of Fable, 440. Jeyne*. 174. 

a Chapter xxii. i Hardy : Buddhist Legends, pp. 50, 53, and 

See Smith s Chaldean Account of Genesis, 140. 
p. 138, et seq. * See Ibid. 

* See Prog, lielig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 323. Biggins : Anacalypsis, vol. 11. p. 191. 

See Higgins : Anacalypeis, vol. ii. p. 19. ie Ibid, p. 89. 


We shall now endeavor to answer tlie question which must 
naturally arise in the minds of all who see, for the first time, the 
similarity in the legends of the Hebrews and those of other nations, 
namely : have the Hebrews copied from other nations, or, have 
other nations copied from the Hebrews ? To answer this question 
we shall ; first, give a brief account or history of the Pentateuch 
and other books of the Old Testament from which we have taken 
legends, and show about what time they were written ; and, second, 
show that other nations were possessed of these legends long 
before that time, and that the Jews copied from them. 

The Pentateuch is ascribed, in our modern translations, to 
Moses, and he is generally supposed to be the author. This is 
altogether erroneous, as Moses had nothing whatever to do with 
these five books. Bishop Colenso, speaking of this, says : 

" The books of the Pentateuch are never ascribed to Moses in the inscriptions of 
Hebrew manuscripts, or in printed copies of the Hebrew Bible. Nor are they styled 
the Books of Moses 1 in the Septuagint 1 or Vulgate, 2 but only in our modern 
translations, after the example of many eminent Fathers of the Church, who, 
with the exception of Jerome, and, perhaps, Origen, were, one and all of them, 
very little acquainted with the Hebrew language, and still less with its criti 
cism." 3 

The author of " The Religion of Israel," referring to this subject, 
says : 

" The Jews who lived after the Babylonish Captivity, and the Christians fol 
lowing their examples, ascribed these books (the Pentateuch) to Moses; and for 
many centuries the notion was cherished that he had really written them. But 
strict and impartial investigation has shown that this opinion must be given up ; and 
that nothing in the whole Law really comes from Moses himself except the Ten 
Commandments. And even these were not delivered by him in the same form as we find 
tJiem now. If we still call these books by his name, it is only because the Israel 
ites always thought of him as their first and greatest law-giver, and the actual 
autJiors grouped all tlmr narratives and laws around his figure, and associated them 
with his name."* 

As we cannot go into an extended account, and show how this 
is known, we will simply say that it is principally by internal 
evidence that these facts are ascertained. 6 

1 " Septuagint." The Old Greek version of Gilgal, mentioned in Deut. xi. 30, was not given 
the Old Testament. as the name of that place till after the entrance 

2 " Vulgate." The Latin version of the Old into Canaan. Dan, mentioned in Genesis xiv. 
Testament. 14, was not so called till long after the time of 

8 The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. pp. 186, Moses. In Gen.xxxvi. 31, t -e beginning of the 

reign of the kings over Israel is spoken of his- 

1 The Religion of Israel, p. 9. torically, an event which did not occur before 

6 Besides the many other facts which show the time of Samuel. (See, for further infonna- 

tnat the Pentateuch was not composed until tion, Bishop Colenso s Pentateuch Examined, 

long after the time of Moses and Joshua, the vol. ii. ch. v. and vi. 

following may be mentioned as examples : 


Now that we have seen that Moses did not write the books of 
the Pentateuch, our next endeavor will be to ascertain when they 
were written, and lj whom. 

We can say that they were not written by any one person, nor 
were they written at the same time. 

We can trace three principal redactions of the Pentateuch, that 
is to say, the material was worked over, and re-edited, with mod 
ifications and additions, by different people, at three distinct 
epochs. l 

The two principal writers are generally known as the Jehovistic 
and the Elohistlc. We have in speaking of the "Eden Myth" 
and the legend of the " Deluge" already alluded to this fact, and 
have illustrated how these writers narratives conflict with each 

The Jehovistic writer is supposed to have been a prophet, who, 
it would seem, was anxious to give Israel a history. lie begins 
at Genesis, ii. 4, with a short account of the " Creation" and then 
he carries the story on regularly until the Israelites enter Canaan. 
It is to him that we are indebted for the charming pictures of the 
patriarchs. He took these from other writings, or from the popu 
lar legends? 

About 725 B. c. the Israelites were conquered by Salmanassar, 
King of Assyria, and many of them were carried away captives. 
Their place was supplied l>y Assyrian colonists from Babylon, 
Persia, and other places* This fact is of the greatest importance, 
and should not be forgotten, as we find that the first of the three 
writers of the Pentateuch, spoken of above, wrote about this time, 
and the Israelites heard, from the colonists from Babylon, 
Persia, and other places for the first time many of the legends 
which this writer wove into the fabulous history which he wrote, 
especially the accounts of the Creation and the Deluge. 

The Pentateuch remained in this, its first form, until the year 
620 B. c. Then a certain priest of marked prophetic sympathies 
wrote a book of law which has come down to us in Deuteronomy, 
iv. 44, to xxvi., and xxviii. Here we find the demands which the 
Mosaic party at that day were making thrown into the form of 
laws. It was by King Josiah that this book was first introduced 
and proclaimed as authoritative. 4 It was soon afterwards wove into 
the work of the first Pentateuchian writer, and at the same time 

1 The Religion of Israel, p. 9 Chumbers s Encyclo., art. "Jews." 

Ibid. p. 10. The Religion of Israel, pp. 10. 11. 


" a few new passages " were added, some of which related to 
Joshua, the successor of Moses. 1 

At this period in Israel s history, Jehovah had become almost 
forgotten, and "other gods" had taken his place. 2 The Mosaic 
party, so called who worshiped Jehovah exclusively were in the 
minority, but when King Amon who was a worshiper of Moloch 
died, and was succeeded by his son Josiah, a change imme 
diately took place. This young prince, who was only eight years 
old at the death of his father, the Mosaic party succeeded in 
winning over to their interests. In the year 621 B. c., Josiah, 
now in the eighteenth year of his reign, began a thorough ref 
ormation which completely answered to the ideas of the Mosaic 
party. 3 

It was during this time that the second Pentateuchian writer 
wrote, and he makes Moses speak as the law-giver. This writer 
was probably Hilkiah, who claimed to have found a book, written 
by Moses, in the temple* although it had only just been drawn 

The principal objections which were brought against the claims 
of Hilkiah, but which are not needed in the present age of inquiry , 
was that Sliaphan and Josiah read it off, not as if it were an old 
book, but as though it had been recently written, when any person 
who is acquainted, in the slightest degree, with language, must 
know that a man could not read off, at once, a booh written eight 
hundred years before. The phraseology would necessarily be so 
altered by time as to render it comparatively unintelligible. 

We must now turn to the third Pentateuchian writer, whose 
writings were published 444 B. c. 

At that time Ezra (or Ezdras) added to the work of his two 
predecessors a series of laws and narratives which had been drawn 
up by some of the priests in Babylon? This "series of laws and 
narratives," which was written by " some of the (Israelitish) priests 
in Babylon," was called " The Book of Origins " (probably con 
taining the Babylonian account of the " Origin of Things] or the 
" Creation "). Ezra brought the book from Babylon to Jerusalem. 
He made some modifications in it and constituted it a code of 
law for Israel, dove-tailing it into those parts of the Pentateuch 
which existed before. A few alterations and additions were subse- 

1 The Religion of Israel, p. 11. Hilkiah is to be found in II. Chronicles, ch. 

a See Ibid, pp. 120, 123. xxxiv. 

See Ibid, p. 122. * See Religion of Israel, pp. 124, 125. 

The account of the finding of this book by Ibid, p. 11. 


quently made, but these are of minor importance, and we may 
fairly say that Ezra put the Pentateuch into the form in which we 
have it (about 444 B. c.). 

These priestly passages are partly occupied with historical 
matter, comprising a very free account of things from the creation 
of the world to the arrival of Israel in Canaan. Everything is 
here presented from the priestly point of view; some events, else 
where recorded, are touched up in the priestly spirit^ and others 
are entirely invented? 

It was the belief of the Jews, asserted by the Pirke Aboth 
(Sayings of the Fathers), one of the oldest books of the Talmud* 
as well as other Jewish records, that Ezra, acting in accordance 
witli a divine commission, re-wrote the Old Testament, the manu 
scripts of which were said to have been lost in the destruction of 
the first temple, when Nebuchadnezzar took Jerusalem. 3 This we 
know could not have been the case. The fact that Ezra wrote 
adding to, and taking from the already existing books of the 
Pentateuch was probably the foundation for this tradition. The 
account of it is to be found in the Apocryphal book of Esdras, a 
book deemed authentic by the Greek Church. 

Dr. Knappert, speaking of this, says : 

"For many centuries, both the Christians and the Jews supposed that Ezra 
had brought together the sacred writings of his people, united them in one whole, 
and introduced them as a book given by the Spirit of God a Holy Scripture. 

"The only authority for this supposition was a very modern and altogether 
untrustworthy tradition. The historical and critical studies of our times have 
been emancipated from the influence of this tradition, and the most ancient 
statements with regard to the subject have been hunted up and compared to 
gether. These statements are, indeed, scanty and incomplete, and many a 
detail is still obscure; but the main facts have been completely ascertained. 

"Before the Babylonish captivity, Israel had no sacred writings. There were 
certain laws, prophetic writings, and a few historical books, but no one had 
ever thought of ascribing binding and divine authority to these documents. 

" Ezra brought the priestly law with him from Babylon, altering it and amalga 
mating it with the narratives and laws already in existence, and thus produced the 
Pentateuch in pretty much the same form (though not quite, as we shall show) 
as we still have it. Tliese boo/cs got the name of the Law of Moses, or simply the 
Law. Ezra introduced them into Israel (B. c. 444), and gave them binding 
authority, and from that time forward they were considered divine." 4 

From the time of Ezra until the year 287 B. c., when the 
Pentateuch was translated into Greek by order of Ptolemy Phila- 

i The Religion of Israel, pp. 186, 187. See Chambers s Encyclo., art. " Bible/ 

" Talmud. " The books containing the 4 The Religion of fcrael, pp 240, 241. 

Jewish traditions. 


delphus, King of Egypt, these books evidently underwent some 
changes. This the writer quoted above admits, in saying : 

" Later still (viz., after the time of Ezra), a few more changes and additions 
were made, and so the Pentateuch grew into its present form." 1 

In answer to those who claim that the Pentateuch was written 
by one person, Bishop Colenso says : 

" It is certainly inconceivable that, if the Pentateuch be the production of one 
and the same hand throughout, it should contain such a number of glaring incon 
sistencies. ... No single author could have been guilty of such absurdi 
ties ; but it is quite possible, and what was almost sure to happen in such a case, 
that, if the Pentateuch be the work of different authors in different ages, this 
fact should betray itself by the existence of contradictions in the narrative " 2 

Having ascertained the origin of the Pentateuch, or Urst live 
books of the Old Testament, it will be unnecessary to refer to the 
others here, as we have nothing to do with them in our investiga 
tions. Suffice it to say then, that : " In the earlier period after 
Ezra, none of the other looks winch already existed, enjoyed the 
same authority as the Pentateuch." 3 

It is probable 4 that jS ehemiah made a collection of historical 
and prophetic books, songs, and letters from Persian kings, not 
to form a second collection, but for the purpose of saving them 
from being lost. The scribes of Jerusalem, followers of Ezra, 
who were known as " the men of the Great Synagogue," were the 
collectors of the second and third divisions of the Old Testament 
They collected together the historical and prophetic books, songs, 
&c., which were then in existence, and after altering many of 
them, they were added to the collection of sacred books. It must 
not be supposed that any fixed plan was pursued in this work, or 
that the idea was entertained from the first, that these hooks would 
one day stand on the same level with the Pentateucli? 

In the course of time, however, many of the Jews began to 
consider some of these books as sacred. The Alexandrian Jews 
adopted books into the canon which those of Jerusalem did not, 
and this difference of opinion lasted for a long time, even till the 
second century after Christ. It was not until this time that all 
the books of the Old Testament acquired divine authority* It 
is not known, however, just when the canon of the Old Testament 
was closed. The time and manner in which it was done is alto- 

1 The Religion of Israel, p. 11. * On the strength of II. Maccabees, ii. 13. 

3 The Pentateuch Examined, vol. ii. p. 173. The Religion of Israel, p. 242. 

The Religion of Israel, p. 241. Ibid, p. 243. 


gether obscure. 1 Jewish tradition indicates that the full canonicity 
of several books was not free from doubt till the time of the 
famous Rabbi Akiba, a who flourished about the beginning of the 
second century after Christ. 

After giving a history of the books of the Old Testament, the 
author of u The Religion of Israel," whom we have followed in this 
investigation, says : 

" The great majority of the writers of the Old Testament had no other source 
of information about the past history of Israel than simple tradition,. Indeed, it 
could not have been otherwise, for in primitive times no one used to record any 
thing in writing, and the only way of preserving a knowledge of the past was to 
hand it down by word of mouth. The father told the son what his elders 
had told him, and the son handed it on to the next generation. 

" Not only did the historian of Israel draw from tradition with perfect free 
dom, and write do\vn without hesitation anything they heard and what. wa> 
current in the mouths of the people, bat the// did nt shrink from modifying their 
representation of the past in <tny tray that they thought would be good and unfid. 
It is difficult for us to look at things from this point of view, because our ideas 
of historical good faith are so utterly different. When we write history, we 
know that we ought to be guided solely by a desire to represent facts exactly as 
they really happened. All that we are concerned with is reality ; we want to 
make the old times live again, and we take all possible pains not to remodel the 
past from the point of view of to day. All \ve want to know is what happened, 
and how men lived, thought, and worked hi those days. The Israelites had a 
very different notion of the nature of historical composition. When a prophet 
or a priest related something about bygone times, his object was not to convey 
knowledge about those times; on the contrary, he used history merely as a 
vehicle for the conveyance of instruction and exhortation. Not only did he 
confine his narrative to such matters as he thought would serve his purpose 
but he never hesitated to modify what he knew of the past, and he did not think 
twice about touching it up from his own imagination, simply that it miglit be more 
conducive to (?ie end he had in view and chime in better with his opinions. All the 
past becfime colored through and through with the tinge of his own mind. Our own 
notions of honor and good faith \vould never permit all this; but we must not 
measure ancient writers by our own standard; they considered that they were 
acting quite within their rights and in strict accordance with duty and con 
science." 4 

It will be noticed that, in our investigations on the authority of 
the Pentateuch, we have followed, principally, Dr. Kuappert s 
ideas as set forth in " The Religion of Israel." 

This we have done because we could not e:o into an extended 


investigation, and because his words are very expressive, and just 
to the point. To those who may think that his ideas are not the 
same as those entertained by other Biblical scholars of the present 

1 Cbainbers a Encyclo., art. " Bible." Chambers^ Encyclo., art. " Akiba. 

1 Ibid. The Religion of Israel, pp. 19, 23. 


day, we subjoin, in a note below, a list of works to which they are 
referred. 1 

We shall now, after giving a brief history of the Pentateuch, 
refer to the legends of which we have been treating, and endeavor 
to show from whence the Hebrews borrowed them. The first of 
these is " The Creation and Fall of Man" 

Egypt, the country out of which the Israelites came, had no 
story of the Creation and Fall of Man, such as we have found 
among the Hebrews , they therefore could not have learned it from 
them. The Chaldeans, however, as we saw in our first chapter, 
had this legend, and it is from them that the Hebrews borrowed 

The account which we have given of the Chaldean story of the 
Creation and Full of Man, was taken, as we stated, from the writings 
of Berosus, the Chaldean historian, who lived in the time of 
Alexander the Great (356-325 B. o.), and as the Jews were ac 
quainted with the story some centuries earlier than this, his works 
did not prove that these traditions were in Babylonia before the 
Jewish captivity, and could not afford testimony in favor of the 
statement that the Jews borrowed this legend from the Babylonians 
at that time. It was left for Mr. George Smith, of the British 
Museum, to establish, without a doubt, the fact that this legend 
was known to the Babylonians at least two thousand years he/ore 
the time assigned for the birth of Jesus. The cuneiform inscrip 
tions discovered by him, while on an expedition to Assyria, 
organized by the London u Daily Telegraph," was the means of 
doing this, and although by far the greatest number of these 
tablets belong to the age of Assurbanipal, who reigned over 
Assyria B. c. 670, it is " acknowledged on all hands that these 
tablets are not the originals, but are only copies from earlier 
texts" " The Assyrians acknowledge themselves that this litera 
ture was borrowed from Babylonian sources, and of course it is to 
Babylonia we have to look to ascertain the approximate dates of 
the original documents." 2 Mr. Smith then shows, from "frag 
ments of the Cuneiform account of the Creation and Fall " which 
have been discovered, that, "in the period from B. c. 2000 to 

" What is the Bible," by J. T. Sunderland. Bishop Coleneo. Prof. F. W. Newman s "He- 
"The Bible of To-day/ by J. W. Chadwick. brew Monarchy." "The Bible for Learners" 
" Hebrew and Christian Ilecords," by the Rev. (vols. i. and ii.), by Prof. Got and others. " The 
Dr. Giles, 2. vols. Prof. W. R. Smith s article Old Testament in the Jewish Church," by 
on " The Bible," in the last edition of the En- Prof. Robertson Smith, and Kuenen s " Re- 
cyclopaedia Britaunica. "Introduction to the ligion of Israel." 

Old Testament," by Davidson. " The Peiita- 2 Smith : Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 

teuch and the Book of Joshua Examined," by 22, 29. 


1500, the Babylonians believed in a story similar to that in 
Genesis" It is probable, however, says Mr. Smith, that this 
legend existed as traditions in the country long before it was 
committed to writing, and some of these traditions exhibited great 
difference in details, sJwwing that they had passed through many 
changes. 1 

Professor James Fergusson, in his celebrated work on " Tree 
and Serpent Worship," says : 

" The two chapters which refer to this (i. e., the Garden, the Tree, and the 
Serpent), as indeed the whole of the first eight of Genesis, are now generally 
admitted by scholars to be made up of fragments of earlier books or earlier tra 
ditions, belonging, properly speaking, to Mesopotamia rather than to Jewish 
history, the exact meaning of which the writers of the Pentateuch seem hardly 
to have appreciated when they transcribed them in the form in which they are 
now found." 2 

John Fiske says : 

"The story of the Serpent in Eden is an Aryan story in every particular. 
The notion of Satan as the author of evil appears only in the later books, corn- 
posed after the Jews had come into close contact with Persian ideas." 3 

Prof. John W. Draper says : 

" In the old legends of dualism, the evil spirit was said to have sent a serpent 
to ruin Paradise. These legends became known to the Jews during their Baby 
lonian captivity."* 

Professor Goldziher also shows, in his " Mythology Among 
the Hebrews, " that the story of the creation was borrowed by the 
Hebrews from the Babylonians. He also informs us that the 
notion of the bore and yoser, " Creator " (the term used in the 
cosmogony in Genesis) as an integral part of the idea of God, are 
first brought into use ~by the prophets of the captivity. "Thus 
also the story of the Garden of Eden, as a supplement to the 
history of the Creation, was written down at Babylon" 

Strange as it may appear, after the Genesis account, we may pass 
through the whole Pentateuch, and other books of the Old Testa 
ment, clear to the end, and will find that the story of the " Garden 
of Eden " and "Fall of Man," is hardly alluded to, if at all. Leng- 
kerke says : ; One single certain trace of the employment of the 
story of Adam s fall is entirely wanting in the Hebrew Canon 
(after the Genesis account). Adam, Eve, the Serpent, the woman s 

Ibid, pp. i>9, 100. Also, Assyrian Discov- Myths and Myth-Makers, p. 112. 

ries. p. 397. 4 Draper: Religion and Science, p. 62. 

Tree and Serpent Worship, pp. 6, 7. 6 Goldziher: Hebrew Mythology, p. 323, i 



seduction of her husband, &c., are all images, to which the remain 
ing words of the Israelites never again recur?" 

This circumstance can only be explained by the fact that the 
first chapters of Genesis were not written until after the other 
portions had been written. 

It is worthy of notice, that this story of the Fall of Man, upon 
which the whole orthodox scheme of a divine Saviour or Re 
deemer is based, was not considered by the learned Israelites as 
fact. They simply looked upon it as a story which satisfied the 
ignorant, but which should be considered as allegory by the 
learned. 2 

Rabbi Maimonides (Moses Ben Mairnon), one of the most cele 
brated of the Rabbis, says on this subject : 

"We must not understand, or take in a literal sense, what is written in the 
book on the Creation, nor form of it the same ideas which are participated by the 
generality of mankind; otherwise our ancient sages would not haw so much recom 
mended to us, to hide the real meaning of it, and not to lift the allegorical veil, which 
covers the truth contained therein. When taken in its literal sense, the work gives 
the most absurd and most extravagant ideas of the Deity. Whosoever should 
divine its true meaning ought to take great care in not divulging it. This is a 
maxim repeated to us by all our sages, principally concerning the understanding 
of the work of the six days." 3 

Philo, a Jewish writer contemporary with Jesus, held the same 
opinion of the character of the sacred books of the Hebrews. He 
has made two particular treatises, bearing the title of " The 
Allegories" and he traces back to the allegorical sense the u Tree 
of Life," the " Rivers of Paradise," and the other fictions of the 
Genesis. 4 

Many of the early Christian Fathers declared that, in the story 
of the Creation and Fall of Man, there was but an allegorical 
fiction. Among these may be mentioned St. Augustine, who 
speaks of it in his " City of God," and also Origen, who says : 

" What man of sense will agree with the statement that the first, second, and 
third days, in which the evening is named and the morning, were without sun, 
moon and stars ? What man is found such an idiot as to suppose that God 
planted trees in Paradise like an husbandman? 1 believe that every 7ti<zn must 
hold these things for images under which a hidden sense is concealed."* 

1 Quoted by Bishop Colenso : The Penta- the unlearned were specially forbidden to med- 
teuch Examined, iv. 285. die with." (Greg: The Creed of Christendom, 

2 " Much of the Old Testament which Chris- p. 80.) 

tian divines, in their ignorance of Jewish lore, 3 Quoted by Dupuis : Origin of Keligious 

have insisted on receiving and interpreting Belief, p. 226. 

literally, the informed Rabbis never dreamed * See Ibid. p. 227. 

of regarding as anything but allegorical. The Quoted by Dunlap : Mysteries of Adoni, 

literalists * they called fools. The account of p. 176. See aleo, Bunsen : Keys of St. Petei, 

the Creation was one of the portions which p. 406. 


Origen believed aright, as it is now almost universally admitted, 
that the stories of the "Garden of Eden," the "Elysian Fields," 
the " Garden of the Blessed," &c., which were the abode of the 
blessed, where grief and sorrow could not approach them, where 
plague and sickness could not touch them, were founded on alle 
gory. These abodes of delight were far away in the West, where 
the sun goes down beyond tiie bounds of the earth. They were the 
" Golden Islands " sailing in a sea of blue the burnished clouds 
floating in the pure ether. In a word, the " Ehjxlan Fields" are 
the clouds at eventide. The picture was suggested by the images 
drawn from the phenomena of sunset and twilight. 1 

Eating of the forbidden fruit was simply a figurative mode of 
expressing the performance of the act necessary to the perpetua 
tion of the human race. The " Tree of Knowledge " was a Phallic 
tree, and the fruit which grew upon it was Phallic fruit. 2 

In regard to the story of " The Deluge" we have already seen 1 
that " Egyptian records tell nothing of a cataclysmal deluge," and 
that, " the land was never visited by other than its annual benefi 
cent overflow of the river Nile." Also, that "the Pharaoh Khou- 
fou-cheops was building his pyramid, according to Egyptian chroni 
cle, when the whole world was under the waters of a universal 
deluge, according to the Hebrew chronicle." This is sufficient 
evidence that the Hebrews did not borrow the legend from the 

We have also seen, in the chapter that treated of this legend, 
that it corresponded in all the principal features with the Chaldean 
account. We shall now show that it was taken from this. 

Mr. Smith discovered, on the site of Ninevah, during the years 
1873-4, cylinders belonging to the early Babylonian monarchy, 
(from 2500 to 1500 B. c.) which contained the legend of the flood,* 
and which we gave in Chapter II. This was the foundation for 
the Hebrew legend, and they learned it at the time of the Cap- 
tivity. 6 The myth of Deucalion, the Grecian hero, was also taken 
from the same source. The Greeks learned it from the Chaldeans. 

We read in Chambers s Encyclopaedia, that : 

"It was at one time extensively believed, even by intelligent scholars, that 

1 See Appendix, o. 6 "Upon the carrying away of the Jews to 

2 See Westopp & Wakes, " Phallic Wor- Babylon, they were brought into contact with a 
hip." flood of Iranian as well ae Chaldean myths, and 

3 In chap. ii. adopted them without hesitation." (S. Baring- 

4 See Assyrian Discoveries, pp. 167, 168, aud Gould : Curious Myths, p. 316.) 
Chaldean Account of Genesis. 


the myth of Deucalion was a corrupted tradition of the Noacfiian deluge, but 
this untenable opinion is now all but universally abandoned." 1 

This idea was abandoned after it was found that the Deu 
calion myth was older than the Hebrew. 

What was said in regard to the Eden story not being mentioned 
in other portions of the Old Testament save in Genesis, also ap 
plies to this story of the Deluge. Nowhere in the other books of 
the Old Testament is found any reference to this story, except in 
Isaiah, where "the waters of Noah" are mentioned, and inEzekiel, 
where simply the name of Noah is mentioned. 

We stated in Chapter TI. that some persons saw in this story an 
astronomical myth. Although not generally admitted, yet there 
are very strong reasons for believing this to be the case. 

According to the Chaldean account which is the oldest one 
known there were seven persons saved in the ark. 2 There were 
also seven persons saved, according to some of the Hindoo ac 
counts. 3 That this referred to the sun, moon, and five planets looks 
very probable. We have also seen that Noah was the tenth patri 
arch, and Xisthrus (who is the Chaldean hero) was the tenth king/ 
Now, according to the Babylonian table, their Zodiac contained 
ten gods called the " Ten Zodiac gods." 6 They also believed that 
whenever all the planets met in the sign of Capricorn, the whole 
earth ivas overwhelmed with a deluge of water? The Hindoos and 
other nations had a similar belief. 7 

It is well known that the Chaldeans were great astronomers. 
When Alexander the Great conquered the city of Babylon, the 
Chaldean priests boasted to the Greek philosophers, who followed 
his army, that they had continued their astronomical calculations 
through a period of more than forty thousand years. 8 Although 
this statement cannot be credited, yet the great antiquity of Chal- 
dea cannot be doubted, and its immediate connection with Hin- 
dostan, or Egypt, is abundantly proved by the little that is known 
concerning its religion, and by the few fragments that remain of 
its former grandeur. 

In regard to the story of " The Tower of Babel " little need be 
said. This, as well as the story of the Creation and Fall of Man, 
and the Deluge, was borrowed from the Babylonians. 9 

1 Chambers^ Encyclo., art. " Deucalion." See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 254. 

2 See chapter ii. i See Ibid, p. 367. 
8 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 185, and See Ibid, p. 252. 

Maurice : Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 277. Qoldzhier : Hebrew Mythology, pp. 130- 

4 Chapter ii. 135, and Smith s Chaldean Account of Gene- 

See Dunlap s Son of the Man, p. 153, note. sis. 


" It seems," says George Smith, " from the indications in the 
(cuneiform) inscriptions, that there happened in the interval be 
tween 2000 and 1850 B. c. a general collection of the development 
of the various traditions of the Creation, Flood, Tower of Babel, 
and other similar legends." " These legends were, however, tra 
ditions before they were committed to writing, and were common 
in some form to all the country." 1 

The Tower of Babel, or the confusion of tongues, is nowhere 
alluded to in the Old Testament outside of Genesis, where the 
story is related. 

The next story in order is " The Trial of Abraham s Faith" 

In this connection we have shown similar legends taken from 
Grecian mythology, which legends may have given the idea to the 
writer of the Hebrew story. 

It may appear strange that the Hebrews should have been 
acquainted with Grecian mythology, yet we know this was the 
case. The fact is accounted for in the following manner : 

Many of the Jews taken captive at the Edomite sack of Jerusa 
lem were sold to the Grecians,* who took them to their country. 
While there, they became acquainted with Grecian legends, arid 
when they returned from " the Islands of the Sea as they called 
the Western countries they brought them to Jerusalem* 

This legend, as we stated in the chapter which treated of it, was 
written at the time when the Mosaic party in Israel were endeavor 
ing to abolish human sacrifices and other " abominations," and the 
author of the story invented it to make it appear that the Lord 
had abolished them in the time of Abraham. The earliest Targum 4 
knows nothing about the legend, showing that the story was not 
in the Pentateuch at the time this Targum was written. 

We have also seen that a story written by Sanchoniathon (about 
B. o. 1300) of one Saturn, whom the Phenicians called Israel, bore 
a resemblance to the Hebrew legend of Abraham. Now, Count 
de Volney tells us that "a similar tradition prevailed among the 
Chaldeans" and that they had the history of one Zerban which 
means " rich-in-gold " 6 that corresponded in many respects with 
the history of Abraham. 8 It may, then, have been from the Chal 
dean story that the Hebrew fable writer got his idea. 

> Chaldeau Account of Genesis, pp. 27, 28. In Genesis xxiii. 2, Abraham is caUed rich 

a See Note, p. 109. in gold and in silver. 

See Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 685. See Volney s Researches in Ancient His- 

4 " Targum." The general term for the Ara- tory, pp. 144-147. 
maic versions of the Old Testament. 


The next legend which we examined was that of "Jacob s 

Vision of the Ladder" We claimed that it probably referred to 

the doctrine of the transmigration of souls from one body into 

another, and also gave the apparent reason for the invention of the 


The next story was " The Exodus from Egypt, and Passage 
through the Red Sea" in which we showed, from Egyptian history, 
that the Israelites were turned out of the country on account of 
their uncleanness, and that the wonderful exploits recorded of 
Moses were simply copies of legends related of the sun-god 
Bacchus. These legends came from " the Islands of the Sea," and 
came in very handy for the Hebrew fable writers ; they saved them 
the trouble of inventing. 

We now come to the story relating to " The Receiving of the 
Ten Commandments " by Moses from the Lord, on the top of a 
mountain, mid thunders and lightnings. 

All that is likely to be historical in this account, is that Moses 
assembled, not, indeed, the whole of the people, but the heads of 
the tribes, and gave them the code which he had prepared. 1 The 
marvellous portion of the story was evidently copied from that 
related of the law-giver Zoroaster, by the Persians, and the idea 
that there were two tables of stone with the Law written thereon 
was evidently taken from the story of Bacchus, the Law-giver, who 
had his laws written on two tables of stone* 

The next legend treated was that of u Samson and his Exploits.* 

Those who, like tlie learned of the last century, maintain that 
the Pagans copied from the Hebrews, may say that Samson was 
the model of all their similar stories, but now that our ideas con 
cerning antiquity are enlarged, and when we know that Hercules is 
well known to have been the God Sol, whose allegorical history 
was spread among many nations long before the Hebrews were 
ever heard of, we are authorized to believe and to say that some 
Jewish mythologist for what else are their so-called historians 
composed the anecdote of Samson, by partly disfiguring the 
popular traditions of the Greeks, Phenicians and Chaldeans, and 
claiming that hero for his own nation. 3 

The Babylonian story of Izdubar, the lion-killer, who wandered 

1 The Keligion of Israel, p. 49. fore them. The Greeks claimed Hercules as 

2 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 122. Higgins : their countryman ; stated wnere he was born, 
vol. ii. p. 19. and showed his tomb. The Egyptians affirmed 

* In claiming th " mighty man " and " lion- that he was born in their country (see Taci- 
killer " as one of their own race, the Jews were tus, Annals, b. ii. ch. lix.), and eo did many 
simply doing what other nations had done be- other nations. 


to the regions of the blessed (the Grecian Elysium), who crossed a 
great waste of land (the desert of Lybia, according to the Grecian 
mythos), and arrived at a region where splendid trees were laden 
with jewels (the Grecian Garden of the Hesperides), is probably the 
foundation for the Hercules and other corresponding myths. This 
conclusion is drawn from the fact that, although the story of 
Hercules was known in the island of Thasus, by the Phenician 
colony settled there, five centuries before he was known in Greece* 
yet its antiquity among the Babylonians antedates that. 

The age of the legends of Izdubar among the Babylonians 
cannot be placed with certainty, yet, the cuneiform inscriptions 
relating to this hero, which have been found, may be placed at 
about 2000 years B. c. a " As these stories were traditions" says 
Mr. Smith, the discoverer of the cylinders, "before they were 
committed to writing, their antiquity as tradition is probably 
much greater than that." 8 

With these legends before them, the Jewish priests in Babylon 
had no difficulty in arranging the story of Samson, and adding it 
to their already fabulous history. 

As the Rev. Dr. Isaac M. Wise remarks, in speaking of the 
ancient Hebrews : " They adopted forms, terms, ideas and myths 
of all nations with whom they came in contact, and, like the 
Greeks, in their way, cast them all in a peculiar Jewish religious 

We have seen, in the chapter which treats of this legend, that 
it is recorded in the book of Judges. This book was not written 
till after the first set of Israelites had oeen carried into captivity , 
and perhaps still later* 

After this we have "Jonah swallowed by a Big Fish" which 
is the last legend treated. 

We saw that it was a solar myth, known to many nations of 
antiquity. The writer of the book whoever he may have been 
lived in the fifth century before Christ after the Jews had 
become acquainted and had mixed with other nations. The writer 
of this wholly fictitious story, taking the prophet Jonah who was 
evidently an historical personage for his hero, was perhaps 
intending to show the loving-kindness of Jehovah. 6 

1 See Knight : Ancient Art and Mythology, See The Religion of Israel, p. 12; and Chad- 

pp. 92, 93. wick s Bible of To-Day, p. 55. 

a Chaldean Account of Genesis, pp. 168 and 6 See The Religion of Israel, p. 41, and 

174; and Assyrian Discoveries, p. 167. Chadwick s Bible of To-Day, p. 24. 

Chaldean Account of Genesis, p. 168. 


"We have now examined all the principal Old Testament 
legends, and, after what has been seen, we think that no impartial 
person can still consider them historical facts. That so great a 
number of educated persons still do so seems astonishing, in our 
way of thinking. They have repudiated Greek and Koman 
mythology with disdain ; why then admit with respect the mythol 
ogy of the Jews ? Ought the miracles of Jehovah to impress us 
more than those of Jupiter? We think not; they should all be 
looked upon as relics of the past. 

That Christian writers are beginning to be aroused to the idea 
that another tack should be taken, differing from the old, is very 
evident. This is clearly seen by the words of Prof. Richard A. 
Armstrong, the translator of Dr. Knappert s " Religion of Israel " 
into English. In the Preface of this work, he says : 

" It appears to me to be profoundly important that the youthful English 
mind should be faithfully anil accurately informed of the results of modern 
research into the early development of the Israelitish religion. Deplorable and 
irreparable mischief will be done to the generation now passing into manhood 
and womanhood, if their educators leave them ignorant or loosely informed on 
these topics; for they will then be rudely awakened by the enemies of Christi 
anity from a blind and unreasoning faith in the supernatural inspiration of the 
Scriptures; and being suddenly and bluntly made aware that Abraham, Moses, 
David, and the rest did not say, do, or write what has been ascribed to them, 
they will fling away all care for the venerable religion of Israel and all hope 
that it can nourish their own religious life. How much happier will those of 
our children and young people be who learn what is now known of the actual 
origin of the Pentateuch and the "Writings, from the same lips which have 
taught them that the Prophets indeed prepared the way for Jesus, and that God 
is indeed our Heavenly Father. For these will, without difficulty, perceive that 
God s love is none the feebler and that the Bible is no less precious, because 
Moses knew nothing of the Levitical legislation, or because it was not the 
warrior monarch on his semi-barbaric throne, but some far later son of Israel, 
who breathed forth the immortal hymn of faith, The Lord is my Shepherd ; I 
shall not want. " 

For the benefit of those who may think that the evidence of 
plagiarism on the part of the Hebrew writers has not been suf 
ficiently substantiated, we will quote a few words from Prof. Max 
Miiller, who is one of the best English authorities on this subject 
that can be produced. In speaking of this he says : 

" The opinion that the Pagan religions were mere corruptions of the religion 
of the Old Testament, once supported by men of high authority and great learn 
ing, is now as completely surrendered as the attempts of explaining Greek and 
Latin as the corruptions of Hebrew." 1 

Again he says : 

1 The Science of Religion, p. 40. 


" As soon as the ancient language and religion of India became known in 
Europe it was asserted that Sanskrit, like all other languages, was to be derived 
from Hebrew, and the ancient religion of the Brahmans from the Old Testa 
ment. There was at that time an enthusiasm among Oriental scholars, particu 
larly at Calcutta, and an interest for Oriental antiquities iu the public at huge, 
of which we, in these days of apathy for Eastern literature, can hardly form an 
adequate idea. Everybody wished to be first in the field, and to bring to light some 
of the treasures which were supposed to be hidden in the sacred literature of 
the Brahmans. . . . No doubt the temptation was great. No one could look 
down for a moment into the rich mine of religious and mythological lore that 
was suddenly opened before the eyes of scholars and theologians, without being 
struck by a host of similarities, not only in the language*, but also in the ancient 
traditions of the Hindoos, the Greeks, and the Romans; and if at that time the 
Greeks and Romans were still supposed to have borrowed their language and 
their religion from Jewish quarters, the same conclusion could hardly be avoided 
withregard to the language and the religion of the Brahmans of India. . . . 

The student of Pagan religion as well as Christian missionaries were bent on 
discovering more striking and more startling coincidences, in order to use tliem 
in confirmation of their favorite theory that some rays of a primeval revelation, <>r 
some reflection of the Jewish religion, had reacted the uttermost ends of t lie world. " 

The result of all this is summed up by Prof. Miiller as follows 

" It was the fate of all (these) pioneers, not only to be left behind in the assault 
which tlmj had planned, but to find that many of their approaches were made in 
a fake direction, and had to be abandoned."* 

Before closing this chapter, we shall say a few words on the 
religion of Israel. It is supposed by many in fact, we have heard 
it asserted by those who should know better that the Israelites 
were always monotheists, that they worshiped One God only 
Jehovah.* This is altogether erroneous ; they were not different 
from their neighbors the Heathen, so-called in regard to their 

In the first place, we know that they revered and worshiped 
a J3ull, called Apis* just as the ancient Egyptians did. They 

1 They even claimed that one of the " lost faith by one only people, while all surrounding 

tribes of Israel 11 had found their way toAmer- tribes were lost in Polytheit-m, or something 

ica, and had taught the natives Hebrew. worse, has been adduced by divines in general 

3 The Science of Religion, pp. 285, as a proof of the truth of the sacred hintory, 

292. and of the divine origin of the Mosaic diepen- 

s " It is an assumption of the popular theol- sation." (Greg: The Creed of Christendom, 

ogy, and an almost universal belief in the pop- p. 145.) 

ulur mind, that the Jewish nation was selected Even such authorities as Paley and Milman 

by the Almighty to preserve and carry down to have written in this strain. (See quotations 

later ages a knowledge of the One and true from Paley s " Evidences of Christianity, 1 1 and 

God that the Patriarchs possessed this kuowl- Dean Milman s "History of the Jews," made 

edge that Moses delivered and enforced this by Mr. Greg in his " Creed of Christendom," 

doctrine as the fundamental tenet of the na- p. 145.) 

tional creed ; and that it was, in fact, the re- See the Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 321, 

ceivol and distinctive dogma of the Hebrew vol. ii. p. 102; andDunlap : Mysteries of Adoni, 

peop e. This alleged possession of tfie true p. 108. 


worshiped the sun? the moon* the stars and all the host of 
heaven. 3 

They worshiped fire, and kept it burning on an altar, just as 
the Persians and other nations. 4 They worshiped stones* revered 
an oak tree," and " bowed down " to images. 1 They worshiped 
a " Queen of Heaven " called the goddess Astarte or Mylitta, and 
" burned incense" to her. 8 They worshiped Baal* Moloch, 10 and 
Cliemosh" and offered up human sacrifices to them after which 
in some instances, they ate the victim. 1 * 

It was during the Captivity that idolatry ceased among the 
Israelites. 14 The Babylonian Captivity is clearly referred to in the 
book of Deuteronomy, as the close of Israel s idolatry. 15 

There is reason to believe that the real genius of the people was 
first called into full exercise, and put on its career of development 
at this time ; that Babylon was a forcing nursery, not a prison cell ; 
creating instead of stifling a nation. The astonishing outburst of 
intellectual and moral energy that accompanied the return from the 
Babylonish Captivity, attests the spiritual activity of that " mysteri 
ous and momentous" time. As Prof. Goldziher says: "The intel 
lect of Babylon and Assyria exerted a more than passing influence 
on that of the Hebrews, not merely touching it, but entering deep 
into it, and leaving its own impression upon it." 11 

1 See the Bible, for Learner*, vol. i. pp. 317, deans and Pheuicians or Canaanites. The 
418 ; vol. li. p. 301. Dunlap s Son of the Man, word Bal, in the Punic language, signifies Lord 
p. 3, and his Spirit Hist., pp. (>x and 1S2. In- or Master. The name Bal is often joined with 
man : Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 782, 783; and some other, as Bal-berith, .Ca/-peor, Bal- 
Goldziher : Hebrew Mythol., pp. 227, 240, 242. zephon, &c. " The Israelites made him their 

2 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 317. god, and erected altars to him on which they 
Dunlap s Sou of the Man, p. 3 ; and Spirit Hist., offered human sacrifices," and "what is still 
p. 08. Als>, Goldziher: Hebrew Mythol., p. 159. more unnatural, they ate of the victims they 

The liible for Learners, vol. i. p. 20. and offered." (Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. pp. 113. 114.) 

317 ; vol. ii. p. 301 and 328. Dunlap s Son of 10 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 17, 26; 

the Man. p. 3. Dunlap s Spirit Hist., 68; vol. ii. pp. 102, 299, 300. Bunsen : Keys of St. 

Mysteries of Adorn, pp. xvii. and 108; and The Peter, p. 110. Miiller : The Science of Relig- 

lleligioi. oi Israel, p. 38. ion, p. 285. Moloch was a god of the Ammon- 

* Bunsen . Keys of St. Peter, pp. 101, 102. ites, also worshiped among ihe Israelites. Sol- 
6 The Bible for Learner^, vol. i. pp. 175-178, onion built a temple to him, on the Mount of 

317, . ;22, 448. Olives, and human sacrifices were offered to 

8 Ibid. 115. him. (Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. pp. 84/85.) 

* Ibid. i. 23, 321 ; ii. 102, 103, 109, 264, 274. The Bible for Learners, vol. i. p. 153; vol. 
Dunlap s Spirit Hist., p. 108. Inman : Ancient ii. pp. 71, 83, 125. Smith s Bible Dictionary. 
Faiths, vol. i. p. 4:38 ; vol. ii. p. 30. art. "Chemosh." 

8 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 88, 318 ; 12 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 26, 147 
vol. ii. pp. 102, 113, 300. Dunlup : Sou of the 148, 319, 320 ; vol. ii. pp. 16, ir, 299, 300. Dun- 
Man, p. 3 ; and Mysteries of Adoni, p. xvii. lap s Spirit Hist., pp. 108,222. Inman : An 
Miiller : The Science of Religion, p. 261. cient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 100, 101. Miiller : 

9 The Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 21-25, Science of Religion, p. 261. Bell s Pantheon, 
105, 301 ; vol. ii. pp. 102, 130-138. Dnnlap : vol. i. 113, 114 ; vol. ii. 84, 85. 

Son of the Man, p. 3. Mysteries of Adoni, pp. 13 See note 9 above. 

108,177. Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. pp. 14 See Buuseu : Keys of St. Peter, 291. 

782, 783. Bunsen : The Keys of St. Peter, p. Ibid, p. 27. 

91. Miiller : The Science of Religion, p. 181. 16 Goldziher : Hebrew Mythology, p. 519. 

Bal, Bel, or Belus was an idol of the Chal- 


This impression we have already partly seen in the legends which 
they borrowed, and it may also be seen in the religious ideas which 
they imbibed. 

The Assyrian colonies which came and occupied the land of the 
tribes of Israel filled the kingdom of Samaria with the dogma of 
the Magi, which very soon penetrated into the kingdom of Judah. 
Afterward, Jerusalem being subjugated, the defenseless country was 
entered by persons of different nationalities, who introduced their 
opinions, and in this way, the religion of Israel was doubly mutilated. 
Besides, the priests and great men, who were transported to Baby 
lon, were educated in the sciences of the Chaldeans, and imbibed, 
during a residence of fifty years, nearly the whole of their theology. 
It was not until this time that the dogmas of the hostile genius 
(Satan), the angels Michael, Uriel, Yar, Nisan, &c., the rebel angels, 
the battle in heaven, the immortality of the soul, and the resurrec 
tion, were introduced and naturalized among the Jews. 1 

1 The Talmud of Jerusalem expressly states Angel Messiah, p. 285.) " The Jews adopted, 
that the names of the angels and the mouths, during the Captivity, the idea of angels, 
euch as Gabriel, Michael, Yar, Nisau, &c., Michael, Raphael, Uriel, Gabriel," &c. (Knight: 
came from Babylon with the Jews. (Goldzilier, Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 54.) See, for 
p. 319.) " There is no trace of the doctrine of further information on this subject, Dr. Knap- 
Angel* in the Hebrew Scriptures composed or pert s " Religion of Israel," or Prof. Kuenen s 
written before the exile." (Bunsen : The " Religion of Israel." 

NOTE. It is not generally known that the Jews were removed from their own land until the 
time of the Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar, but there is evidence that Jerusalem was plundered by the 
Edotnites about 800 B. C., who sold some of the captive Jews to the Greeks (Joel. iii. t;i. When 
the captives returned to their country from " the Islands which are beyond the sea " (Jer. xxv. 18, 
22), they would naturally bring back with them much of the Hellenic lure of their conquerors. In 
Isaiah (xi. 11), we find a reference to this first captivity in the following words : " In that day the 
Lord shall set his hand again the second time to recover the remnant of his people, which shall 
be left, from Assyria, and from Egypt, and from Pathros, and from dish, and from Elam, and 
from Shinar, and from Hamath, and from the Islands of the sea ; " i. e., GBEKCK. 





ACCORDING to the dogma of the deity of Jesus, he who is said to 
have lived on earth some eighteen centuries ago, as Jesus of Naza 
reth, is second of the three persons in the Trinity, the SON, God as 
absolutely as the Father and the Holy Spirit, except as eternally 
deriving his existence from the Father. What, however, especially 
characterizes the Son, and distinguishes him from the two other 
persons united with him in the unity of the Deity, is this, that the 
Son, at a given moment of time, became incarnate, and that, with 
out losing anything of his divine nature, he thus became possessed 
of a complete human nature ; so that he is at the same time, with 
out injury to the unity of his person, " truly man and truly God." 

The story of the miraculous birth of Jesus is told by the 
MattJiew narrator as follows : 

"Now the birth of Jesus Christ was on this wise: When as his mother Maiy 
was espoused to Joseph, before they came together, she was found with child of 
the Holy Ghost. Then Joseph, her husband, being a just man, and not willing 
to make her a public example, was minded to put her away privity. But 
while he thought on these things, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared unto 
him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take unto thee 
Mary thy wife: for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. And 
she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus, for he shall save 
his people from their sins. Now all this was done, that it might be fulfilled which 
was spoken of the Lord by the prophet, saying: Behold, a virgin shall be 
with child, and shall bring forth a son, and they shall call his name Emmanuel, 
which being interpreted is, God with us." 2 

1 Matthew, i. 18-25. recorded in the KORAN, which says that Gabriel 

1 The Luke narrator tella the etory in a dif- appeared unto Mary in the shape of a perfect 

fpcnt manner. His account is more like that man, that Mary, upon seeing him, and 



A Deliverer was hoped for, expected, prophesied, in the time of 
Jewish misery 1 (and Cyrus was perhaps the first referred to) ; but 
as no one appeared who did what the Messiah, according to proph 
ecy, should do, they went on degrading each successive conqueror 
and hero from the Messianic dignity, and are still expecting the 
true Deliverer. Hebrew and Christian divines both start from the 
same assumed unproven premises, viz. : that a Messiah, having been 
foretold, must appear; but there they diverge, and the Jews show 
themselves to be the sounder logicians of the two : the Christians 
assuming that Jesus was the Messiah intended (though not the one 
expected], wrest the obvious meaning of the prophecies to show 
that they Avere fufilled in him ; while the Jews, assuming the ob 
vious meaning of the prophecies to be their real meaning, argue 
that they were not fulfilled in Christ Jesus, and therefore that the 
Messiah is yet to come. 

We shall now see, in the words of Bishop Ilavves: "that God 
should, in some extraordinary manner, visit and dwell with man, is 
an idea which, as we read the writings of the ancient Heathens, 
meets us in a thousand different forms." 

Immaculate conceptions and celestial descents were so currently 
received among the ancients, that whoever had greatly distinguished 
himself in the affairs of men was thought to be of supernatural 
lineage. Gods descended from heaven and were made incarnate in 
men, and men ascended from earth, and took their seat among the 
gods, so that these incarnations and apotheosises were fast filling 
Olympus with divinities. 

In our inquiries on this subject w r e shall turn first to Asia, 
where, as the learned Thomas Maurice remarks in his Indian An 
tiquities, " in every age, and in almost every region of the Asiatic 
world, there seems uniformly to have flourished an immemorial 
tradition that one god had, from all eternity, legotten another 

In India, there have been several Avatars, or incarnations of 
Vishnu, 3 the most important of which is Heri Crishna* or Grishna 
the Saviour. 

to understand his intentions, said: "If thou which their hapless nation had so long groaned, 

fearest God, thou wilt not approach me." to avenge them upon their haughty oppressors, 

Gabriel answering said: "Verily, I am the and to re-establish the kingdom of Judak. 
messenger of the Lord, and am sent to give 2 Vol. v. p. 294. 

thee a holy son." (Koran, ch. xix.) * Moor, in his " Pantheon,* tells us that a 

1 Instead, however, of the benevolent Jesus, learned Pandit once observed to him that the 

the "Prince of Peace" as Christian writers English were a new people, and had only the 

make him out to be the Jews were expecting record of one Avatara. but tlie Hindoos were 

adaring and irresistible warrior and conqueror, an ancient people, and had accounts of a great 

who, armed with greater power than Caesar, many, 
was to come upon earth to rend the fetters in This name has been spelled in many dif- 


In the Mahdrbharata, an Indian epic poem, written about 
the sixth century B. C., Crislma is associated or identified with 
Vishnu the Preserving god or Saviour. 1 

Sir William Jones, first President of the Royal Asiatic Society, 
instituted in Bengal, says of him : 

"Crishna continues to this hour the darling god of the Indian woman. The 
sect of Hindoos who adore him with enthusiastic, and almost exclusive devotion, 
have broached a doctrine, which they maintain with eagerness, and which seems 
general in these provinces, that lie was distinct from all the Avatars (incarna 
tions) who had only an ansa, or a portion, of his (Vishnu x) divinity, while 
Crishna was the person of Vishnu himself in human form." 1 

The Rev. D. O. Allen, Missionary of the American Board, for 
twenty -five years in India, speaking of Crishna, says : 

" He was greater than, and distinct from, all the Avatars which had only a 
portion of the divinity in them, while he was the very person of Vishnu himself 
in human form." 3 

Thomas Maurice, in speaking of Mathura, says: 

"It is particularly celebrated for having been the birth-place of Crishna, who 
is esteemed in India, not so much an incarnation of the divine Vishnu, as tfu 
deity himself tn human form."* 

Again, in his "History of Uindostan" he says: 

" It appears to me that the Hindoos, idolizing some eminent character of 
antiquity, distinguished, in the early annals of their nation, by heroic fortitude 
and exalted piety, have applied to that character those ancient traditional ac 
counts of an incarnate God, or, as they not improperly term it, an Avatar, 
which had been delivered down to them from their ancestors, the virtuous 
Noachidae, to descend amidst the darkness and ignorance of succeeding ages, 
at once to reform and instruct mankind. We have the more solid reason to 
affirm this of the Avatar of Oishna, because it is allowed to be the most illustri 
ous of them all; since we have learned, that, in the seven preceding Avatars, the 
deity brought only an ansa, or portion of his divinity; but, in the eighth, he 
descended in all the plentitude of the Godhead, and was Vishnu himself in a 
human form."* 

Crislma was born of a chaste virgin, 6 called Devaki, who, on 
account of her purity, was selected to become the " mother of 

According to the " BHAGAVAT POOKAUN," Vishnu said : 
" I will become incarnate at Mathura in the house of Yadu, and will issue 

ferent ways, such as Krishna, Khrishna, Allen s India, p. 397. 

Krishna, Chrisua, Cristna, Christna, &c. We Indian Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 45. 

have followed Sir Win. Jones s way of spelling 6 Hist. Ilindoetau, vol. ii. p. 270. 

it, and shall do so throughout. Like Mary, the mother of Jesus, Devaki if 

i See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 239-275. called the " Virgin Mother," although she, M 

* Ibid. p. 200. We may say that, "In him well as Mary, is said to have had other chil- 

dwelt the fulness of the Godhead bodily." dren. 

(Colossians, ii. 9.) 



forth to mortal birth from the womb of Devaki. . . . It is time I should 
display my power, and relieve the oppressed earth from its load." 1 

Then a chorus of angels exclaimed : 
"In the delivery of this favored woman, all nature shall have cause to 

In the sacred book of the Hindoos, called " Vishnu Purana" 
we read as follows : 

"Eulogized by the gods, Devaki bore in her womb the lotus-eyed deity, the 
protector of the world. . . . 

"No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki, from the light that invested her, 
and those who contemplated her radiance felt their minds disturbed. The gods, 
invisible to mortals, celebrated her praises continually from the time that 
Vishnu was contained in her person." 3 

Again w r e read : 

" The divine Vishnu Jiimsdf, the root of the vast universal tree, inscrutable by 
the understandings of all gods, demons, sages, and men, past, present, or to 
come, adored by Brahma and all the deities, he who is without beginning, 
middle, or end, being moved to relieve the earth of her load, descended into the 
womb of Devaki, and was born as her son, Vasudeva," i. e., Crishna. 4 

Again : 

" Crishna is the very Supreme Brahma, though it be a mystery* how the 
Supreme should assume the form of a man." 6 

The Hindoo belief in a divine incarnation has at least, above 
many others, its logical side of conceiving that God manifests 
himself on earth whenever the weakness or the errors of humanity 
render his presence necessary. We find this idea expressed in 
one of their sacred books called the " Bhdga/oat Geeta" wherein 
it says : 

" I (the Supreme One said), I am made evident by my own power, and as often 
as there is a decline of virtue, and an insurrection of vice and injustice in the 
world, I make myself evident, and thus I appear from age to age, for the preser 
vation of the just, the destruction of the wicked, and the establishment of 
virtue." 1 

Crishna is recorded in the " Bhdga/oat Geeta " as saying to his 
beloved disciple Arjouna : 

1 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 327. world began. 1 (Romans, xvi. 15.) " And with- 

8 Ibid. p. 329. out controversy, great is the mystery of god- 

8 Vishnu Purana, p. 502. liness : God was manifest in the flesh, justi- 

4 Ibid. p. 440. fled in the spirit, eeen of angels, preached 

6 " Now to him that is of power to establish unto the Gentiles, believed on in the world, 

jou according to my gospel, and the preaching received up into glory." (1 Timothy, iii. 1C.) 
of Jesus Christ, according to the revelation of Vishnn Purana, p. 492, note 3. 

the mystery, which was kept secret since the Geeta, ch. iv. 


" He, O Arjoun, who, from conviction, acknowledgeth my divine birth (upon 
quitting his mortal form), entereth into me." 1 

Again, he says : 

"The foolish, being unacquainted with my supreme and divine nature, as 
Lord of all things, despise me in this human form, trusting to the evil, diabolic, 
and deceitful principle within them. They are of vain hope, of vain endeavors, 
of vain wisdom, and void of reason; whilst men of great minds, trusting to their 
divine natures, discover that I am before all things and incorruptible, and serve me 
with their hearts undiverted by other gods." 2 

The next in importance among the God-begotten and Virgin- 
born Saviours of India, is Buddha* who was born of the Virgin 
Maya or Mary. lie in mercy left, and came down to 
earth because lie was filled with compassion for the sins and 
miseries of mankind. lie sought to lead them into better paths, 
and took their sufferings upon himself, that he might expiate their 
crimes, and mitigate the punishment they must otherwise inevita 
bly undergo. 4 

According to the Fo-pen-hingf when Buddha was about to 
descend from heaven, to be born into the world, the angels in 
heaven, calling to the inhabitants of the earth, said : 

"Ye mortals! adorn your earth! for Bodhisatwa, the great Mahasatwa, not 
long hence shall descend from Tusita to be born amongst you ! make ready and 
prepare! Buddha is about to descend and be born I" 6 

The womb that bears a Buddha is like a casket in which a 
relic is placed ; no other being can be conceived in the same recep 
tacle ; the usual secretions are not formed ; and from the time of 
conception, Maha-maya was free from passion, and lived in the 
strictest continence. 7 

The resemblance between this legend and the doctrine of the 
perpetual virginity of Mary the mother of Jesus, cannot but be re 
marked. The opinion that she had ever borne other children was 
called heresy by Epiphanius and Jerome, long before she had been 
exalted to the station of supremacy she now occupies. 8 

1 Bhagavat Geeta, Lecture iv. p. 52. name. We have adopted this throughout this 

2 Ibid., Lecture iv. p. 79. work, regardless of the manner in which the 

3 It is said that there have been several writer from which we quote spells it. 
Buddhas (see ch. xxix). We speak of Gautama. 4 Prog. Relig. Idea?, vol. i. p. 80. 
Buddha is variously pronounced and express- 6 FO-PEN-HING is the life of Gautama Budd 
ed Boudh, Bod, Bot, But, Bud, Badd, Buddou, ha, translated from the Chinese Sanskrit by 
Bonttu, Bota, Budso, Pot, Pout, Pota, Poti, Prof. Samuel Boal. 

and Pouti. The Siamese make the final t 6 Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 25. 

or d quiescent, and sound the word Po ; 7 Hardy : Manual of Buddhism, p. 141. 

whence the Chinese still further vary it to Pho 8 A Christian sect called Collyridians be- 

or Fo. BUDDHA which means awakened or lieved that Mary was born of a virgin, aa 

enlightened (see Muller : Sci. of Relig. , p. 308) Christ is related to have been born of her 

is the proper way in which to spell the (See note to the "Gospel of the Birth of 


M. 1 Abbe Hue. a French Missionary, in speaking of Buddha, 

says : 

" In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage is sometimes a man and some 
times a god, or rather both one and the other, a divine incarnation, a man-god ; 
who came into the world to enlighten men, to redeem them, and to indicate to 
them the way of safety. 

" This idea of redemption by a divine incarnation is so general and popular 
among the Buddhists, that during our travels in Upper Asia, we everywhere found 
it expressed in a neat formula. If we addressed to a Mongol or a Thibetan the 
question, Who is Buddha? he would immediately reply: The Saviour of 
Men. 1 " 1 

He further says : 

"The miraculous birth of Buddha, his life and instructions, contain a great 
number of the moral and dogmatic truths professed in Christianity. " 2 

This Angel-Messiah was regarded as the divinely chosen and 
incarnate messenger, the vicar of God. He is addressed as " God 
of Gods," "Father of the World," "Almighty and All-knowing 
Ruler," and " Redeemer of All." He is called also "The Holy 
One," "The Author of Happiness," "The Lord," " The Possessor of 
All," "lie who is Omnipotent and Everlastingly to be Contem 
plated," "The Supreme Being, the Eternal One," "The Divinity 
worthy to he Adored by the most praiseworthy of Mankind." 4 He 
is addressed by Amora one of his followers thus : 

" Reverence be unto thee in the form of Buddha! Reverence be unto thee, 
the Lord of the Earth ! Reverence be unto thee. an incarnation of the Deity ! Of the 
Eternal One! Reverence be unto thee, O God, in the form of the God of Mercy; 
the dispeller of pain and trouble, the Lord of all things, the deity, the guardian 
of the universe, the emblem of mercy." 5 

The incarnation of Gautama Buddha is recorded to have been 
brought about by the descent of the divine power called The 
"Holy Ghost" upon the Virgin Maya. 6 This Holy Ghost, or 

Mary" [Apocryphal] ; also King : The Gnostics to her in heaven and upon earth. Indeed, 
and their Remains, p. 91. and Gibbon s Hist. more than one serious attempt has been al- 
of Rome, vol. v. p. 108, note). This idea has ready made in the Ultramontane camp to 
been recently adopted by the Roman Catholic unite Mary in some way to the Trinity; and if 
Church. They now claim that Mary was born Mariolatry lasts much longer, this will prob- 
as immaculate as her son. (See Inman s ably be accomplished in the end." (Albert Re- 
Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 75, and The Lily of ville.) 
Israel, pp. 6-15 ; also fig. 17, ch. xxxii.) 1 Hue s Travels, vol. i. pp. 326,327. 

"The gradual df [flea f ion of Mary, though 2 Ibid. p. 327. 

slower in its progress, follows, in the Romish 3 Oriental Religions, p. 604. 

Church, a course analogous to that which the See Bnnsen s Angel-Messiah. 

Church of the first centuries followed, in club- 6 Asiatic Researches, vol. ii. p. 309, and 

orating the deity of Jesus. With almost all King s Gnostics, p. 167. 

the Catholic writers of our day, Mary is the See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 10, 26 

universal mediatrix ; all power has been given and 44. 


Spirit, descended in the form of a white elephant. The Tikas 
explain this as indicating power and wisdom. 1 

The incarnation of the angel destined to become Buddha took 
place in a spiritual manner. The Elephant is the symbol of power 
and wisdom ; and Buddha was considered the organ of divine 
power and wisdom, as he is called in the Tikas. For these reasons 
Buddha is described by Buddhistic legends as having descended 
from heaven in the form of an Elephant to the place where the 
Virgin Maya was. But according to Chinese Buddhistic writings, 
it was the Holy Ghost, or Shing-Shin, who descended on the 
Virgin Maya. 2 

The Fo-pen-liing says : 

" If a mother, in her dream, behold 
A white elephant enter her right side, 
That mother, when she bears a son, 
Shall bear one chief of all the world (Buddha); 
Able to profit all flesh; 

Equally poised between preference and dislike; 
Able to save and deliver the world and men 
From the deep sea of misery and grief." 3 

In Prof. Fergusson s " Tree and Serpent Worship " may be 
jeen (Plate xxxiii.) a representation of Maya, the mother of 
Buddha, asleep, and dreaming that a white elephant appeared to 
her, and entered her womb. 

This dream being interpreted by the Brnhmans learned in the 
Rig Veda, was considered as announcing the incarnation of him 
who was to be in future the deliverer of mankind from pain and 
sorrow. It is, in fact, the form which the Annunciation took in 

Buddhist legends. 4 

" Awaked, 

Bliss beyond mortal mother s filled her breast, 

And over half the earth a lovely light 

Forewent the morn. The strong hills shook; the waves 

Sank lulled; all flowers that blow by day came forth 

As twere high noon; down to the farthest hells 

Passed the Queen s joy, as when warm sunshine thrills 

Wood-glooms to gold, and into all the deeps 

A tender whisper pierced. Oh ye, it said, 

1 The dead that are to live, the live who die, 

Uprise, and hear, and hope! Buddha is come 1 

Whereat in Limbos numberless much peace 

Spread, and the world s heart throbbed, and a wind blew 

4 Bee Beal. : Hist. Buddha, p. 36, note. Pantheon, and vol. i. of Asiatic Researches.) 
Gwtiesa, the Indian God of Wisdom, is either a Bunson : The Angel-Messiah, p. 33. 

represented as an elephant, or a man with * Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 38,39. 

an eiephant 8 head. (See Moore s Hindu * Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 131. 


With unknown freshness over land and seas. 

And when the morning dawned, and this was told, 

The grey dream-readers said, The dream is good! 

The Crab is in conjunction with the Sun ; 

The Queen shall bear a boy, a holy child 

Of wondrous wisdom, profiting all flesh, 

Who shall deliver men from ignorance, 

Or rule the world, if he will deign to rule. 

In this wise was the holy Buddha born." 

In Fig. 4, Plate xci., the same subject is also illustrated. Prof. 
Fergusson, referring to it, says : 

"Fig. 4 is another edition of a legend more frequently repeated than almost 
any other in Buddhist Scriptures. It was, witli their artists, as great a favorite 
as the Annunciation and Nativity were with Christian painters." 1 

When Buddha avatar descended from the regions of the souls, 
and entered the body of the Virgin Maya, her womb suddenly 
assumed the appearance of clear, transparent crystal, in which 
Buddha appeared, beautiful as a flower, kneeling and reclining on 
his hands. 2 

Buddha s representative on earth is the Dalai Lama, or Grand 
Lama, the High Priest of the Tartars. He is regarded as the 
vicegerent of God, with power to dispense divine blessings 311 
whomsoever he will, and is considered among the Buddhists to be 
a sort of divine being. He is the Pope of Buddhism. 8 

The Siamese had a Virgin-born God and Saviour whom they 
called Codom. His mother, a beautiful young virgin, being in 
spired from heaven, quitted the society of men and wandered into 
the most unfrequented parts of a great forest, there to await the 
coining of a god which had long been announced to mankind. 
While she was one day prostrate in prayer, she was impregnated by 
the sunbeams. She thereupon retired to the borders of a lake, 
between Siam and Cambodia, where she was delivered of & i(> heav 
enly boy" which she placed within the folds of a lotus, that opened 
to receive him. When the boy grew up, he became a prodigy 
of wisdom, performed miracles, &c. 4 

The first Europeans who visited Cape Comorin, the most 

1 Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 212. Buddhism, p. 144.) The same thing was said 

a King : The Gnostics and their Remains, of Mary, the mother of Jesus. Early art rep- 

p. 1G8, and Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 485. resented the infant distinctly visible in her 

R. Spence Hardy says : ; The body of the womb. (See Inman s Ancient Pagan and 

Queen was transparent, and the child could Modern Christian Symbolism, and chap. xxix. 

be distinctly seen, like a priest seated upon a this work.) 

throne in the act of saying bana, or like a a See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 34. 

golden image enclosed in a vase of crystal ; * Squire : Serpent Symbol, p. 185. See also 

BO that it could be known how much he grew Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 102 and 308. 
every succeeding day." (Hardy Manual of 


southerly extremity of the peninsula of Hindostan, were surprised 
to h nd the inhabitants worshiping a Lord and Saviour whom they 
called Salivahana. They related that his father s name was 
Taishaca, but that he was a divine child born of a Virgin, in fact, 
an incarnation of the Supreme VisJinu. 1 

The belief in a virgin-born god-man is found in the religions 
of China. As Sir John Francis Davis remarks, 2 "China hasher 
mythology in common with all other nations, and under this head 
we must range the persons styled Fo-hi (or Fuh-he), Shin-noong, 
Hoang-ty and their immediate successors, who, like the demi gods 
and heroes of Grecian fable, rescued mankind by their ability or 
enterprise from the most primitive barbarism, and have since been 
invested with superhuman attributes. The most extravagant pro 
digies are related of these persons, and the most incongruous 
qualities attributed to them/ 

Dean Milman, in his "History of Christianity" (Vol. i. p. 97), 
refers to the tradition, found among the Chinese, that Fo-hi was 
born of a virgin ; and remarks that, the first Jesuit missionaries 
who went to China were appalled at finding, in the mythology of 
that country, a counterpart of the story of the virgin of Judea. 

Fo-hi is said to have been born 3-t68 years B. c., and, according 
to some Chinese writers, with him begins the historical era and the 
foundation of the empire. When his mother conceived him in 
her womb, a rainbow was seen to surround her. 3 

The Chinese traditions concerning the birth of Fo-hi are, some 
of them, highly poetical. That which has received the widest ac 
ceptance is as follows : 

" Three nymphs came down from heaven to wash themselves in a river ; 
but scarce hud they got there before the herb lotus appeared on one of their 
garments, with its coral fruit upon it. They could not imagine whence it pro 
ceeded, and one was tempted to taste it, whereby she became pregnant and was 
delivered of a boy, who afterwards became a great man, a founder of religion, a 
conqueror, and legislator." 4 

The sect of Xaca, which is evidently a corruption of Buddhism, 
claim that their master was also of supernatural origin. Alvarez 
Sernedo, speaking of them, says : 

"The third religious sect among the Chinese is from India, from the parts of 
Hindostan, which sect they call Xaca, from the founder of it, concerning whom 
they fable that he was conceived by his mother Maya, from a white elephant, 

1 See Aeiastic Res., vol. x., and Anac., vol. s Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 21, 

i. p. 662. 22. 

8 Davis : Hiet. China, vol. i. p. 161. * Squire: Serpent Symbol, p. 184. 


which she saw in her sleep, and for more purity she brought him from one of 
her sides." 1 

Lao-kiun, sometimes called Lao-tsze, who is said to have been 
born in the third year of the emperor Ting-wang, of the Chow 
dynasty (604 B. c.), was another miraculously-born man. He ac 
quired great reputation for sanctity, and marvelous stories were 
told of his birth. It was said that he had existed from all eternity; 
that he had descended on earth and was lorn of a virgin, black in 
complexion, described " marvelous and beautiful as jasper." Splen 
did temples were erected to him, and he was worshiped as a god. 
His disciples were called u Heavenly Teachers." They inculcated 
great tenderness toward animals, and considered strict celibacy 
necessary for the attainment of perfect holiness. Lao-kiun believed 
in One God whom he called Too, and the sect which he formed is 
called Tao-tse, or " Sect of Reason." Sir Thomas Thornton, speak 
ing of him, says : 

"The mythological history of this prince of the doctrine of the Taou, 
which is current amongst his followers, represents him as a divine emanation incar 
nate in a human form. They term him the most high and venerable prince of 
the portals of gold of the palace of the genii, and say that he condescended to a 
contact with humanity when he became incorporated with the miraculous and 
excellent Virgin of jasper. Like Buddha, he came out of his mother s side, and 
was born under a tree. 

" The legends of the Taou-tse declare their founder to have existed antecedent 
to the birth of the elements, in the Great Absolute; that he is the pure essence 
of the teen; that he is the original ancestor of the prime breath of life; and 
that he gave form to the heavens and the earth." 2 

M. Le Comptc says : 

" Those who have made this (the religion of Taou-tsze) their professed bus 
iness, are called Tien-se, that is, Heavenly Doctors; they have houses (Monas 
teries) given them to live together in society ; the}^ erect, in divers parts, temples 
to their master, and king and people honor him with divine worship." 

Yu was another virgin-born Chinese sage, who is said to have 
lived upon earth many ages ago. Confucius as though he had 
been questioned about him says : "I see no defect in the character 
of Yu. He was sober in eating and drinking, and eminently pious 
toward spirits and ancestors." 3 

Hau-ki, the Chinese hero, was of supernatural origin. 

The following is the history of his birth, according to the " Shin- 

1 Semedo : Hist. China, p. 89, in Anac., vol. 137. See also Chambers s Encyclo., art. Lao* 
i. p. 227. teze. 

Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 134- * Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 204, 205. 


"His mother, who was childless, had presented a pure offering; and sacri 
ficed, that her childlessness might be taken away. She then trod on a toe-print 
made by God, and was moved, 1 in the large place where she rested. She became 
pregnant; she dwelt retired; she gave birth to and nourished a son, who \\as 
Hdu-ki. When she had fulfilled her mouths, her first-born sou came forth like a 
lamb. There was no bursting, no rending, no injury, no hurt; showing how 
wonderful he would be. Did not God give her comfort? Had he not accepted 
her pure offering and sacrifice, so that thus easily she brought forth her son?" 2 

Even the sober Confucius (born B. c. 501) was of supernatural 
origin. The most important event in Chinese literary and ethical 
history is the birth of Kung-foo-tsze (Confucius), both in its effects 
on the moral organization of this great empire, and the study of 
Chinese philosophy in Europe. 

Kung-foo-tsze (meaning " the sage Kung " or " the wise excel 
lence") was of royal descent and his family the most ancient in 
the empire, as his genealogy was traceable directly up to H \vang- 
te, the reputed organizer of the state, the first emperor of the scini- 
historical period (beginning 2696 B. c.). 

At his birth a prodigious quadruped, called the Ke-lin, appeared 
and prophesied that the new-born infant " would be a kins; with 
out throne or territory." Two dragons hovered about the couch 
of Yen-she (his mother), and five celestial sages, or angels, entered 
at the moment of the birth of the wondrous child ; heavenly 
strains were heard in the air, and harmonious chords followed 
each other, fast and full. Thus was Confucius ushered into the 

His disciples, who were to expound his precepts, were seventy- 
two in number, twelve of whom were his ordinary companions, the 
depositories of his thoughts, and the witnesses of all his actions. 
To them he minutely explained his doctrines, and charged them 
with their propagation after his death. YAN-HWUY was his favorite 
disciple, who, in his opinion, had attained the highest degree of 
moral perfection. Confucius addressed him in terms of great 
affection, which denoted that he relied mainly upon him for the 
accomplishment of his work. 8 

Even as late as the seventeenth century of our era, do we find 
the myth of the virgin-born God in China. 4 

1 "The toe-print made by God has occa- pp. 168-170. 

eioned much speculation of the critics. We 4 " Le Dieu LA des LAMAS cst ne d une 

may simply draw the conclusion that the poet Vierge : pltisieurs princes de 1 Asie, entr autres 

meant to have his readers believe with him VEinpereur Kienlong, aujourd hui regnant a la 

that the conception of his hero was SUPER- Chine, et qui est do la race de ces Tartares 

KATURAL." (James Legge.) Mandhuis, qui couquirent cet empire en U,44, 

a The Shih-King, Decade ii. Ode 1. croit, et assure lui-meme. etre descend u d une 

* See Thornton s Hist. China, vol. i. pp. 199, Vurge" (D Hancarville : Res. Sur 1 Orig., p. 

400, and Buckley 8 Cities of the Ancient World, 186, in Amc., vol. ii. p. 97.) 


All these god-begotten and virgin born men were called Tien- 
tse, i. c., " Sons of Heaven." 

If from China we should turn to Egypt we would find that, 
for ages before the time of Jesus of Nazareth, the mediating deity, 
born of a virgin, and without a worldly father, was a portion of the 
Egyptian belief. 1 

llorus, who had the epithet of "Saviour" was b^rn of the 
virgin Isis. " His birth was one of the greatest Mysteries of the 
Egyptian religion. Pictures representing it appear on the walls of 
temples." 2 He is " the second emanation of Amon, the son whom 
he begot." 3 Egyptian monuments represent the infant Saviour in 
the arms of his virgin mother, or sitting on her knee. 4 An inscrip 
tion on a monument, translated by Champollion, reads thus : 

" O them avenger, God, son of a God; O thou avenger, Horus, manifested by 
Osiris, engendered of the goddess Isis." 5 

The Egyptian god Ra was born from the side of his mother, 
lut was tvot engendered. 6 

The ancient Egyptians also deified kings and heroes, in the 
same manner as the ancient Greeks and Romans. An Egyptian 
king became, in a sense, " the vicar of God on earth, the infallible, 
and the personated deity." 7 

P. Le Page Reneuf, in his Hibbert Lectures on the Religion of 
Ancient Egypt, says : 

"I must not quit this part of my subject without a reference to the belief that 
the ruling sovereign of Egypt was the living image and vicegerent of the Sun- 
god (Ra). lie teas invested with the attributes of divinity, and that in the earliest 
times of which we possess monumental evidence." 8 

Menes, who is said to have been the first king of Egypt, was 
believed to be a god. 9 

Almost all the temples of the left bank of the Nile, at Thebes, 
had been constructed in view of the worship rendered to the 
Pharaohs, their founders, after their death. 10 

On the wall of one of these Theban temples is to be seen a 
picture representing the god Thoth the messenger of God telling 

1 See Mahaffy : Proleg. to Anct. Hist,, p, gendre d Isis deesee." (Champollion, p. 190.) 
416, and Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 406. 9 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 406. 

2 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 157. 7 Ibid, p. 247. 

3 Renouf : Relig. Anct, Egypt, p. 162. 8 Renouf : Religion of Ancient Egypt, p. 

4 See the chapter on " The Worship of the 161. 

Virgin Mother." See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. pp. 67 nd 

5 " O toi vengeur, Dieu fils d 1 un Dieu ; 147. 

toi vengeur, Horus, manifesto par Osiris, en- Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 248. 


the t/iaiden-j Queen Mautmes, that she is to give birth to a divine 
son, who is to be King Amunothph III. 1 

An inscription found in Egypt makes the god Ha say to his son 
Ramses III. : 

I am thy father ; by me are begotten all thy members as divine ; I have formed 
thy shape like the Meudesiau god; I have begotten thee, impregnating thy ven 
erable mother." 2 

Raam-ses, or Ra-me-ses, means " Son of the Sun," and Ram 
ses lick An, a name of Ramses III., means " engendered by Ra 
(the Sun), Prince of An (Ileliopolis)." 3 

u Thotmes III., on the tablet of Karnak, presents offerings to his 
predecessors ; so does Ramses on the tablet of Abydos. Even dur 
ing his life-time the Egyptian king was denominated Beneficent 

God: " 4 

The ancient Babylonians also believed that their kings were 
gods upon earth. A passage from Menaut s translation of the great 
inscription of Nebuchadnezzar, reads thus : 

" I am Nabu-kuder-usur . . . the first-born son of Nebu-pal-usur, King 
of Babylon. The god Bel himself created me, the god Marduk engendered me, 
and deposited himself the germ of my life in the womb of my mother." 5 

In the life of Zoroaster, the law-giver of the Persians, the 
common mythos is apparent. He was born in innocence, of an 
immaculate conception, of a ray of the Divine Reason. As soon 
as he was born the glory from his body enlightened the whole 
room. 8 Plato informs us that Zoroaster was said to be "the son of 
Oromasdes, which was the name the Persians gave to the Supreme 
God " ; therefore he was the Son of God. 

From the East we will turn to the West, and shall find that 
many of the ancient heroes of Grecian and Roman mythology were 
regarded as of divine origin, were represented as men, possessed 
of god-like form, strength and courage ; were believed to have 
lived on earth in the remote, dim ages of the nation s history ; to 
have been occupied in their life-time with thrilling adventures and 
extraordinary services in the cause of human civilization, and to 
have been after death in some cases translated to a life among the 
gods, and entitled to sacrifice and worship. In the hospitable 
Pantheon of the Greeks and Romans, a niche was always in readi- 

i Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 407. 6 Spencer s Principles of Sociology, vol. i. 

8 Renouf : Relig. of Anct. Egypt, p. 163. p. 421. 

See Uerbert Spencer s Principles of Soci- Malcolm : Hist. Persia, vol. i. p. 494. 

ology, vol. i. p. 4x!0. T Anac. vol. i. p. 117. 

* Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 431. 


ness for every ne\\ divinity who could produce respectable cre 

The Christian Father Justin Martyr, says : 

" It having reached the Devil s ears that the prophets had foretold the coin 
ing of Christ (the Son of God), he set the Heathen Poets to bring forward a great 
many who should be called the sons of Jove. The Devil laying his scheme in 
this, to oret men to imagine that the true history of Christ was of the same char 
acter as the prodigious fablcx related of the sons of Jove." 

Among these " sons of Jove " may be mentioned the following : 
Hercules was the son of Jupiter by a mortal mother, Alcmene, 
Queen of Thebes. 1 Zeus, the god of gods, spake of Hercules, his 
son, and said: "This day shall a child be born of the race of 
Perseus, who shall be the mightiest of the sons of men." 2 

Bacchus was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Semele, 
daughter of Kadmus, King of Thebes. 3 As Montfancon says, " It 
is the son of Jupiter and Semele which the poets celebrate, and 
which the monuments represent." 4 

Bacchus is made to say : 

"I, son of Deus, am come to this land of the Thebans, Bacchus, whom for 
merly Semele the daughter of Kadmus brings forth, being delivered by the 
lightning-bearing flame: and having taken a mortal form instead of a god s, I 
have arrived at the fountains of Dirce and the water of Ismenus." 5 

Amphion was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Antiope, 
daughter of Nicetus, King of Bceotia. 6 

Prometheus, whose name is derived from a Greek word signify 
ing foresight and providence, was a deity who united the divine and 
human nature in one person, and was confessedly both man and 

Perseus was the son of Jupiter by the virgin Danae, daughter 
of Acrisius, King of Argos. 8 Divine honors were paid him, and a 
temple was erected to him in Athens. 9 

Justin Martyr (A. D. 140), in his Apology to the Emperor 
Adrian, says : 

"By declaring the Logos, the first-begotten of God, our Master, Jesus Christ, 
to be born of a virgin, without any human mixture, we (Christians) say no more 
in thi* than what you (Pagans) say of those whom you style the Sons of Jove. For 

1 Eoman Antiq., p. 124. Bell s Panth., i. Spirit Hist, of Man, p. 200. 

328. Dupuis, p. 258. 6 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 58. Roman An- 

2 Tales of Anct. Greece, p. 55. tiquities, p. 133. 

8 Greek and Italian Mytho., p. 81. Bell s 7 See the chapter on " The Crucifixion of 

Panth., i. 117. Roman Antiq., p. 71, and Mur- Jeeus," and BellV Pantheon, ii. 196. 
ray s Manual Mytho., p. 118. 8 Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 170. Bulflnch: 

4 L Antiquite Expltquee, vol. i. p. 229. The Age of Fable, p. 161. 

Euripides: Bacchae. Quoted by Dunlap : 9 Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 171. 


you need not be told what a parcel of sons the writers most in vogue among you 
assign to Jove. . . . 

"As to the Son of God, called Jesus, should we allow him to be nothing more 
than man, yet the title of the Son of God is very justifiable, upon the account 
of his wisdom, considering that you (Pagans) have your Mercury in worship 
under (he title of the Word, a messenger of God. . . . 

" As tc his (Jesus Christ s) being born of a virgin, you have your Perseus to 
balance that." 1 

Mercury was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Maia, 
daughter of Atlas. Cyllene, in Arcadia, is said to have been the 
scene of his birth and education, and a magnificent temple was 
erected to him there. 2 

^Eolus, king of the Lipari Islands, near Sicily, was the son of 
Jupiter and a mortal mother, Acasta. 3 

Apollo was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother, Latona. 4 
Like Buddha and Lao-Kiun, Apollo, so the Ephesians said, was 
born under a tree ; Latona, taking shelter under an olive-tree, was 
delivered there. 6 Then there was joy among the undying gods in 
Olympus, and the Earth laughed beneath the smile of Heaven." 

Aethlius, who is said to have been one of the institutors of the 
Orphic games, was the son of Jupiter by a mortal mother, Proto- 
genia. 7 

Areas was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother. 8 

Arodus was the son of Jupiter and a mortal mother. 9 

We might continue and give the names of many more sons of 
Jove, but sufficient has been seen, we believe, to show, in the words 
of Justin, that Jove had a great " parcel of sons." " The images of 
self-restraint, of power used for the good of others, are prominent 
in the lives of all or almost all the Zeus-born heroes." 10 

This Jupiter, who begat so many sons, was the supreme god of 
the Pagans. In the words of OrpJieus : 

" Jupiter is omnipotent; the first and the last, the head and the midst; Jupi 
ter, the giver of all things, the foundation of the earth, and the starry heavens." 11 

The ancient Romans were in the habit of deifying their living 
and departed emperors, and gave to them the title of Divus, or the 
Divine One. It was required throughout the whole empire that 
divine honors should be paid to the emperors. 12 They had a cere- 

1 Auol. 1. ch. xzii. T Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 31. 

2 Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 67. Bulflnch : 8 Ibid. p. 81. 
The Age of Fable, p. 19. Ibid. p. 16. 

8 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 25. 10 Bell s Pantheon, ii. p. 30. 

4 Ibid, p. 74, and Bulfinch : p. 248. n Cox : Aryan Mythology, ii. 45. 

Tacitue : Annala, iii. Ixi. ia The Bible for Learners, vol. ill. p. S. 

8 Tales of Anct. Greece, p. 4. 


mony called Apotheosis, or deification. After this ceremony, 
temples, altars, and images, with attributes of divinity, were erected 
to the new deity. It is related by Eusebius, Tertullian, and Chry- 
sostom, that Tiberius proposed to the Roman Senate the Apotheosis 
or deification of Jesus Christ. 1 JSlius Lampridius, in his Life of 
Alexander Severus (who reigned A. D. 222-235), says : 

" This emperor had two private chapels, one more honorable than the other; 
and in the former were placed the deified emperors, and also some eminent good 
men, among them Abraham, Christ, and Orpheus. "- 1 

Romulus, who is said to have been the founder of Rome, was 
believed to have been the son of God by a pure virgin, Rhea-Sylvia.* 
One Julius Proculus took a solemn oath, that Romulus himself 
appeared to him and ordered him to inform the Senate of his be 
ing called up to the assembly of the gods, under the name of Quiri- 
nus. 4 

Julius Ccesar was supposed to have had a god for a father. 6 
Augustus Ccesar was also believed to have been of celestial ori 
gin, and had air the honors paid to him as to a divine person. 6 His 
divinity is expressed by Virgil, in the following lines : 

" Turn, turn thine eyes, see here thy race divine, 

Behold thy own imperial Roman Sine: 

Caesar, with all the Julian name survey; 

See where the glorious ranks ascend to-day ! 

This this is he the chief so long foretold, 

To bless the land where Saturn ruled of old, 

And give the Learnean realms a second eye of gold! 

The promised prince, Augustus the divine, 

Of Caesar s race, and Jove s immortal line." 7 

"The honors due to the gods," says Tacitus, "were no longer 
sacred : Augustus claimed equal worship. Temples were built, 
and statues were erected, to him ; a mortal man was adored, and 
priests and pontiffs were appointed to pay him impious homage." 8 

Divine honors were declared to the memory of Claudius, after 
his death, and he was added to the number of the gods. The titles 
" Our Lord," " Our Master," and " Our God," were given to the 
Emperors of Rome, even while living. 9 

1 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 78. again while praying in the temple at Jerusalem. 

2 Quoted by Lardner, vol. iii. p. 157. (Acts xxii.) 

3 Draper : Eeligion and Science, p. 8. 6 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 345. 

4 Middleton s Letters from Rome, p. 37. In Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. pp. 84, 85. 

the case of Jesus, one Saul of Tarsus, said to 6 Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 611. 

be of a worthy and upright character, declared 7 J3neid, lib. iv. 

most solemnly, that Jesus himself appeared e Tacitus : Annals, bk. i. ch. x. 

to him while on his way to Damascus, and Ibid. bk. ii. ch. Ixxxii. and bk. xiii. ch. ii. 


In the deification of the Caesars, a testimony upon oath, of an 
eagle s flying out of the funeral pile, toward heaven, which was 
supposed to convey the soul of the deceased, was the established 
proof of their divinity. 1 

Alexander the Great, King of Macedonia (born 35(3 B. c.), whom 
genius and uncommon success had raised above ordinary men, was 
believed to have been a god upon earth. 2 He was believed to have 
been the son of Jupiter by a mortal mother, Olympias. 

Alexander at one time visited the temple of Jupiter Ammon, 
which was situated in an oasis in the Libyan desert, and the Oracle 
there declared him to be a son of the god. lie afterwards issued 
his orders, letters, decrees, &c., styling himself " Alexander, son of 
Jupiter Amrnon"* 

The words of the oracle which declared him to be divine were 
as follows, says Socrates : 

" Let altars burn and incense pour, please Jove Minerva eke; 
The potent Prince though nature frail, his favor you must seek, 
For Jove from heaven to earth him sent, lo! Alexander king, 
As God he conies the earth to rule, and just laws for to bring." 4 

Ptolemy, who was one of Alexander s generals in his Eastern 
campaigns, and into whose hands Egypt fell at the death of 
Alexander, was also believed to have been of divine origin. At 
the siege of Rhodes, Ptolemy had been of such signal service to 
its citizens that in gratitude they paid divine honors to him, and 
saluted him with the title of Soter, i. e., Saviour. By that designa 
tion, "Ptolemy Soter" he is distinguished from the succeeding 
kings of the Macedonian dynasty in Egypt. 6 

Cyrus, King of Persia, was believed to have been of divine 
origin ; he was called the " Christ" or the "Anointed of God," 
and God s messenger." 

Plato, born at Athens 429 B. c., was believed to have been the 
son of God by & pure virgin, called Perictione. 7 

The reputed father of Plato (Aris) was admonished in a dream 
to respect the person of his wife until after the birth of the child 
of which she was then pregnant by a god. 8 

Prof. Draper, speaking of Plato, says : 

1 See Middleton s Letters from Rome, pp. See Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 418. 

87, 38. Bunsen : Bible Chronology, p. 5, and The Au- 

. See Religion of the Ancient Greeks, p. 81, gel-Messiah, pp. 80 and 898. 

nd Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. pp. 84, 85. T See Iliggins : Anaealypsis, vol. ii. p. 113, 

Draper : Religion and Science, p. 8. and Draper : Religion and Science, p. 8. 

Socrates : Eccl. Hist. Lib. 3, ch. xix. 8 Hardy : Manual Budd., p. 141. Higgins : 

Draper : Religion and Science, p. 17. Anac., i. 618. 


"The Egyptian disciples of Plato would have looked with anger on those 
who rejected the legend that Periotione, the mother of that great philosopher, a 
pure virgin, had suffered an immaculate conception through the inlluencea of 
(the god) Apollo, ami that the god had declared to Aris, to whom she was betrothed, 
the parentage of the child. " 1 

Here wo have the legend of the angel appearing to Joseph 
to whom Mary was betrothed believed in by the disciples of 
Plato for centuries before the time of Christ Jesus, the only 
difference being that the virgin s name was Perictione instead of 
Mary, and the confiding husband s name Aris instead of Joseph. 
We have another similar case. 

The mother of Apollonius (B. c. 41) was informed by a god, 
who appeared to her, that he himself should be born of her? In 
Hie course of time she gave birth to Apollonius, who became a 
grv,ti, religions teacher, and performer of miracles. 3 

Pythaijora*, born about 570 B. c., had divine honors paid him. 
His mother is said to have become impregnated through a spectre, 
or Holy Ghost. His father or foster-father was also informed 
that his wife should bring forth a son, who should be a benefactor 
to mankind. 4 

dsculapiu8) the great performer of miracles, 6 was supposed to 
be the son of a god and a worldly mother, Coronis. The Messe- 
nians, who consulted the oracle at Delphi to know where ^Escula- 
pius was born, and of what parents, were informed that a god was 
his father, Coronis his mother, and that their son was born at Epi- 

Coronis, to conceal her pregnancy from her father, went to 
Epidanrus, where she was delivered of a son, whom she exposed 
on a mountain. Aristhenes, a goat-herd, going in search of a goat 
and a dog missing from his fold, discovered the child, whom he 
would have carried to his home, had he not, upon approaching to 
lift him from the earth, pe rcc ived his head encircled with fiery 
rays, which made him believe the child was divine. The voice 
of fame soon published the birth of a miraculous infant, upon 
which the people flocked from all quarters to behold this heaven- 
born child. 6 

Being honored as a god in Phenicia and Egypt, his worship 
passed into Greece and Rome. 7 

1 Draper : Religion and Science, p. 8. Com- See the chapter on Miracles, 

pare Luke i. 20-35. Bell s Pantheon, i. 27. Roman Ant., 136. 

* Philostnitus. p. 5. Taylor s Diegesis, p. 150. 

3 See the chapter on Miracles. 7 Ibid. 

4 See Higgius : Auacalypsb, vol. i. p. 151. 


Simon the Samaritan, surnamed " Magus " or the " Magician," 
who was contemporary with Jesus, was believed to be a god. 
In Home, where he performed wonderful miracles, lie was honored 
as a god, and his picture placed among the gods. 1 

Justin Martyr, quoted by Eusebius, tells us that Simon Magus 
attained great honor among the Romans. That he was believed 
to be a god, and that he was worshiped as such. Between two 
bridges upon the River Tibris, was tu be seen this inscription : 
" Simoni Deo Sancto," i. e. u To Simon the Holy God. " 

It was customary with all the heroes of the northern nations 
(Danes, Swedes, Norwegians and Icelanders), to speak of them 
selves as sprung from their supreme deity, Odin. The historians 
of those times, that is to say, the poets, never failed to bestow the 
same honor on all those whose praises they sang; and thus they 
multiplied the descendants of Odin as much as they found con 
venient. The first-begotten son of Odin was Thor, whom the 
Eddas call the most valiant of his sons. " Baldur the Good," the 
u Beneficent Saviour," was the son of the Supreme Odin and the 
goddess Frigga, whose worship was transferred to that of the 
Virgin Mary. 8 

In the mythological systems of America, a virgin-born god 
was not less clearly recognized than in those of the Old World. 
Among the savage tribes his origin and character were, for obvious 
reasons, much confused ; but among the more advanced nations he 
occupied a well-defined position. Among the nations of Anahuac, 
he bore the name of Quetsalcoatle, and was regarded with the 
highest veneration. 

For ages before the landing of Columbus on its shores, the 
inhabitants of ancient Mexico worshiped a "Saviour" as they 
called him (Quetzalcoatle) who was Ijorn of a pure virgin? A. 
messenger from heaven announced to his mother that s/te should 
lea/ 1 a son without connection with man: 1 Lord Kingsborough tells 
us that the annunciation of the virgin Sochiquetzal, mother of 
Quetzalcoatle, who was styled the "Queen of Ifeaven" 1 was 
the subject of a Mexican hieroglyph. 7 

The embassador was sent from heaven to this virgin, who had 
two sisters, Tzochitlique and Conatlique. "These three being 
alone in the house, two of them, on perceiving the embassador from 
heaven, died of fright, Sochiquetzal remaining alive, to whom the 

1 Eusebiua : Eccl. Hiet., lib. 2, ch. xiii. vi. 160 and 175-6. 
Ibid. ch. xiii. Ibid. 

8 See Mallet s Northern Antiquities. 8 See Kingeborongh : Mexican Antiquities, 

4 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 32, vol. vi. p. 176. 
Kiageborough : Mexican Antiquities, vol. 7 Ibid. p. 175. 



ambassador announced that it was tlie will of God that she 
should conceive a son." 1 She therefore, according to the predic 
tion, " conceived a son, without connection with man, who was 
called Quetzalcoatle." 2 

Dr. Daniel Brinton, in his " Myths of the New World," says : 

" The Central figure of Toltec mythology is Quetzalcoatle. Not an author on 
ancient Mexico, but has something to say about the glorious days when he ruled 
over the land. No one denies him to have been a god. He was born of a virgin 
in the land of Tula or Tlopallan."* 

The Mayas of Yucatan had a virgin-born god, corresponding 
entirely with Quetzalcoatle, if he was not the same under a differ 
ent name, a conjecture very well sustained by the evident relation 
ship between the Mexican and Mayan mythologies. He was named 
Zama, and was the only-begotten son of their supreme god, Kin- 
chahan. 4 

The Muyscas of Columbia had a similar hero-god. Accord 
ing to their traditionary history, he bore the name of Jjochica. 
He was the incarnation of the Great Father, whose sovereignty and 
paternal en re he emblematized. 5 

The inhabitants of Nicaragua called their principal god Thorn- 
athoyo ; and said that he had a son, who came down to earth, 
whose name was Theotbilahe, and that he was their general in 
structor. 6 

We find a corresponding character in the traditionary history of 
Peru. The Sun the god of the Peruvians deploring their mis 
erable condition, sent down his son, Manco Capac, to instruct 
them in religion, &c. 7 

We have also traces of a similar personage in the traditionary 
Votan of Guatemala , but our accounts concerning him are more 
vague than in the cases above mentioned. 

We find this traditional character in countries and among tribes 
where we would be least apt to suspect its existence. In Brazil, 
besides the common belief in an age of violence, during which the 
world was destroyed by water, there is a tradition of a supernatural 
personage called Zome, whose history is similar, in some respects, 
to that of Quetzalcoatle/ 

The semi-civilized agricultural tribes of Florida had like tradi 
tions. The CheroJceeS) in particular, had a priest and law-giver 

1 See Kingsborough : Mexican Antiquities, * Squire : Serpent Symbol, p. 187. 
vol. vi p. 176. s ibid, p. 188. 

2 Ibifl. p. 166. Ibid. 
8 Brinton : Myths of the New World, pp. 7 Ibid. 

180, 181. Ibid. p. 190. 


essentially corresponding to Quetzalcoatle and Bochica. He was 
their great prophet, and bore the name of Wasi. " lie told them 
what had been from the beginning of the world, and what would 
be, and gave the people in all things directions what to do. He 
appointed their feasts and fasts, and all the ceremonies of their re 
ligion, and enjoined upon them to obey his directions from genera 
tion to generation." 1 

Among the savage tribes the same notions prevailed. The 
JEdues of the Californians taught that there was a supreme Creator, 
Niparaga>) and that his son, Quaagagp, came down upon the earth 
and instructed the Indians in religion, <fec. Finally, through 
hatred, the Indians killed him ; but although dead, he is incorrup 
tible and beautiful. To him they pay adoration, as the mediatory 
power between earth and the Supreme Niparaga. 2 

The Iroquois also had a beneficent being, uniting in himself the 
character of a god and man, who w\as called Tarengawagan. He 
imparted to them the knowledge of the laws of the Great Spirit, es 
tablished their form of government, &c. 3 

Among the Algojiquins, and particularly among the Ojibways 
and other remnants of that stock of the North-west, this intermedi 
ate great teacher (denominated, by Mr. Schoolcraft, in his " Notes 
of the Iroquois" " the great incarnation of the North-west ") is fully 
recognized. He bears the name of Mlchabou, and is represented 
as the first-born son of a great celestial Manitou, or Spirit, by an 
earthly mother, and is esteemed the friend and protector of the 
human race. 4 

I think we can now say with M. Dupuis, that "the idea of a 
God, who came down on earth to save mankind, is neither new nor 
peculiar to the Christians, and with Cicero, the great Roman ora 
tor and philosopher, that " brave, famous or powerful men, after 
death, came to be gods, and they are the very ones whom we are 
accustomed to worship, pray to and venerate." 

Taking for granted that the synoptic Gospels are historical, there 
is no proof that Jesus ever claimed to be either God, or a god ; on 
the other hand, it is quite the contrary. 5 As Viscount Amberly says : 
" The best proof of this is that Jesus never, at any period of his life, 

1 Squire : Serpent Symbol, p. 191. we possessed only the Gospel of Murk and the 

3 Ibid. discourses of the Apostles in the Acts, the 

1 Ibid. whole Christology of the New Testament would 

* Ibid, p. 102. be reduced to this : that Jesus of Nazareth was 

"If we seek, in the first three Gospels, to a prophet mighty in deeds and in words, 

know what his biographers thought of Jesus, made by God Christ and Lord. " (Albert Re- 

we find his true humanity plainly stated, and if ville.) 


desired his followers to worship him, either as God, or as the Son 
of God," in the sense in which it is now understood Had he be 
lieved of himself what his followers subsequently believed of him, 
that he was one of the constituent persons in a divine Trinity, he 
must have enjoined his Apostles both to address him in prater 
themselves, and to desire their converts to do likewise. It is 
quite plain that he did nothing of the kind, and that they never 
supposed him to have done so. 

Belief in Jesus as the Messiah was taught as the first dogma 
of Christianity, but adoration of Jesus as God was not taught 
at all. 

13 at we are not left in this matter to depend on conjectural 
inferences. The words put into the mouth of Jesus are plain. 
Whenever occasion arose, he asserted his inferiority to the Father, 
though, as no one had then dreamt of his equality, it is natural that 
the occasions should not have been frequent. 

He made himself inferior in knowledge when he said that of 
the day and hour of the day of judgment no one knew, neither the 
angels in heaven nor the Son ; no one except the Father. 1 

He made himself inferior in power when he said that seats on 
his right hand and on his left in the kingdom of heaven were not 
his to give. 3 

He made himself inferior in virtue when he desired a certain 
man not to address him as " Good Master," for there was none good 
but God. 3 

The words of his prayer at Gethsemane, "all things are possible 
unto t/ite" imply that all things were not possible to him, while its 
conclusion "not what I toilL but what thou wilt" indicates submis 
sion to a superior, not the mere execution of a purpose of his own. 4 
Indeed, the whole prayer would have been a mockery, useless for any 
purpose but the deception of his disciples, if lie had himself been 
identical with the Being to whom he prayed, and had merely been 
giving effect by his death to their common counsels. While the 
cry of agony from the cross, "My God, my God! why hast 
thou forsaken me " B would have been quite unmeaning if the 
person forsaken, and the person forsaking, had been one and 
the same. 

Either, then, we must assume that the language of Jesus has 
been misreported, or we must admit that he never for a moment 
pretended to le co-equal, co-eternal or consubstantial with God. 

i Mark, xiii. 32. Mark, x. 18. Mark, xv. 34. 

Mark, x. 40. * Mark, xiv. 36. 


It also follows of necessity from loth tJie genealogies, 1 that their 
compilers entertained no doubt that Joseph was the father of Jesus. 
Otherwise the descent of Joseph would not have been in the least 
to the point. All attempts to reconcile this inconsistency with the 
doctrine of the Angel- Messiah has been without avail, although the 
most learned Christian divines, for many generations past, have 
endeavored to do so. 

So, too, of the stories of the Presentation in the Temple, 2 and 
of the child Jesus at Jerusalem, 8 Joseph is called his father. 
Jesus is repeatedly described as the son of the carpenter* or the 
son of Joseph, without the least indication that the expression is 
not strictly in accordance with the fact. 6 

If his parents fail to understand him when he says, at twelve 
years old, that he must be about his Father s business; 9 if he 
afterwards declares that he finds no faith among his nearest rela 
tions; 7 if he exalts his faithful disciples above his unbelieving 
mother and brothers ; 8 above all, if Mary and her other sons put 
down his prophetic enthusiasm to insanity f then the untrust 
worthy nature of these stories of his birth is absolutely certain. 
If even a little of what they tell us had been true, then Mary at 
least would have believed in Jesus, and would not have failed so 
utterly to understand him. 10 

The Gospel of Mark which, in this respect, at least, abides 
most faithfully by the old apostolic tradition says not a word 
about Bethlehem or tlie miraculous birth. The congregation of 
Jerusalem to which Mary and the brothers of Jesus belonged, 11 and 
over which the eldest of them, James, presided, 12 can have known 
nothing of it; for the later Jewish-Christian communities, the 
so-called Ebionites, who were descended from the congregation at 
Jerusalem, called Jesus the son of Joseph. Nay, the story that 
the Holy Spirit was the father of Jesus, must have risen among 

1 Matt, and Luke. rativo, especially in Luke, is poetical and le- 

"The passages which appear most con- gcndary, and bears a marked similarity to the 

firniatory of Christ s Deity, or Divine nature, stories contained in the Apocryphal Gospels." 

are, in the first place, the narratives of the In- (W. R. Greg : The Creed of Christendom, p. 

carnation and of the Miraculous Conception, as 229.) 

given by Matthew and Luke. Now, the two 2 Luke, ii. 27. 3 Luke, ii. 41-48. 

narratives do not harmonize with each other ; 4 Matt. xiii. 55. 

they neutralize and negative the genealogies on 6 Luke, iv. 22. John, i. 46; vi. 42. Lake, 

which depend so large a portion of the proof of iii. 23. 

Jesus being the Messiah the marvellous state- 8 Luke, ii. 50. 

me ut they contain is not referred to in any 7 Matt. xiii. 57. Mark, vi. 4. 

subsequent portion of the two Gospels, and is 8 Matt. xii. 48-50. Mark, iii. 33-35. 

tacitly but positively negatived by several pas- Mark, iii. 21. 

eages it is never mentioned in the Acts or in 10 Dr. Uooykaas. 

the Epistles, and was evidently unknown to all n Acts, i. 14. 

the Apostles and, finally, the tone of the nar- ia Acts, xxi. 18. Gai. il. 1V-21. 


the Greeks, or elsewhere, and not among the first believers, who were 
Jews, for the Hebrew word for spirit is of i\\Q feminine gender. 1 

The immediate successors of the " congregation at Jerusalem" 
to which Mary, the mother of J esus, and his brothers belonged 
were, as we have seen, the Ebionites. Eusebius, the first ecclesi 
astical historian (born A. D. 264), speaking of the Ebionites (i. e. 
"poor men "), tell us that they believed Jesus to be " a simple and 
common man" born as other men, " of Mary and her husband."* 

The views held by the Ebionites of Jesus were, it is said, 
derived from the Gospel of Matthew, and what they learned direct 
from the Apostles. Matthew had been a hearer of Jesus, a com 
panion of the Apostles, and had seen and no doubt conversed with 
Mary. When he wrote his Gospel everything was fresh in his 
mind, and there could be no object, on his part, in writing the life 
of Jesus, to state falsehoods or omit important truths in order to 
deceive his countrymen. If what is stated in the interpolated first 
two chapters, concerning the miraculous birth of Jesus, were true, 
Matthew would have known of it ; and, knowing it, why should 
he omit it in giving an account of the life of Jesus f 

The Ebionites, or .Nazarenes, as they were previously called, 
were rejected by the Jews as apostates, and by the Egyptian and 
Koman Christians as heretics, therefore, until they completely 
disappear, their history is one of tyrannical persecution. Al 
though some traces of that obsolete sect may be discovered as late 
as the fourth century, they insensibly melted away, either into the 
Roman Christian Church, or into the Jewish Synagogue, 4 and with 
them perished the original Gospel of Matthew, the only Gospel 
written ~by an apostle. 

" Who, where masses of men are burning to burst the bonds of 
time and sense, to deify and to adore, wants what seems earth-born, 
prosaic fact? Woe to the man that dares to interpose it! Woe 
to the sect of faithful Ebionites even, and on the very soil of Pales 
tine, that dare to maintain the earlier, humbler tradition ! Swiftly 
do they become heretics, revilers, blasphemers, though sanctioned 
by a James, brother of the Lord." 

Edward Gibbon, speaking of this most unfortunate sect, 
says : 

" A laudable regard for the honor of the first proselytes has countenanced the 
belief, the hope, the wish, that the Ebionites, or at least the Nazarenes, were 

1 See The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 57. gated this subject in his u Christ of Paul," te 

a Ensebius : Eccl. Hist., lib. 3, ch. xxiv. Which the reader is referred. 

Mr. George Reber has thoroughly inveeti- See Gibbon s Borne, vo). i. pp. 515-517. 


distinguished only by their obstinate perseverance in the practice of the Mosaic 
rites. Their churches have disappeared, their books are obliterated, their obscure 
freedom might allow a latitude of faith, and the softness of their infant creed 
would be variously moulded by the zeal of prejudice of three hundred years. 
Yet the most charitable criticism must refuse these sectaries any knowledge of 
the pure and proper divinity of Christ. Educated in the school of Jewish 
prophecy and prejudice, they had never been taught to elevate their hope above 
a human and temporal Messiah. If they had courage to hail their king when he 
appeared in a plebeian garb, their grosser apprehensions were incapable of dis 
cerning their God, who had studiously disguised his celestial character under the 
name and person of a mortal. 

" The familiar companions of Jesus of Nazareth conversed with their friend 
and countryman, who, in all the actions of rational and human life, appeared of 
the same species with themselves. His progress from infancy to youth and man 
hood was marked by a regular increase in stature and wisdom; and after a pain 
ful agony of mind and body, he expired on the cross." 1 

The Jewish Christians then the congregation of Jerusalem, 
and their immediate successors, the Ebionitesor Nazarenes saw in 
their master nothing more than a man. From this, and the other 
facts which we have seen in this chapter, it is evident that the 
man Jesus of Nazareth was deified long after his death, just as 
many other men had been deified centuries before his time, and 
even after. Until it had been settled by a council of bishops that 
Jesus was not only a God, but u God himself in human form" 
who appeared on earth, as did Crishna of old, to redeem and 
save mankind, there were many theories concerning his nature. 

Among the early Christians there were a certain class called by 
the later Christians Heretics. Among these may be mentioned the 
" Carpocratians" named after one Carpocrates. They maintained 
that Jesus was a mere man, born of Joseph and Mary, like other 
men, but that he was good and virtuous. u Some of them have the 
vanity," says IrencBus, "to think that they may equal, or in some 
respects exceed, Jesus himself." 2 

These are called by the general name of Gnostics, and compre 
hend almost all the sects of the first two ayes. 3 They said that "all 
the ancients, and even the Apostles themselves, received and taught 
the same things which they held ; and that the truth of the Gospel 
had been preserved till the time of Victor, the thirteenth Bishop of 
Rome, but by his successor, Zephyrinus, the truth had been cor 
rupted." 4 

Eusebius, speaking of Artemon and his followers, who denied 
the divinity of Christ, says : 

1 Gibbon s Kome, vol. iv. pp. 488, 489. 3 Ibid. p. 306. 

See Lardiier s Works, vol. viii. pp. 895, 396. * Ibid. p. 571. 



" They affirm that all our ancestors, yea, and the Apostles themselves, were 
of the same opinion, and taught the same with them, and that this their true 
doctrine (for so they call it) was preached and embraced unto the time of Victor, 
the thirteenth Bishop of Rome after Peter, and corrupted by his successor 
Zephyrinus. " l 

There were also the " Cerinthians" named after one Cerinthus, 
who maintained that Jesus was not born of a virgin, which to them 
appeared impossible, but that he was the son of Joseph and Mary, 
~born altogether as other men are ; but he excelled all men in vir 
tue, knowledge and wisdom. At the time of his baptism, "the 
Christ" came down upon him in the shape of a dove, and left 
him at the time of his crucifixion. 3 

Irenseus, speaking of Cerinthus and his doctrines, says : 

" He represents Jesus as the son of Joseph and Mary, according to the ordi 
nary course of human generation, and not as having been born of a virgin. He 
believed nevertheless that he was more righteous, prudent and wise than most 
men, and that the Christ descended upon, and entered into him, at the time 
of his baptism." 3 

The Docetes were a numerous and learned sect of Asiatic Chris 
tians who invented the Phantastic system, which was afterwards pro 
mulgated by the Marcionites, the Manicheans, and various other sects. 

They denied the truth and authenticity of the Gospels, as far as 
they related to the conception of Mary, the birth of Jesus, and the 
thirty years that preceded the exercise of his ministry. 

Bordering upon the Jewish and Gentile world, the Cerinthians 
labored to reconcile the Gnostic and the Ebionite, by confessing in 
the same Messiah the supernatural union of a man and a god ; and 
this mystic doctrine was adopted, with many fanciful improve 
ments, by many sects. The hypothesis was this : that Jesus of 
Nazareth was a mere mortal, the legitimate son of Joseph and 
Mary, but he was the best and wisest of the human race, selected as 
the worthy instrument to restore upon earth the worship of the 
true and supreme Deity. When he was baptized in the Jordan, 
and not till then, he became more than man. At that time, the 
Christ, the first of the dons, the Son of God himself, descended 
on Jesus in the form of a dove, to inhabit his mind, and direct his 
actions during the allotted period of his ministry. When he was 
delivered into the hands of the Jews, the Christ forsook him, flew 
back to the world of spirits, and left the solitary Jesus to suffer, to 

* Easebius : Eccl. Hist., lib. 5, ch. ixv. Lardner : vol. viii. p. 404. 

3 Ireiaseus: Agaiust Heresies, bk. i. c. xxiv. 


complain, and to die. This is why he said, while hanging on the 
cross : " My God ! My God ! why hast thou forsaken me?" 1 

Here, then, we see tl\e first budding out of what was termed by 
the true followers of Jesus heretical doctrines. The time had 
not yet come to make Jesus a god, to claim that he had been 
born of a virgin. As he must, however, have been different from 
other mortals throughout the period of his ministry, at least the 
Christ must have entered into him at the time of his baptism, and 
as mysteriously disappeared when he was delivered into the hands 
of the Jews. 

In the course of time, the seeds of the faith, which had slowly 
arisen in the rocky and ungrateful soil of Judea, were transplanted, 
in full maturity, to the happier climes of the Gentiles ; and the 
strangers of Rome and Alexandria, who had never beheld the man- 
hood, were more ready to embrace the divinity of Jesus. 

The polytheist and the philosopher, the Greek and the barba 
rian, were alike accustomed to receive as we have seen in this 
chapter a long succession and infinite chain of angels, or deities, 
or ceons, or emanations, issuing from the throne of light. Nor could 
it seem strange and incredible to them, that the first of the mom, 
the Logos, or Word of God, of the same substance with the Father, 
should descend upon earth, to deliver the human race from vice 
and error. The histories of their countries, their odes, and their 
religions were teeming with such ideas, as happening in the past, 
and they were also looking for and expecting an Angel-Messiah? 

Centuries rolled by, however, before the doctrine of Christ 
Jesus, the Angel-Messiah, became a settled question, an established 
tenet in the Christian faith. The dignity of Christ Jesus was 
measured by private judgment, according to the indefinite rule of 
Swipture, or tradition or reason. But when his pure and proper 
divinity had been established on the ruins of Arianism, the faith 
of the Catholics trembled on the edge of a precipice where it was 
impossible to recede, dangerous to stand, dreadful to fall ; and the 
manifold inconveniences of their creed were aggravated by the sub 
lime character of their theology. They hesitated to pronounce that 
God himself, the second person of an equal and consubstantial 
Trinity, was manifested in the flesh* that the Being who pervades 
the universe had been confined in the inomh of Mary that his 

1 See Gibbon s Rome, vol. iv. pp. 493-495. question v-hy Jesus was believed to be an 

8 Not a worldly Messiah, as the Jews looked Avatar, by the Gentiles, and not by the Jews; 

for, but an Angel-Messiah, such an one as why, in fr.ct, the doctrine of Christ incarnate 

always came at the end of a cycle. We shall in Jesus succeeded and prospered. 

treat of this subject anon, when we answer the " Tb s strong expression might be justified 


eternal duration had been marked by the days, and months, and 
years of human existence; that the Almighty God had been 
scourged and crucified y that his impassible essence had felt pain 
and anguish; that his omniscience was not exempt from igno 
rance and that the source of life and immortality expired on 
Mount Calvary. 

These alarming consequences were affirmed with unblushing 
simplicity by Apollinaris, Bishop of Laodicea, and one of the lumi 
naries of the Church. The son of a learned grammarian, he was 
skilled in all the sciences of Greece ; eloquence, erudition, and phil 
osophy, conspicuous in tlu volumes of Apollinaris, were humbly 
devoted to the service of religion. 

The worthy friend of Atlianasius, the worthy antagonist of 
Julian, he bravely wrestled with the Arians and polytheists, and 
though he affected the rigor of geometrical demonstration, his com 
mentaries revealed the literal and allegorical sense of the Scriptures. 

A mystery, which had long floated in the looseness of popular 
belief, was denned by his perverse diligence in a technical form, 
and he first proclaimed- the memorable words, "One incarnate na 
ture of Christ" 1 

This was about A. D. 362, he being Bishop of Laodicea, in Syria, 
at that time, 2 

The recent zeal against the errors of Apollinaris reduced the 
Catholics to a seeming agreement with the double-nature of Cerin- 
tlius. But instead of a temporary and occasional alliance, they 
established, and Christians still embrace, the substantial, indissolu 
ble, and everlasting union of a perfect God with a perfect man, 
of the second person of the Trinity with a reasonable soul and 
hmnau flesh. In the beginning of the fifth century, the unity of 
the two natures was the prevailing doctrine of the church. 3 From 
that time, until a comparatively recent period, the cry was : 
"May those who divide Christ" Ije divided with the sword; may 

by the language of St. Paul (God was manifest thority is so much against the common read- 
in the flesh, justified in the spirit, seen of an- ing of both these points (i. e., I. Tim. iii, 16, 
pis, &c. I.Timothy, iii. 1C), but we are de- and I. John, v. 7), that they are uo longer 
ceived by our modern Bibles. The word which urged by prudent controversialists." (Note in 
was altered to God at Constantinople in the be- Ibid.) 

ginning of the sixth century : the true meaning, l Gibbon s Rome, vol. iv. pp. 492-497. 

which is visible in the Latin and Syriac ver- 2 See Chambers s Encyclopaedia, art. "Apol- 

fcions, still exists in the reasoning of the Greek, linaris." 

as well as of the Latin fathers ; and this fraud, 3 Gibbon s Rome, vol. iv. p. 498. 

with that of the three witnesses of St. John * That is, separate him from God the Father, 

(I. John, v. 7), is admirably detected by Sir by saying that he, Jesus of Nazareth, was not 

Isaac Newton." (Gibbon s Rome, iv. 496, note.) really and truly God Almighty himself in human 

Dean Mil/nan says : " The weight of au- form. 


they be hewn i/ii pieces , may they be burned alive/" These were 
actually the words of a Christian synod. 1 Is it any wonder that 
after this came the dark ages? How appropriate is the name 
which has been applied to the centuries which followed ! Dark 
indeed they were. Now and then, however, a ray of light was 
seen, which gave evidence of the coming morn, whose glorious 
light we now enjoy. But what a grand light is yet to come from 
the noon-day sun, which must shed its glorious rays over the whole 
earth, ere it sets. 

1 See Gibbon s Rome, vol. iv. p. 516 



BEING born in a miraculous manner, as other great personages 
had been, it was necessary that the miracles attending the births of 
these virgin-born gods should be added to the history of Christ 
Jesus, otherwise the legend would not be complete. 

The first which we shall notice is the story of the star 
which is said to have heralded his birth, and which was designated 
" his star." It is related by the Matthew narrator as follows r 1 

" When Jesus was born in Bethlehem, of Judea, in the days of Herod the 
king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem, saying: Where 
is he that is born King of the Jews ? for we have seen his star in the east, and 
are come to worship him. " 

Herod the king, having heard these things, he privately called 
the wise men, and inquired of them what time the star ap 
peared, at the same time sending them to Bethlehem to search 
diligently for the young child. The wise men, accordingly, de 
parted and went on their way towards Bethlehem. "The star 
which they saw in the east went before them, till it came and 
stood over where the young child was." 

The general legendary character of this narrative its similarity 
in style with those contained in the apocryphal gospels and more 
especially its conformity with those astrological notions which, 
though prevalent in the time of the Matthew narrator, have been 
exploded by the sounder scientific knowledge of our days all unite 
to stamp upon the story the impress of poetic or mythic fiction. 

The fact that the writer of this story speaks not of a star but 
of his star, shows that it was the popular belief of the people 
among whom he lived, that each and every person was born under 
a star, and that this one which had been seen was his star. 

All ancient nations were very superstitious in regard to the 
influence of the stars upon human affairs, and this ridiculous idea 

1 Matthew, ch. ii. 


has been handed down, in some places, even to the present day. 
Dr. Hooykaas, speaking on this subject, says : 

" Iu ancient times the Jews, like other peoples, might very well believe that 
there was some immediate connection between the stars and the life of man an 
idea which we still preserve in the forms of speech that so-and-so was born 
under a lucky or under an evil star. They might therefore suppose that the 
birth of greatrneu, such as Abraham, for instance, was announced in the heavens. 
In our century, however, if not before, all serious belief in astrology has ceased, 
and it would be regarded as an act of the grossest superstition for any one to 
have his horoscope drawn; for the course, the appearance and the disappearance 
of the heavenly bodies have been long determined with mathematical precision 
by science." 

The Rev. Dr. Geikie says, in his Life of Christ? 

"The Jews had already, long before Christ s day, dabbled in astrology, and 
the various forms of magic which became connected with it. ... They 
were much given to cast horoscopes from the numerical value of a name. 
Everywhere throughout the whole Roman Empire, Jewish magicians, dream ex 
pounders, and sorcerers, were found. 

" The life and portion of children, says the Talmud, hang not on righteous 
ness, but on their star. The planet of the day has no virtue, but the planet of 
the hour (of nativity) has much. When the Messiah is to be revealed, says the 
book Sokar, a star will rise in the east, shining in great brightness, and seven 
other stars round it will fight against it on every side. A star will rise in the 
east, which is the star of the Messiah, and will remain in the east fifteen days. " 

The moment of every man s birth being supposed to determine 
every circumstance in his life, it was only necessary to find out in 
what mode the celestial bodies supposed to be the primary wheels 
to the universal machine operated at that moment, in order to 
discover all that would happen to him afterward. 

The regularity of the risings and settings of the fixed stars, 
though it announced the changes of the seasons and the orderly 
variations of nature, could not be adapted to the capricious muta 
bility of human actions, fortunes, and adventures : wherefore the 
astrologers had recourse to the planets, whose more complicated 
revolutions offered more varied and more extended combinations. 
Their different returns to certain points of the Zodiac, their 
relative positions and conjunctions with each other, were supposed 
to influence the affairs of men ; whence daring impostors presumed 
to foretell, not only the destinies of individuals, but also the rise 
and fall of empires, and the fate of the world itself. 

The inhabitants of India are, and have always been, very super 
stitious concerning the stars. The Rev. D. O. Allen, who resided 

Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 72. See Knight : Ancient Art and Mythology, 

Vol. i. p. 145. p. 52. 


in India for twenty-five years, and who undoubtedly became thor 
oughly acquainted with the superstitions of the inhabitants, says on 
this subject : 

" So strong are the superstitious feelings of many, concerning the supposed 
influence of the stars on human affairs, that some days are lucky, and others 
again are unlucky, that no arguments or promises would induce them to deviate 
from the course which these stars, signs, &c., indicate, as the way of safely, pros 
perity, and happiness. The evils and inconveniences of these superstitions and 
prejudices are among the things that press heavily upon the people of India." 1 

The Naksliatias twenty-seven constellations which in Indian 
astronomy separate the moon s path into twenty-seven divisions, as 
the signs of the Zodiac do that of the sun into twelve are re 
garded as deities who exert a vast influence on the destiny of men, 
not only at the moment of their entrance into the world, but dur 
ing their whole passage through it. These formidable constella 
tions are consulted at births, marriages, and on all occasions of 
family rejoicing, distress or calamity. No one undertakes a jour 
ney or any important matter except on days which the aspect of 
the Naksliatias renders lucky and auspicious. If any constellation 
is unfavorable, it must by all means be propitiated by a ceremony 
called S anti. 

The Chinese were very superstitious concerning the stars. They 
annually published astronomical calculations of the motions of the 
planets, for every hour and minute of the year. They considered 
it important to be very exact, because the hours, and even the 
minutes, are lucky or unlucky, according to the aspect of the stars. 
Some days were considered peculiarly fortunate for marrying, or 
beginning to build a house ; and the gods are better pleased with 
sacrifice offered at certain hours than they are with the same cere 
mony performed at other times. 2 

The ancient Persians were also great astrologers, and held the 
stars in great reverence. They believed and taught that the 
destinies of men were intimately connected with their motions, and 
therefore it was important to know under the influence of what 
star a human soul made its advent into this world. Astrologers 
swarmed throughout the country, and were consulted upon all im 
portant occasions. 8 

The ancient Egyptians were exactly the same in this respect. 
According to Champollion, the tomb of Ramses V., at Thebes, con 
tains tables of the constellations, and of their influence on human 
beings, for every hour of every month of the year. 4 

i Allen s India, p. 456. Ibid. p. 261. 

8 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 221. * See Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p 456. 


The Buddhists sacred books relate that the birth of Buddha 
was announced in the heavens by an asterim which was seen rising 
on the horizon. It is called the " Messianic star" 

The Fo-pen-hing says : 

"The time of Bodhisatwa s incarnation is, when the constellation Kwei is 
in conjunction with the Sun." 2 

" Wise men," known as " Holy Rishis," were informed by these 
celestial signs that the Messiah was born. 3 

In the Rdmdijana (one of the sacred books of the Hindoos) 
the horoscope of Kama s birth is given. He is said to have been 
born on the 9th Tithi of the month Caitra. The planet Jupiter 
figured at his birth ; it being in Cancer at that time. 4 Rama was 
an incarnation of Vishnu. When Crishna was born " his stars " 
were to be seen in the heavens. They were pointed out by one 
Nared, a great prophet and astrologer. 

Without going through the list, we can say that the birth of 
every Indian Avatar was foretold by celestial signs. 6 

The same myth is to be found in the legends of China. Among 
others they relate that a star figured at the birth of Yu, the 
founder of the first dynasty which reigned in China, 7 who as we 
saw in the last chapter was of heavenly origin, having been born 
of a virgin. It is also said that a star figured at the birth of Laou- 
tsze, the Chinese sage. 8 

In the legends of the Jewish patriarchs and prophets, it is 
stated that a brilliant star shone at the time of the birth of Moses. 
It was seen by the Magi of Egypt, who immediately informed the 
king. 9 

When Abraham was born " his star " shone in the heavens, if 
we may believe the popular legends, and its brilliancy outshone all 
the other stars. 10 Rabbinic traditions relate the following : 

" Abraham was the son of Terah, general of Nimrod s army. He was born 
at Ur of the Chaldees 1948 years after the Creation. On the night of his birth, 
Terah s friends among whom were many of Nimrod s councillors and sooth 
sayers were feasting in his house. On leaving, late at night, they observed aii 
unusual star in the east, it seemed to run from one quarter of the heavens to the 
other, and to devour four stars which were there. All amazed in astonishment 

1 See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 22, 23,83. ch. iii. 7 See Ibid. p. 618. 

2 See Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 23, 33, 35. 8 Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. p. 137. 

8 See Buiisen s Angel-Messiah, p. 36. SeeAnac., i. p. 560, and Geikie s Life of 

Williams s Indian Wisdom, p. 347. Christ, i. 559. 

See Hist, Hindoptan, ii. 336. " See Ibid., and The Bible for Learners, vol. 

See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 56? . Iii p. 72, andCalmet s Fragments, art. "Abr*- 
For that of Crishna, see Vishnu Purana, book v. ham." 


at this wondrous sight, Truly, said they, tJiis can signify nothing else but tJiat 
Terah s new-born son will become great and powerful. " l 

It is also related that Nimrod, in a dream, saw a star rising 
above the horizon, which was very brilliant. The soothsayers be 
ing consulted in regard to it, foretold that a child was born who 
would become a great prince. 8 

A brilliant star, which eclipsed all the other stars, was also to be 
seen at the birth of the Caesars ; in fact, as Canon Farrar remarks, 
" The Greeks and Romans had always considered that the births 
and deaths of great men were symbolized by the appearance and 
disappearance of heavenly bodies, and the same belief has continued 
dow r n to comparatively modern times. 

Tacitus, the Roman historian, speaking of the reign of the Em 
peror Nero, says : 

"A comet having appeared, in this juncture, the phenomenon, according to 
the popular opinion, announced that governments were to be changed, and kings 
dethroned. In the imaginations of men, Nero was already dethroned, and who 
should be his successor was the question." 4 

According to Moslem authorities, the birth of All Moham 
med s great disciple, and the chief of one of the two principal sects 
into which Islam is divided was foretold by celestial signs. " A 
light was distinctly visible, resembling a bright column, extending 
from the earth to the firmament." 6 Even during the reign of the 
Emperor Hadrian, a hundred years after the time assigned for the 
death of Jesus, a certain Jew who gave himself out as the " Mes 
siah" and headed the last great resurrection of his country, as 
sumed the name of Ba/r-CocJiba that is, "Son of a Star." 9 

This myth evidently extended to the New World, as we find that 
the symbol of Quetzalcoatle, the virgin-born Saviour, was the 
" Morning Star"" 

We see, then, that among the ancients there seems to have been 
a very general idea that the birth of a great person would be an 
nounced by a star. The Rev. Dr. Geikie, who maintains to his ut 
most the truth of the Gospel narrative, is yet constrained to admit 
that : 

"It was, indeed, universally believed, that extraordinary events, especially 

1 Baring-Gould : Legends of the Patriarchs, 6 Amberly s Analysis of Religious Belief, p. 

p. 149. 227. 

a Calmet s Fragments, art. " Abraham." Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 73. 

1 Farrar s Life of Christ, p. 52. 1 Brinton : Myths of the New World, pp. 

Tacitus : Annals, bk. xiv. ch. xxii. 180, 181, and Squire : Serpent Symbol. 


the birth and death of great men, were heralded by appearances of stars, and 
still more of comets, or by conjunctions of the heavenly bodies." 1 

The whole teDor of the narrative recorded by the Matthew nar 
rator is the most complete justification of the science of astrology 
that the first intimation of the birth of the Son of God was given 
to the worshipers of Ornmzd, who have the power of distinguish- 
icg with certainty his peculiar star ; that from these heathen the 
tidings of his birth are received by the Jews at Jerusalem, and 
therefore that the theory must be right which connects great events 
in the life of men with phenomena in the starry heavens. 

If this divine sanction of astrology is contested on the ground 
that this was an exceptional event, in which, simply to bring the 
Magi to Jerusalem, God caused the star to appear in accordance 
with their superstitious science, the difficulty is only pushed one 
degree backwards, for in this case God, it is asserted, wrought an 
event which was perfectly certain to strengthen the belief of the 
Magi, of Herod, of the Jewish priests, and of the Jews generally, 
in the truth of astrology. 

If, to avoid the alternative, recourse be had to the notion that 
the star appeared Ijy chance, or that this chance or accident di 
rected the Magi aright, is the position really improved ? Is chance 
consistent with any notion of supernatural interposition ? 

We may also ask the question, why were the Magi brought to 
Jerusalem at all ? If they knew that the star which they saw was 
the star of Christ Jesus as the narrative states 2 and were by this 
knowledge conducted to Jerusalem, why did it not suffice to guide 
them straight to Bethlehem, and thus prevent the Slaughter of the 
Innocents ( Why did the star desert them after its first appear 
ance, not to be seen again till they issued from Jerusalem ? or, if it 
did not desert them, why did they ask of Herod and the priests the 
road which they should take, when, by the hypothesis, the star was 
ready to guide them ? s 

It is said that in the oracles of Zoroaster there is to be found a 
prophecy to the effect that, in the latter days, a virgin would con 
ceive and bear a son, and that, at the time of his birth, a star would 
shine at noonday. Christian divines have seen in this a prophecy 
of the birth of Christ Jesus, but when critically examined, it does 
not stand the test. Tke drift of the story is this : 

Ornmzd, the Lord of Light, who created the universe in six 
periods of time, accomplished his work by making the first man 

1 Life of Christ, vol i. p 144. See Thomas Scott s English Life of Jtsos 

* Matthew ii. 2. for a full investigation of this subject. 



and woman, and infusing into them the breath of life. It was not 
long before Ahriman, the evil one, contrived to seduce the first 
parents of mankind by pursuading them to eat of the forbid 
den fruit. Sin and death are now in the world ; the principles of 
good and evil are now in deadly strife. Ormuzd then reveals to 
mankind his law through his prophet Zoroaster ; the strife between 
the two principles continues, however, and will continue imtil the 
end of a destined term. During the last three thousand years of the 
period Ahriman is predominant. The world now hastens to its 
doom ; religion and virtue are nowhere to be found ; mankind are 
plunged in sin and misery. Sosiosh is born of a virgin, and re 
deems them, subdues the Devs, awakens the dead, and holds the 
last judgment. A comet sets the world in flames ; the Genii of 
Light combat against the Genii of Darkness, and cast them into 
Duzakh, where Ahriman and the Devs and the souls of the 
wicked are thoroughly cleansed and purified by fire. Ahriman then 
submits to Ormuzd ; evil is absorbed into goodness ; the un 
righteous, thoroughly purified, are united with the righteous, and a 
new earth and a new heaven arise, free from all evil, where peace 
and innocence will forever dwell. 

Who can fail to see that this virgin-born Sosiosh was to come, 
not eighteen hundred years ago, but, in the "latter days" when the 
world is to be set on fire by a comet, the judgment to take place, 
and the " new heaven and new earth " is to be established ? Who 
can fail to see also, by a perusal of the New Testament, that the 
idea of a temporal Messiah (a mighty king and warrior, who should 
liberate and rule over his people Israel), and the idea of an 
Angel-Messiah (who had come to announce that the " kingdom of 
heaven was at hand," that the " stars should fall from heaven," 
and that all men would shortly be judged according to their deeds), 
are both jumbled together in a heap ? 



THE story of the Song of the Heavenly Host belongs exclusive 
ly to the Luke narrator, and, in substance, is as follows : 

At the time of the birth of Christ Jesus, there were shepherds 
abiding in the fields, keeping watch over their flock by night. 
And the angel of the Lord appeared among them, and the glory of 
the Lord shone round about them, and the angel said : u 1 bring 

O O 

you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people ; for un 
to you is born this day in the city of David, a Saviour, which is 
Christ the Lord." 

And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the 
Heavenly Host, praising God in song, saying : " Glory to God in 
the highest ; and on earth peace, good will towards men." After 
this the angels went into heaven. 1 

It is recorded in the Vishnu Purana* that while the virgin 
Devaki bore Crishna, " the protector of the world," in her womb, 
she was eulogized by the gods, and on the day of Crishna s birth, 
" the quarters of the horizon were irradiate with joy, as if moonlight 
was diffused over the whole earth." " The spirits and the nymphs 
of heaven danced and sanyj* and, u at midniyht? when the support 
of all was born, the clouds emitted low pleasing sounds, and 
poured down rain of flowers 

Similar demonstrations of celestial delight were not wanting at 
the birth of Buddha. All beings everywhere were full of joy. 
Music was to be heard all over the land, and, as in the case of 
Crishna, there fell from the skies a gentle shower of flowers and 


perfumes. Caressing breezes blew, and a marvellous light was pro 
duced. 6 

Luke, ii. 8-15. * Vishnu Parana, book v. ch. iii. p. 502. 

9 Translated from the original Sanscrit by 8 Sec Araberly a Analysis, p. 220. Beal : 

H. H. Wilson, M. D., F.R.S. Hist. Buddha, pp. 45, 46, 47, and Bunsen a An- 

3 All the virgin-born Saviours are born at gel-Messiah, p. 35. 
midnight or early dawn. 



The Fo-pen-hing relates that : 

"The attending spirits, who surrounded the Virgin Maya and the infant 
Saviour, singing praises of the Blessed One, said: All joy be to you, Queen 
Maya, rejoice and be glad, for the child you have borne is holy. Then the 
Rislris and Devas who dwelt on earth exclaimed with great joy : This day Buddha 
is born for the good of men, to dispel the darkness of their ignorance. Then 
the i our heavenly kings took up the strain and said: Now because Bodhi- 
satwa is born, to give joy and bring peace to the world, therefore is there this 
brightness. Then the gods of the thirty-lhree heavens took up the burden of the 
strain, and the Yarna Devas and the Tusita Devas, and so forth, through all the 
heavens of the Kama, Rupa, and Arupa worlds, even up to the Akanishta 
heavens, all the Devas joined in this song, and said: To-day Bodhisatwa is born 
on earth, to give joy and peace to men and Devas, to shed light in tJie dark places, and 
to give sight to the blind." 1 

Even the sober philosopher Confucius did not enter the world, 
if we may believe Chinese tradition, without premonitory symp 
toms of his greatness. 3 

Sir John Francis Davis, speaking of Confucius, says : 

" Various prodigies, ax in other instances, were the forerunners of the birth of 
this extraordinary person. On the eve of his appearance upon earth, celestial 
music, sounded in the ears of his mother; and when he was born, this inscription 
appeared on his breast: The maker of a rule for setting the World. " 3 

In the case of Osiris, the Egyptian Saviour, at hio birth, a voice 
was heard proclaiming that : " The Ruler of all the Earth is 
born." 4 

In Plutarch s " Is is " occurs the following : 

" At the birth of Osiris, there was heard a voice that the Lord of all the Earth 
was coming in being; and some say that a woman named Pamgle, as she was 
going to cany water to the temple of Ammon, in the city of Thebes, heard that 
voice, which commanded her to proclaim it with a loud voice, that the great 
beneficent god Osiris was born." 6 

Wonderful demonstrations of delight also attended the birth of 
the heavenly-born A.pollonius. According to Flavius Philostratus, 
who wrote the life of this remarkable man, a flock of swans sur 
rounded his mother, and clapping their wings, as is their custom, 
they sang in unison, while the air was fanned by gentle breezes. 

When the god Apollo was born of the virgin Latona in the 
Island of Delos, there was joy among the undying gods in Olym 
pus, and the Earth laughed beneath the smile of Heaven. 6 

1 See Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 43,55, 56, * See Prichard s Egyptian Mythology, p. 56, 

andBunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 35. and Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 408. 

3 See Amberly : Analysis of Religious Be- 6 Bomvick : Egyptian Belief, p. 424, and 

lief, p. 84. Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 408. 

3 Davis : History of China, vol. ii. p. 48. See See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 4. 

also Thornton : Hist. China, i. 152. 


At the time of the birth of " Hercules the Saviour" his father 
Zeus, the god of gods, spake from heaven and said : 

"This day shall a child be born of the race of Perseus, who shall be the 
mightiest of the sons of men." 1 

When ^Esculapius was a helpless infant, and when he was 
about to be put to death, a voice from the god Apollo was heard, 
saying : 

" Slay not the child with the mother; he is born to do great thing* ; but bear 
him to the wise centaur Chciron, and bid him train the boy in all his wisdom and 
teach him to do brave deeds, that men may praise his name in the generations 
that shall be hereafter." 2 

As we stilted above, the story of the Song of the Heavenly Host 
belongs exclusively to the Luke narrator; none of the other writers 
of the synoptic Gospels know anything about it, which, if it really 
happened, seems very strange. 

If the reader will turn to the apocryphal Gospel called Prote- 
vangelion " (chapter xiii.), he will there see one of the reasons why 
it was thought best to leave this Gospel out of the canon of the 
New Testament. It relates the " Miracles at Mary s labor," simi 
lar to the Luke narrator, but in a still more wonderful form. It 
is probably from this apocryphal Gospel that the Luke narrator 

1 See Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 65. * Ibid. p. 45. 



THE next in order of the wonderful events which are related 
to have happened at the birth of Christ Jesus, is the recognition 
of the divine child, and the presentation of gifts. 

We are informed by the Matthew narrator, that being guided 
by a star, the Magi 1 from the east came to where the young child 

" And when they were come into the Jiouse (not stable) they saw the young 
child, with Mary his mother, and fell down and worshiped him. And when 
they had opened their treasures, they presented unto him gifts, gold, frankin 
cense, and myrrh." 2 

The Luke narrator who seems to know nothing about the 
Magi from the east informs us that shepherds came and wor 
shiped the young child. They were keeping their flocks by 
night when the angel of the Lord appeared before them, saying: 

"Behold, I bring you good tidings for unto you is born this day in the city 
of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord." 

After the angel had left them, they said one to another : 

"Let us go unto Bethlehem and see this thing which is come to pass, which 
the Lord hath made known to us. And they came with haste, and found Mary 
and Joseph, and the babe lying in a manger."* 

The Luke narrator evidently borrowed this story of the 
shepherds from the " Gospel of the Egyptians " (of which we 
shall speak in another chapter), or from other sacred records of the 
biographies of Crishna or Buddha. 

It is related in the leirends of Crishna that the divine child 

" The original word here is MagoiS from to religion, and to medicine. They were held 

which comes our word Magician. . . . in high esteem by the Persian court ; were ad- 

The persona hr-re denoted were philosophers, mitted as councilors, and followed the campa 

priests, or astronomers. They dwelt chiefly in in war to give advice." (Barnes s Notes, vol. 

Persia and Arabia. They were the learned men i. p. 25.) 

of the Eastern nations, devoted to astronomy. 2 Matthew, ii. 2. 3 Luke, ii. 8-16. 



was cradled among shepherds, to whom were first made known 
the stupendous feats which stamped his character with marks of 
the divinity. He was recognized as the promised Saviour by 
Nanda, a shepherd, or cowherd, and his companions, who pros 
trated themselves before the heaven-born child. After the birth of 
Oislma, the Indian prophet Nared, having heard of his fame, 
visited his father and mother at Gokool, examined the stars, &c., 
and declared him to be of celestial descent. 1 

Not only was Crishna adored by the shepherds and Magi, and 
received with divine honors, but he was also presented with gifts. 
These gifts were u sandal wood and perfumes." 2 (Why not " frank 
incense and myrrh? r ) 

Similar stories are related of the infant Buddha. He was 
visited, at the time of his birth, by wise men, who at once recog 
nized in the marvellous infant all the characters of the divin 
ity, and lie had scarcely seen the day before he was hailed 
god of gods. 3 

" Mongst the strangers came 
A grey-haired saint, Asita, one whose ears, 
Long closed to earthly things, caught heavenly sounds, 
And heard at prayer beneath his peepul-tree, 
The Devas singing songs at Buudha s birth." 

Viscount Arnberly, speaking of him, says : 4 

" He was visited and adored by a very eminent Rislii, or hermit, known as 
Asita, who predicted his future greatness, but wept at the thought that he him 
self was too old to see the day when the law of salvation would be taught by the 
infant whom he had come to contemplate." 

" I weep (said Asita), because I am old and stricken in years, and shall not see 
all that is about to come to pass. The Buddha Bhagavat (God Almighty 
Buddha) comes to the world only after many kalpas. This bright boy will be 
Buddha. For the, salvation of tlie world he will teach the law. lie will succor 
the old, the sick, the afflicted, the dying. He will release those who are bound in 
the meshes of natural corruption. He will quicken the spiritual vision of those 
whose eyes are darkened by the thick darkness of ignorance. Hundreds of 
thousands of millions of beings will be carried by him to the other shore 
will put on immortality. And I shall not see this perfect Buddha this is why 
I weep." 6 

He returns rejoicing, however, to his mountain-home, for his 
eyes had seen the promised and expected Saviour." 

Paintings in the cave of Ajunta represent Asita with the 

i Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 129, 130, * Amberly s Analysis, p. 177. See also, Bon- 

and Maurice . Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 256, sen s Angel-Messiah, p. 36. 

257 and 317. Also, The Vishnu Purana. 6 Lil lie : Buddha and Early Buddhism, p. 76. 

8 Oriental Religions, pp. 500, 501. See .also, Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 6, and Beal : 

Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353. Hist. Buddha, pp. 58, GO. 

Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157. 


infant Buddha in his arms. 1 The marvelous gifts of this child 
had become known to this eminent ascetic by supernatural signs* 

Buddha, as well as Crishna and Jesus, was presented with u costly 
jewels and precious substances." 3 (Why not gold and perfumes?) 

Rama the seventh incarnation of Vishnu for human deliver 
ance from evil is also hailed by " aged saints " (why not " wise 
men " ?) who die gladly when their eyes see the long-expected 
one. 4 

How-tseich, who was one of those personages styled, in China, 
" Tien-Tse," or u Sons of Heaven," 6 and who came into the world 
in a miraculous manner, was laid in a narrow lane. When his 
mother had fulfilled her time : 

" Her first-born son (came forth) like a lamb. 
There was no bursting, no rending, 
No injury, no hurt 
Showing how wonderful he would be." 

When born, the sheep and oxen protected him with loving 

The birth of Confucius (B. o. 551), like that of all the demi 
gods and saints of antiquity, is fabled to have been attended with 
allegorical prodigies, amongst which was the appearance of the 
JTe-lw, a miraculous quadruped, prophetic of happiness and virtue, 
which announced that the child would be " a king without a throne or 
territory." Five celestial sages, or " wise men" entered the house 
at the time of the child } s birth, whilst vocal and instrumental 
music filled the air. 7 

Mithras, the Persian Saviour, and mediator between God and 
man, was also visited by " wise men " called Magi, at the time of 
his birth. 8 He was presented with gifts consisting of gold, frank 
incense and myrrh. 9 

According to Plato, at the birth of /Socrates (469 B. c.) there 
came three Magi from the east to worship him, bringing gifts of 
gold, frankincense and myrrh. 10 

^Esculapius, the virgin-born Saviour, was protected by goat 
herds (why not shepherds ?), who, upon seeing the child, knew at 
once that he was divine. The voice of fame soon published the 

i Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 36. See Amberly s Analysis of Religions Be- 

8 See Amberly s Analysis, p. 231, and Bun- lief, p. 226. 

Q B Angel-Messiah, p. 36. 7 See Thornton s Hist. China, vol. i. p. 152. 

Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 58. 8 King : The Gnostics and their Remain*, 

Oriental Religions, p. 491. pp. 134 and 149. 
See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 200. Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353. 

> See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 96. 


birth of this miraculous infant, upon which people flocked from all 
quarters to behold and worship this heaven-born child. 1 

Many of the Grecian and Roman demi-gods and heroes were 
either fostered by or worshiped by shepherds. Amongst these may 
be mentioned Bacchus, who was educated among shepherds, 2 and 
Romulus, who was found on the banks of the Tiber, and educated 
by shepherds. 3 Paris, son of Priam, was educated among shep 
herds, 4 and ^Egisthus was exposed, like JEsculapius, by his mother, 
found by shepherds and educated among them. 5 

Viscount Amberly has well said that : " Prognostications of 
greatness in infancy are, indeed, among the stock incidents in the 
mythical or semi-mythical lives of eminent persons." 

We have seen that the Matthew narrator speaks of the infant 
Jesus, and Mary, his mother, being in a " house " implying that 
he had been born there ; and that the Luke narrator speaks of the 
infant " lying in ^.manger " implying that he was born in a stable. 
We will now show that there is still another story related of the 
place in which he was born. 

1 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 150. Roman Anti- Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 218. 

qnities, p. 136, and Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. Ibid. vol. L p. 47. 

27. Ibid. p. 80. 

* Higgini : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. 



THE writer of that portion of the Gospel according to Matthew 
which treats of the place in which Jesus was born, implies, as we 
stated in our last chapter, that he was born in a house. His words 
are these : 

" Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea in the days of Herod the 
king, behold, there came wise men from the east" to worship him. " And when 
they were come into the house, they saw the young child with Mary his mother." 1 

The writer of the Luke version implies that he was born in a 
stable, as the following statement will show : 

" The days being accomplished that she (Mary) should be delivered . . . 
she brought forth her first-born son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and 
laid him in a manger, there being no room for him in the inn"* 

If these accounts were contained in these Gospels in the time of 
Eusebius, the first ecclesiastical historian, who flourished during the 
Council of Nice (A. D. 327), it is very strange that, in speaking of 
the birth of Jesus, he should have omitted even mentioning them, 
and should have given an altogether different version. He tells us 
that Jesus was neither born in a house, nor in a stable, but in a 
cave, and that at the time of Constantine a magnificent temple was 
erected on the spot, so that the Christians might worship in the 
place where their Saviour s feet had stood. 8 

In the apocryphal Gospel called " Proteva/ngelion" attributed to 
James, the brother of Jesus, we are informed that Mary and her 
husband, being away from their home in Nazareth, and when with 
in three miles of Bethlehem, to which city they were going, Mary 
said to Joseph : 

Take me down from the ass, for that which is in me presses to ccme 

Matthew, ii. Eueebius s Life of Constantino, lib. 3, ckt 

Luke, ii. xl., xli. and xlii. 



Joseph, replying, said : 
" Whither shall I take thee, for ihe place is desert f " 

Then said Mary again to Joseph : 
"Take me down, for that which is within me mightily presses me." 

Joseph then took her down from off the ass, and he found there 
a cave and put her into it. 

Joseph then left Mary in the cave, and started toward Bethle 
hem for a midwife, whom he found and brought back with him. 
When they ncarcd the spot a bright cloud overshadowed the cave. 

"But on a sudden the cloud became a great light m the cave, so their eyes 
could not bear it. But the light gradually decreased, until the infant appeared 
and sucked the breast of his mother." 1 

Tertullian (A. D. 200), Jerome (A. D. 375) and other Fathers of 
the Church, also state that Jesus was born in a cave, and that the 
heathen celebrated, in their day, the birth and Mysteries of their 
Lord and Saviour Adonis in this very cave near Bethlehem. 2 

Canon Farrar says : 

"That the actual place of Christ s birth was a cave, is a very ancient tradi 
tion, and this cave used to be shown as the scene of the event even so early as 
the time of Justin Martyr (A. D. ISO)." 3 

Mr. King says : 

" The place yet shown as the scene of their (the Magi s) adoration at Bethle 
hem is a cave." 4 

The Christian ceremonies in the Church of the Nativity at 
Bethlehem are celebrated to this day in a cave," and are undoubt 
edly nearly the same as were celebrated, in the same place, in 
honor of Adonis, in the time of Tertullian and Jerome ; and as 
are yet celebrated in Home every Christmas-day, very early in 
the morning. 

We see, then, that there are three different accounts concerning 
the place in which Jesus was born. The first, and evidently true 
one, was that which is recorded by the Matthew narrator, namely, 
that he was born in a house. The stories about his bein^r born in 


a stable or in a cave 9 were later inventions, caused from the desire 
to place him in as humble a position as possible in his infancy, and 
from the fact that the virgin-born Saviours who had jweceded 

1 Protevangelion. Apoc. chs. xii., xiii.,and * King : The Gnostics and their Remains, 
xiv., and Lily of Israel, p. 95. p. 134. 

2 See Higgins: Auacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 98, 6 Iliggius : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 95. 

99. Some writers have tried to connect these 

8 Farrar s Life of Christ, p. 38, and note. by saying that it was a cave-stable, but why 
See also, Hist. Hindostan, ii. 311. should a stable be in a desert place, as the nar 

rative states 1 


him had almost all been born in a position the most humiliating 
such as a cave, a cow-shed, a sheep-fold, &c. or had been 
placed there after birth. This was a part of the universal mythos. 
As illustrations we may mention the following : 

Crishna, the Hindoo virgin-born Saviour, was born in a cave, 1 
fostered by an honest herdsman* and, it is said, placed in a sheep- 
fold shortly after his birth. 

How-Tseih) the Chinese " Son of Heaven," when an infant, 
was left unprotected by his mother, but the sheep and oxen pro 
tected him with loving care. 3 

Abraham, the Father of Patriarchs, is said to have been born 
in a cave* 

.Bacchus, who was the son of God by the virgin Semele, is said 
to have been born in a cave, or placed in one shortly after his 
birth. 5 Philostratus, the Greek sophist and rhetorician, says, " the 
inhabitants of India had a tradition that Bacchus was born at Nisa, 
and was brought up in a cave on Mount Meros." 

dEscvla/piuS) who was the son of God by the virgin Coronis, 
was left exposed, when an infant, on a mountain, where he was 
found and cared for by a goatherd.* 

Romulus, who was the son of God by the virgin Rhea-Sylvia, 
was left exposed, when an infant, on the banks of the river Tiber, 
where he was found and cared for by a shepherd." 1 

Adonis, the " Lord " and " Saviour," was placed in a cave 
shortly after his birth. 8 

Apollo (Phoibos), son of the Almighty Zeus, was born in a 
cave at early dawn. 9 

Mithras, the Persian Saviour, was born in a cave or grotto, 19 at 
early dawn. 

Hermes, the son of God by the mortal Maia, was born 
early in the morning, in a cave or grotto of the Kyllemian hill. 11 

Attys,t\\Q god of the Phrygians, 12 was born in &cave or grotto. 1 * 

The object is the same in all of these stories, however they may 
differ in detail, which is to place the heaven-born infant in the 
most humiliating position in infancy. 

We have seen it is recorded that, at the time of the birth 

1 Aryan Myths, vol. ii. p. 107. 7 See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 213. 

8 See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. 8 See Ibid. vol. i. p. 12. 

3 See Amberly s Analysis, p. 226. 9 Aryan Mythology, vol. i. pp. 72, 158. 

* See Calmet s Fragments, art. " Abraham." 10 See Dunlap s Mysteries of Adoni, p. 124, 

6 See Iliggius : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 321. and Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 134. 

Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 118, and DupuiSj p. "Ibid. 

234. 12 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Beliefs, 

8 See Taylors Diegesis, p. 150, and Bell s p. 255. 

Pantheon under "JLsculapius." 13 See Duulap s M.ysteries of Adoni, p. 134. j 


of Jesus " there was a great light in the cave, so that the eyes of 
Joseph and the midwife could not bear it." This feature is also 
represented in early Christian art. " Early Christian painters have 
represented the infant Jesus as welcoming three Kings of the 
East, and shining as brilliantly as if covered with phosphurctted 
oil" 1 In all pictures of the Nativity, the light is made to arige 
from the body of the infant, and the father and mother are often 
depicted with glories round their heads. This too was a part of 
the old mythos, as we shall now see. 

The moment Crishna was born, his mother became beautiful, 
and her form brilliant. The whole cave was splendidly illumina 
ted, being tilled with a heavenly light, and the countenances of his 
father and his mother emitted rays of glory. 2 

So likewise, it is recorded that, at the time of the birth of 
Buddha, " the Saviour of the World," which, according to one 
account, took place in an inn, " a divine light diffused around his 
person" so that "the Blessed One" was " heralded into the world 
by a supernatural light." 3 

When Bacchus was born, a bright light shone round him, 4 so 
that, " there was a brilliant light in the cave" 

When Apollo was born, a halo of serene light encircled his 
cradle, the nymphs of heaven attended, and bathed him in pure 
water, and girded a broad golden band around his form. 5 

When the Saviour ^Esculapius was born, his countenance shone 
like the sun, and he was surrounded by a tiery ray." 

In the life of Zoroaster the common mythos is apparent. He 
was born in innocence of an immaculate conception of a Kay of 
the Divine Reason. As soon as he was born, the glory arising 
from his body enlightened the whole room, and he laughed at his 
mother. 7 

It is stated in the legends of the Hebrew Patriarchs that, at 
the birth of Moses, a bright light appeared and shone around. 8 

There is still another feature which we must notice in these 
narratives, that is, the contradictory statements concerning the time 
when Jesus was born. As we shall treat of this subject more fully 
in the chapter on " The Birthday of Christ Jesus," we shall 
allude to it here simply as far as necessary. 

I Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 460. * See Higgins : Anacnlypsis, vol. i. p. 322, 

II Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 133. and Dupuis : Origin of Rclig. Belief, p. 119. 
Higgins : Anacalypsis. vol. i. p. 130. See also, 6 Tales of Anct. Greece, p. xviii. 

Vishnu Purana, p. 502, where it says: Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Roiuan An- 

" No person could bear to gaze upon Devaki tiquities, p. 136. 
from the light that invested her." 7 Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. il. p. 460. 

See Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 43, 46, or Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 649. 
Bunsen a Angel-Messiah, pp. 34, 35. 8 See Hardy : Manual of Buddhism, p. 145, 


The Matthew narrator informs us that Jesus was born in the 
days of Herod the King^ and the Luke narrator says he was born 
when Cyrenius was Governor of Syria, or later. This is a very 
awkward and unfortunate statement, as Cyrenius was not Governor 
of Syria until some ten years after the time of Herod. 1 

The cause of this dilemma is owing to the fact that the Luke 
narrator, after having interwoven into his story, of the birth of 
Jesus, the old myth of the tax or tribute, which is said to have 
taken place at the time of the birth of some previous virgin-born 
Saviours, looked among the records to see if a taxing had ever 
taken place in Judea, so that he might refer to it in support of his 
statement. He found the account of the taxing, referred to above, 
and without stopping to consider when this taxing took place, or 
whether or not it would conflict with the statement that Jesus was 
born in the days of Herod, he added to his narrative the words : 
" And this taxing was first made when Cyrenius was governor of 
Syria." 9 

We will now show the ancient myth of the taxing. Accord 
ing to the Vishnu Purana, when the infant Saviour Crishna was 
born, his foster-father, Nanda, had come to the city to pay his tax 
or yearly tribute to the king. It distinctly speaks of Nanda, and 
other cowherds, "bringing tribute or tax to Iansa" the reigning 
monarch. 8 

It also describes a scene which took place after the taxes had 
been paid. 

Yasudeva, an acquaintance of Nanda s, " went to the wagon of 
Nanda, and found Nanda there, rejoicing that a son (Crishna) had 
been born to him. 

" Yasudeva spoke to him kindly, and congratulated him on hav 
ing a son in his old age* 

" Thy yearly tribute, he added, has been paid to the king . . . 
why do you delay, now that your affairs are settled ? Up, ISTanda, 
quickly, and set off to your own pastures. . . . Accordingly 
Nanda and the other cowherds returned to their village." 6 

Now, in regard to Buddha, the same myth is found. 

Among the thirty-two signs which were to be fulfilled by the 
mother of the expected Messiah (Buddha), the fifth sign was re 
corded to be, " that she would be on a journey at the time of her 

1 See the chapter on " Christmas. " * See Vishnu Parana, book v. chap. iii. 

2 Tt may be that this verse was added by 4 Here is an exact counterpart to the story 
another hand some time after the narrative was of Joseph the foster-father, go-called of 
written. We have seen it stated somewhere Jesus. He too, had a sou in his old age. 
that, in the manuscript, this verse is in brackets. 6 Vishnu Purana, book v. chap. f. 


birth" Therefore, " that it might be fulfilled which was 
spoken by the prophets," the virgin Maya, in the tenth m jnth 
after her heavenly conception, was on a journey to her father, 
when lo, the birth of the Messiah took place under a tree. One 
account says that u she had alighted at an inn when Buddha was 
bom." 1 

The mother of Lao-tsze, the Virgin-born Chinese sage, was 
away from home when her child was born. She stopped to rest 
under a tree, and there, like the virgin Maya, gave birth to her 

Pythagoras (&. c. 570), whose real father was the Holy Ghost, 
was also born at a time when his mother was away from home on 
a journey. She was travelling with her husband, who was about 
his mercantile concerns, from Samos to Sid on.* 

Apollo was born when his mother was away from home. The 
Ionian legend tells the simple tale that Leto, the mother of the 
unborn Apollo, could find no place to receive her in her hour of 
travail until she came to Delos. The child was born like Buddha 
and Lao-tsze under a tree. 1 The mother knew that he was des 
tined to be a being of mighty power, ruling among the undying 
gods and mortal men.* 

Thus we see that the stories, one after another, relating to the 
birth and infancy of Jesus, are simply old myths, and are therefore 
not historical. 

i Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. 34. See A8 we caw in Chapter XII. 

lso, Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 32, and Lillie : * Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. 1. p. 150. 

Buddha and Early Buddhism, p. 73. See Rhys David s Buddhism, p. 26. 

Thornton : Hist. ChiM, i. 138. See Cox : Aryan Myths, vol. il. p. 81. 



THE biographers of Jesus, although they have placed him in a 
position the most humiliating in his infancy, and although they 
have given him poor and humble parents, have notwithstanding 
made him to be of royal descent. The reasons for doing this 
were twofold. First, because, according to the Old Testament, the 
expected Messiah was to be of the seed of Abraham, 1 and second, 
because the Angel-Messiahs who had previously been on earth to 
redeem and save mankind had been of royal descent, therefore 
Christ Jesus must be so. 

The following story, taken from Colebrooke s "Miscellaneous 
Essays^ 1 clearly shows that this idea was general : 

" The last of the Jinas, Vardhamana, was at first conceived by Devananda, a 
Brahman a. The conception was announced to her by a dream. Sekra, being 
apprised of his incarnation, prostrated himself and worshiped the future 
saint (who was in the womb of Devananda) ; but reflecting that no great saint was 
ever born in an indigent or mendicant family, as that of a Brahmana, Sekra com 
manded his chief attendant to remove the child from the womb of Devananda to 
that of Trisala, wife of Siddhartha, a prince of the race of Jesicaca, of the Kasyapa 

In their attempts to accomplish their object, the biographers 
of Jesus have made such poor work of it, that all the ingenuity 
Christianity has yet produced, has not been able to repair their 

The genealogies are contained in the first and third Gospels, 
and although they do not agree, yet, if either is right, then Jesus 
was not the son of God, engendered by the " Holy Ghost," but the 
legitimate son of Joseph and Mary. In any other sense they 
amount to nothing. That Jesus can be of royal descent, and yet 

1 That is, a passage in the Old Testament wiio is made to say : " In thy seed shall all the 

was construed to mean this, although another nations of the earth be blessed, because thou 

and more plausible meaning might be inferred. hast obeyed my voice." (Genesis, xxii. 18.) 
It is when Abraham is blessed by the Lord, 2 Vol. ii. p. 214. 



be the Son of God, in the sense in which these words are used, is a 
conclusion which can be acceptable to those only who believe in 
alleged historical narratives on no other ground than that they wish 
them to be true, and dare not call them into question. 

The Matthew narrator states that all the generations from 
Abraham to David are fourteen, from David until the carrying 
away into Babylon &re fourteen, and from the carrying away into 
Babylon unto Jesus are fourteen generations. 1 Surely nothing can 
have a more mythological appearance than this. But, when we 
confine our attention to the genealogy itself, we tind that the gen 
erations in the third stage, including Jesus himself, amount to only 
thirteen. All attempts to get over this difficulty have been with 
out success ; the genealogies are, and have always been, hard nuts 
for theologians to crack. Some of the early Christian fathers 
saw this, and they very wisely put an allegorical interpretation to 

Dr. South says, in Kitto s Biblical Encyclopaedia : 

Christ s being the true Messiah depends upon his being the son of David 
and king of the Jews, tio that unless this be evinced the whole foundation of 
Christianity must totter and fall." 

Another writer in the same work says : 

" In these two documents (Matthew and Luke), which profess to give us the 
genealogy of Christ, there is no notice whatever of the connection of his only 
earthly parent with the stock of David. On the contrary, both the genealogies 
profess to give us the descent of Joseph, to connect our Lord with whom by 
natural generation, would be to falsify the whole story of his miraculous birth, 
and overthrow the Christian faith." 

Again, when the idea that one of the genealogies is Mary s is 
spoken of : 

" One thing is certain, that our belief in Mary s descent from David ia 
grounded on inference and tradition and not on any direct statement of the 
sacred writings. And there has been a ceaseless endeavor, both among ancients 
and moderns, to gratify the natural cravings for knowledge on this subject." 

Thomas Scott, speaking of the genealogies, says : 

"It is a favorite saying with those who seek to defend the history of the 
Pentateuch against the scrutiny of modern criticism, that the objections urged 
against it were known long ago. The objections to the genealogy were known 
long ago, indeed; and perhaps nothing shows more conclusively than this knowl 
edge, the disgraceful dishonesty and willful deception of the most illustrious of 
Christian doctors." 8 

Matthew, i. 17. Scott s English Life of Jeaoi. 



Referring to the two genealogies, Albert Barnes says : 

" No two passages of Scripture have caused more difficulty than these, and 
various attempts have been made to explain them. . . . Most interpreters 
have supposed that Matthew gives the genealogy of Joseph, and Luke that of 
Mary. But though this solution is plausible and may be true, yet it want* 
evidence. " 

Barnes furthermore admits the fallibility of the Bible in his 
remarks upon the genealogies ; 1st, by comparing them to our 
fallible family records ; and 2d, by the remark that " the only 
inquiry which can now be fairly made is whether they copied these 
tables correctly" 

Alford, Ellicott, Ilervey, Meyer, Mill, Patritius and Words 
worth hold that both genealogies are Joseph s ; and Aubertin, 
Ebrard, Greswell, Kurtz, Lange, Lightfoot and others, hold that 
one is Joseph s, and the other Mary s. 

When the genealogy contained in Matthew is compared with 
the Old Testament they are found to disagree / there are omissions 
which any writer with the least claim to historical sense would 
never have made. 

When the genealogy of the third Gospel is turned to, the 
difficulties greatly increase, instead of diminish. It not only 
contradicts the statements made by the Matthew narrator, but it 
does not agree with the Old Testament. 

What, according to the three first evangelists, did Jesus think 
of himself? In the first place he made no allusion to any miracu 
lous circumstances connected with his birth. He looked upon him- 
self as belonging to Nazareth, not as the child of Bethlehem; 1 he 
reproved the scribes for teaching that the Messiah must necessarily 
he a descendant of Damd* and did not himself make any express 
claim to such descent? 

As we cannot go into an extended inquiry concerning the 
genealogies, and as there is no real necessity for so doing, as many 
others have already done so in a masterly manner, 4 we will con 
tinue our investigations in another direction, and show that Jesus 
was not the only Messiah who was claimed to be of royal descent. 

1 Matthew, xiii. 54; Luke, iv. 24. consistencies of the evangelical narratives are 

3 Mark, ii. 35. of no avail." (Albert Reville : Hist. Dogma, 

8 " There is no doubt that the authors of Deity, Jesus, p. 15.) 

the genealogies regarded him (Jesus), as did * The reader is referred to Thomas Scott s 

his countrymen and contemporaries generally, English Life of Jesus, Strauss e Life of Jesus, 

as the eldest son of Joseph, Mary s husband, The Genealogies of Our Lord, by Lord Arthur 

and that thay had no idea of anything miracu- Hervey, Kitto s Biblical Encyclopaedia, and 

lous conne< ted with his birth. All the attempts Barnes Notes. 
of the old commentators to reconcile the in- 


To commence with Crishna, the Hindoo Saviour, Le was of 
royal descent, although born in a state the most abject and 
humiliating. 1 Thomas Maurice says of him : 

" Crishna, in the male line, was of royal descent, being of the Yadava line, 
the oldest and noblest of India; and nephew, by his mother s side, to the reigning 
sovereign ; but, though royally descended, he was actually born in a state the 
most abject and humiliating; and, though not in a stable, yet in a dungeon." 

Buddha was of royal descent, having descended from the 
house of Sakya, the most illustrious of the caste of Brahmans, which 
reigned in India over the powerful empire of Mogadha, in the 
Southern Bahr. 8 

R. Spence Hardy says, in his " Manual of Buddhism :" 

"The ancestry of Gotama Buddha is traced from his father, Sodhodana, 
through various individuals and races, all of royal dignity, to Maha Sammata, 
the first monarch of the world. Several of the names, and some of the events, 
are met with in the Puranas of the Brahmins, but it is not possible to reconcile 
one order of statement with the other; and it would appear that the Buddhist 
historians have introduced races, and invented names, that they may invest their 
venerated sage with all the honors of heraldry, in addition to the attributes of 

How remarkably these words compare with what we have 
just seen concerning the genealogies of Jesus 1 

Rama, another Indian avatar the seventh incarnation of 
Vishnu was also of royal descent. 

Fo-Jii; or Fuli-he, the virgin-born "Son of Heaven," was of 
royal descent. He belonged to the oldest family of monarchs who 
ruled in China. 5 

Confucius was of royal descent. His pedigree is traced back 
in a summary manner to the monarch Hoang-ty, who is said to 
have lived and ruled more than two thousand years before the time 
of Christ Jesus. 6 

Horus, the Egyptian virgin-born Saviour, was of royal de 
scent, having descended from a line of kings. 7 He had the title 
of "Koyal Good Shepherd." 8 

Hercules, the Saviour, was of royal descent? 

1 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 130. See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 200, and 

Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259, and Allen s Chambers s Encyclo., art. " Fuh-he. 1 

India, p. 379. Davis : History of China, vol. ii. p. 48, and 

a Hist. Hindostan, ii. p. 310. Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. p. 151. 

See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157. 7 See almost any work on Egyptian history 

Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah. Davis : Hist, of or the religions of Egypt. 

China, vol. ii. p. 80, and Hue s Travels, vol. 1. See Lundy : Monumental Christianity, p. 

p. 827. 403. 

Allen s India, p. 379. See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 152. Roman An 
tiquities, p. 124, and Bell s Pantheon, L 382 


Bacchus, although the Son of God, was of royal descent} 

Perseus, son of the virgin Danae, was of royal descent? 

^Esculapius, the great performer of miracles, although a son of 
God, was notwithstanding of royal descent? 

Many more such cases might be mentioned, as may be seen by 
referring to the histories of the virgin-born gods and demi-gods 
spoken of in Chapter XII. 

i See Greek and Italian Mythology, p. 81. Bulfinch : The Age of Fable, p. 161. 
Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 117. Murray : Man- See Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Roman 

ual of Mythology, p. 118, and Roman Antiqui- Antiquities, p. 136, and Taylor s Diegesis, p. 

ties, p. 71. 160. 

* See Bell B Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 170, and 



INTEEWOVEN with the miraculous conception and birth of Jesus, 
the star, the visit of the Magi, &c., we have a myth which belongs 
to a common form, and which, in this instance, is merely adapted 
to the special circumstances of the age and place. This has been 
termed " the myth of the dangerous child." Its general outline 
is this : A child is born concerning whose future greatness some 
prophetic indications have been given. But the life of the child 
is fraught with danger to some powerful individual, generally a 
monarch. In alarm at his threatened fate, this person endeavors 
to take the child s life, but it is preserved by divine care. 

Escaping the measures directed against it, and generally re 
maining long unknown, it at length fulfills the prophecies con 
cerning its career, while the fate which he has vainly sought to 
shun falls upon him who had desired to slay it. There is a de 
parture from the ordinary type, in the case of Jesus, inasmuch as 
Herod does not actually die or suffer any calamity through his 
agency. But this failure is due to the fact that Jesus did not 
fulfill the conditions of the Messiahship, according to the Jewish 
conception which Matthew has here in mind. Had he as was 
expected of the Messiah become the actual sovereign of the Jews, 
he must have dethroned the reigning dynasty, whether repre 
sented by Herod or his successors. But as his subsequent career 
belied the expectations, the evangelist was obliged to postpone to 
a future time his accession to that throne of temporal dominion 
which the incredulity of his countrymen had withheld from him 
during his earthly life. 

The story of the slaughter of the infants which is said to have 
taken place in Judea about the time of the birth of Jesus, is to be 
found in the second chapter of Matthew, and is as follows : 

"When Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea, in the days of Herod the 
king, there came wise men from the East to Jerusalem, saying- Where is h 



that is born king of the Jews ? for we have seen his star in the East and have 
come to worship him. When Herod the king had heard these things, he was 
troubled and all Jerusalem with him. Then Herod, when he had privately 
called the wise men, enquired of them diligently what time the star appeared. 
And he sent them to Bethlehem, and said: Go and search diligently for the 
young child; and when ye have found him, bring me word. " 

The wise men went to Bethlehem and found the young child, 
but instead of returning to Herod as he had told them, they de 
parted into their own country another way, having been warned of 
God in a dream that they should not return to Herod. 

" Then Herod, when he saw that he was mocked of the wise men, was ex 
ceeding wroth, and sent forth, and slew all the children that were in, Bethlehem, 
and in all the coasts thereof, from two years old and under." 

We have in this story, told by the Matthew narrator which 
the writers of the other gospels seem to know nothing about, 
almost a counterpart, if not an exact one, to that related of Crishna 
of India, which shows how closely the mythological history of Jesus 
has been copied from that of the Hindoo Saviour. 

Joguth Chunder Gangooly, a "Hindoo convert to Christ," tells 
us, in his " Life and Religion of the Hindoos," that : 

"A heavenly voice whispered to the foster father of Crishna and told him to 
fly with the child across the river Jumna, which was immediately done. l This 
was owing to the fact that the reigning monarch, King Kansa, sought the life of 
the infant Saviour, and to accomplish his purpose, he sent messengers to kill all 
the infants in the neighboring places. " 2 

Mr. Higgins says : 

" Soon after Crishna s birth he was carried away by night and concealed in a 
region remote from his na-tal place, for fear of a tyrant whose destroyer it was 
foretold he would become; and who had, for that reason, ordered all the male 
children born at that period to be slain." 3 

Sir William Jones says of Crishna : 

" He passed a life, according to the Indians, of a most extraordinary and in 
comprehensible nature. His birth was concealed through fear of the reigning 
tyrant Kansa, who, at the time of his birth, ordered all new-born males to be slain, 
yet this wonderful babe was preserved." 4 

In the Epic poem Mahabarata, composed more than two thousand 
years ago, we have the whole story of this incarnate deity, born of 
a virgin, and miraculously escaping in his infancy from the reign 
ing tyrant of his country, related in its original form. 

1 A heavenly voice whispered to the foster- 3 Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 129. See, also, Cox : 

father of Jesus, and ta Id him to fly with the Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 134, and Maurice : 

child into Egypt, which was immediately done. Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 331. 
(See Matthew, ii. 13.) * Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 273 ind 

8 Life and Relig. of the Hindoos, p. 134. 259. 


Representations of this flight with the babe at midnight are 
sculptured on the walls of ancient Hindoo temples. 1 

This story is also the subject of an immense sculpture in the 
cave-temple at Elephanta, where the children are represented as 
being slain. The date of this sculpture is lost in the most remote 
antiquity. It represents a person holding a drawn sword, sur 
rounded by slaughtered infant lays. Figures of men and women 
are also represented who are supposed to be supplicating for their 
children. 3 

Thomas Maurice, speaking of this sculpture, says : 

"The event of Crishna s birth, and the attempt to destroy him, took place by 
night, and therefore the shadowy mantle of darkness, upon which mutilated figures 
of infants are engraved, darkness (at once congenial with his crime and the season 
of its perpetration), involves the tyrant s bust; the string of death Jieads marks the 
multitude of infants slain by his savage mandate; and every object in the sculp 
ture illustrates the events of that Avatar." 3 

Another feature which connects these stories is the following : 
Sir Win. Jones tells us that when Crishna was taken out of 
reach of the tyrant Kansa who sought to slay him, he was fostered 
at Mathura by Nanda, the herdsman ; 4 and Canon Farrar, speak 
ing of the sojourn of the Holy Family in Egypt, says : 

" St. Matthew neither tells us where the Holy Family abode in Egypt, nor 
how long their exile continued ; but ancient legends say that they remained two 
years absent from Palestine, and lived at Matareeh, a few miles north-east of 
Cairo." 5 

Chemnitius, out of Stipulensis, who had it from Peter Martyr, 
Bishop of Alexandria, in the third century, says, that the place in 
Egypt where Jesus was banished, is now called Matarea, about 
ten miles beyond Cairo, that the inhabitants constantly burn a 
lamp in remembrance of it, and that there is a garden of trees 
yielding a balsam, which was planted by Jesus when a boy. 

Here is evidently one and the same legend. 

Salivahana, the virgin-born Saviour, anciently worshiped near 
Cape Comorin, the southerly part of the Peninsula of India, had 
the same history. It was attempted to destroy him in infancy 
by a tyrant who was afterward killed by him. Most of the other 
circumstances, with slight variations, are the same as those told of 
Crishna and Jesus. 7 

1 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 61. 4 Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. 

See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. 130, 13 . * Fnrrar s Life of Chribt. p. 58. 

and Maurice : Indian Antiquities, vol. i. pp. See Introduction to Gospel of Infwicy. 

112, 113, and vol. iii. pp. 45, 95. Apoc. 

Indian Antiqu/ties, rol. i. pp. 112, 113. 7 See vol. x. Asiatic Researches. 


Buddlids life was also in danger when an infant. In the 
southern country of Magadha, there lived a king bj the name of 
Bimbasara, who, being fearful of some enemy arising that might 
overturn his kingdom, frequently assembled his principal ministers 
together to hold discussion with them on the subject. On one of 
these occasions they told him that away to the north there was a 
respectable tribe of people called the Sakyas, and that belonging 
to this race there was a youth newly-born, the first-begotten of his 
mother, &c. This youth, who was Buddha, they said was lia 
ble to overturn him, they therefore advised him to " at once raise 
an army and destroy the child." 1 

ID. the chronicles of the East Mongols, the same tale is to be 
found repeated in the following story : 

" A certain king of a people called Patsala, had a son whose peculiar appear 
ance led the Brahmins at court to prophesy that he would bring evil upon his 
father, and to advise his destruction. Various modes of execution having failed, 
the boy was laid in a copper cliest and thrown into the Ganges. Rescued by an old 
peasant who brought him up as his son, he, in due time, learned the story of his 
escape, and returned to seize upon the kingdom destined for him from his 
birth." 2 

I2au-lci, the Chinese hero of supernatural origin, was exposed 
in infancy, as the " Shih-king" says: 

" He was placed in a narrow lane, but the sheep and oxen protected him with 
loving care. He was placed in a wide forest, where he was met with by the 
wood-cutters, lie was placed on the cold ice, and a bird screened and sup 
ported him with its wings," &c. 3 

Mr. Legge draws a comparison with this to the Roman legend 
of Romulus. 

Horns, according to the Egyptian story, was born in the winter, 
and brought up secretly in the Isle of Buto, for fear of Typhon, 
who sought his life. Typhon at first schemed to prevent his birth 
and then sought to destroy him when born. 4 

Within historical times, Cyrus, king of Persia (6th cent. B. a), 
is the hero of a similar tale. His grandfather, Astyages, had 
dreamed certain dreams which were interpreted by the Magi to 
mean that the offspring of his daughter Mandane would expel him 
from his kingdom. 

Alarmed at the prophecy, he handed the child to his kinsman 
Harpagos to be slain ; but this man having entrusted it to a shep 
herd to be exposed, the latter contrived to save it by exhibiting to 

i Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 103, 104. The Shih-king. Decade ii, ode 1. 

* Amberly s Analysis, p. 229. Bonwick : Etfyotian Belief, pp. 158 and 160. 


the emissaries of Harpagos the body of a still-born child of which 
his own wife had just been delivered. Grown to man s estate 
Cyrus of course justified the prediction of the Magi by his success 
ful revolt against Astyages and assumption of the monarchy. 

Herodotus, the Grecian Historian (B. c. 4S-1), relates that 
Astyages, in a vision, appeared to see a vine grow up from Man- 
dane s womb, which covered all Asia. Having seen this and com 
municated it to the interpreters of dreams, he put her under 
guard, resolving to destroy whatever should be born of her; for 
the Marian interpreters had signified to him from his vision that 
the child born of Mandane would reign in his stead. Astyages 
therefore, guarding against this, as soon as Cyrus was born sought 
to have him destroyed. The story of his exposure on the moun 
tain, and his subsequent good fortune, is then related. 1 

Abraham was also a dangerous child." At the time of his 
birth, JSfimrod, king of Babylon, was informed by his soothsayers 
that " a child should be born in Babylonia, who would shortly 
become a great prince, and that he had reason to fear him." The 
result of this was that Nimrod then issued orders that "all women 
with child should be guarded with great care, and all children 
born of them should be put to deatli" 1 

The mother of Abraham was at that time with child, but, of 
course, lie escaped from being put to death, although many chil 
dren were slaughtered. 


Zoroaster, the chief of the religion of the Magi, was a " danger 
ous child." Prodigies had announced his birth ; he was exposed 
to dangers from the time of his infancy, and was obliged to fly 
into Persia, like Jesus into Egypt. Like him, he was pursued by 
a king, his enemy, who wanted to get rid of him. 3 

His mother had alarming dreams of evil spirits seeking to de 
stroy the child to whom she was about to give birth. But a good 
spirit came to comfort her and said : " Fear nothing ! Ormuzd 
will protect this infant. lie has sent him as a prophet to the 
people. The world is waiting for him." 4 

Perseus, son of the Virgin Danae, was also a "dangerous 
child." Acrisius, king of Argos, being told by the oracle 
that a son born of his virgin daughter would destroy him, im 
mured his daughter Danae in a tower, where no man could 
approach her, and by this means hoped to keep his daughter from 

1 Herodotus, bk. 1, ch. 110. p. 240. 

3 Calmet s Fragments, art. "Abraham." See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. "Religioni 

See Dupuia : Oricin of Religions Belief, of Persia." 


becoming enceinte. The god Jupiter, however, visited her thero, 
as it is related of the Angel Gabriel visiting the Virgin Mary, 1 
the result of which was that she bore a son Perseus. Acrisius, 
on hearing of his daughter s disgrace, caused both her and the 
infant to be shut up in a chest and cast into the sea. They were 
discovered by one Dictys, and liberated from what must have 
been anything but a pleasant position. 2 

jEsculapius, when an infant, was exposed on the Mount of 
Myrtles, and left there to die, but escaped the death which was 
intended for him, having been found and cared for by shepherds 

Hercules, son of the virgin Leto, was left to die on a plain, but 
was found and rescued by a maiden. 4 

(Edipous was a " dangerous child." Laios, King of Thebes, 
having been told by the Delphic Oracle that (Edipous would be his 
destroyer, no sooner is (Edipous born than the decree goes forth 
that the child must be slain ; but the servant to whom he is in 
trusted contents himself with exposing the babe on the slopes of 
Mount Kithairon, where a shepherd finds him, and carries him, 
like Cyrus or Romulus, to his wife, who cherishes the child with a 
mother s care. 6 

The Theban myth of (Edipous is repeated substantially in the 
Arcadian tradition of Telephos. Pie is exposed, when a babe, on 
Mount Parthenon, and is suckled by a doe, which represents the 
wolf in the myth of Komulus, and the dog of the Persian story of 
Cyrus. Like Moses ; he is brought up in the palace of a king. 6 

As we read the story of Telephos, we can scarcely fail to think 
of the story of the Trojan Paris, for, like Telephos, Paris is ex 
posed as a babe on the mountain-side. 7 Before he is born, there are 
portents of the ruin which he is to bring upon his house and 
people. Priam, the ruling monarch, therefore decrees that the 
child shall be loft to die on the hill-side. But the babe lies on 
the slopes of Ida and is nourished by a she-bear. He is fostered, 
like Crishna and others, by shepherds, among whom he grows up." 

lamos was left to die among the bushes and violets. Aipytos, 
the chieftain of Phaisana, had learned at Delphi that a child had 
been born who should become the greatest of all the seers and 
prophets of the earth, and he asked all his people where the babe 

1 In the Apocryphal Gospel of the Birth of Mytho. vol. ii. p. 34. 
Mary and " Protevanjrelion." 4 Cox : Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 44. 

a See BelFs Pantheon, vol. L p. 9. Cox: Ibid, p. 69, and Tales of Ancient Greece, 

Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 58, and Bulfinch : p. xlii. 
The Age of Fable, p. 101. Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 74. 

Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 27. Cox : Aryan 7 Ibid. p. 75. Ibid. p. 78.J 


was: but none had heard or seen him, for he la} 7 away amid the 
thick bushes, with his soft body bathed in the golden and pure 
rays of the violets. So when he was found, they called him lainos, 
the "violet child ;" and as he grew in years and strength, he went 
down into the Alpheian stream, and prayed to his father that he 
would glorify his son. Then the voice of Zeus was heard, bidding 
him come to the heights of Olympus, where he should receive the 
gift of prophecy. 1 

Chandragupta was also a " dangerous child." lie is exposed 
to great dangers in his infancy at the hands of a tributary chief 
who has defeated and slain his suzerain. His mother, "relinquish 
ing him to the protection of the Devas, places him in a vase, and 
deposits him at the door of a cattle pen" A herdsman takes the 
child and rears it as his own. 3 

Jason is another hero of the same kind. Pelias, the chief of 
lolkos, had been told that one of the children of Aiolos would be 
his destroyer, and decreed, therefore, that all should be slain. Jason 
only is preserved, and brought up by Cheiron. 3 

Bacchus, son of the virgin Semelc, was destined to bring ruin 
upon Cadmus, King of Thebes, who therefore orders the infant to 
be put into a chest and thrown into a river. He is found, and taken 
from the water by loving hands, and lives to fulfill his mission. 4 

Herodotus relates a similar story, which is as follows : 

"The constitution of the Corinthians was formerly of this kind; it was an 
oligarchy, (a government in the hands of a selected few), and those who were 
called Bacchiadm governed the cily. About this time one Eetion, who had been 
married to a maiden called Labda, and having no children by her, went to 
Delphi to inquire of the oracle about having offspring. Upon entering the tem 
ple he was immediately saluted as follows: Eetion. no one honors thee, though 
worthy of much honor. Labda is pregnant and will bring forth a round stone; 
it will fall on monarchs, and vindicate Corinth. This oracle, pronounced to 
Eetion, was by chance reported to the Bacchiadw, who well knew that it prophe 
sied the birth of a son to Eetion who would overthrow them, and reign in their 
stead; and though they comprehended, they kept it secret, purposing to destroy 
the offspring that should be born to Eetion. As soon as the woman brought 
forth, they sent ten persons to the district where F.t-tion lived, to put the child 
to death; but, the child, by a divine providence, was saved. His mother hid him 
in a chest, and as they could not find the child they resolved to depart, and tell 
those who sent them that they had done all that they had commanded. 
After this, Eetlon s son grew up, and having escaped this danger, the name of 
Cypselus was given him, from the chest. When Cypselus readied man s estate, 
and consulted the oracle, an ambiguous answer was given him at Delphi; rely 
ing on which he attacked and got possession of Corinth." 5 

1 Cox: Aryan Mytho. ii. p. 81. Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 188. Cor : 

Ibid. p. 84. Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 296. 

Ibid. p. 150. Herodotus : bk. v. ch. 92. 


Romulus and Remus, the founders of Rome, were exposed on 
the banks of the Tiber, when infants, and left there to die, but 
escaped the death intended for them. 

The story of the " dangerous child " was well known in ancient 
Rome, and several of their emperors, so it is said, were threatened 
with death at their birth, or when mere infants. Julius Marathus, 
in his life of the Emperor Augustus Caesar, says that before his 
birth there was a prophecy in Rome that a king over the Roman 
people would soon be born. To obviate this danger to the republic, 
the Senate ordered that all the male children born in that year 
should be abandoned or exposed. 1 

The Hi ht of the virgin-mother with her babe is also illustrated 

O O 

in the story of Astrea when beset by Orion, and of Latona, the 
mother of Apollo, when pursued by the monster. 2 It is simply the 
same old story, over and over again. Some one has predicted that 
a child born at a certain time shall be great, he is therefore a "dan 
gerous child," and the reigning monarch, or some other interested 
party, attempts to have the child destroyed, but he invariably 
escapes and grows to manhood, and generally accomplishes the 
purpose for which he was intended. This almost universal mythos 
was added to the fictitious history of Jesus by its fictitious authors, 
who have made him escape in his infancy from the reigning tyrant 
with the usual good fortune. 

When a marvellous occurrence is said to have happened every- 
wlierc, we may feel sure that it never happened anywhere. Pop 
ular fancies propagate themselves indefinitely, but historical events, 
especially the striking and dramatic ones, are rarely repeated. 
That this is a fictitious story is seen from the narratives of the 
birth of Jesus, which are recorded by the first and thh-J Gospel 
writers, without any other evidence. In the one that related by 
the Matthew narrator we have a birth at Bethlehem implying 
the ordinary residence of the parents there and a hurried flight 
almost immediately after the birth from that place into Egypt, 1 
the slaughter of the infants, and a journey, after many months, from 
Egypt to ^Nazareth in Galilee. In the other story (hat told by 
the Liike narrator the parents, who have lived in Nazareth, came 
to Bethlehem only for business of the State, and the casual birth in 
the cave or stable is followed by a quiet sojourn, during which the 
child is circumcised, and by a leisurely journey to Jerusalem ; 

1 See Farrar s Life of Christ, p. 60. Christian art of the flight of the Holy Familj 

2 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 168. into Egypt. (See Mounmental Christianity, p. 
There are no very early examples in 239.) 


whence, everything having gone off peaceably and happily, they 
return naturally to their own former place of abode, full, it is 
mid over and over again, of wonder at the things that had hap 
pened, and deeply impressed with the conviction that their child 
had a special work to do, and was specially gifted for it. There is 
7io fear of Herod, who seems never to trouble himself about the 
child, or even to have any Imowlcdge of him. There is no trouble 
or misery at Bethlehem, and certainly no mourning for children 
slain. Far from flying hurriedly away by night, his parents cele 
brate openly, and at the usual time, the circumcision of the child ; 
and when he is presented in the temple, there is not only no sign 
that enemies seek his life, but the devout saints givepublic thanks 
for the manifestation of the Saviour. 

Dr. Ilooykaas, speaking of the slaughter of the innocents, says : 

"Antiquity in general delighted in representing great men, such as Romulus, 
Cyrus, and many more, as having been threatened in their childhood by fearful 
dangers. This served to bring into clear relief both the lofty siguiticanee of their 
future lives, and the special protection of the deity who watched over them. 

" The brow of many a theologian has been bent over this (Mat the w) narra 
tive! For, as long as people believed in the miraculous inspiration of the Holy 
Scriptures, of course they accepted every page as literally true, and thought 
that there could not be any contradiction between the different accounts or repre 
sentations of Scripture. The worst of all such pre-conceived ideas is, that they 
compel those who hold them to do violence to their own sense of truth. For 
when these so-called religious prejudices come into play, people are afraid to call 
things by their right names, and, without knowing it themselves, become guilty 
of all kinds of evasive and arbitrary practices; for what would be thought quite 
unjustifiable in any other case is here considered a duty, inasmuch as it is sup 
posed to tend toward the maintenance of faith and the glory of God! >M 

As we stated above, this story is to be found in the fictitious 
gospel according to Matthew only ; contemporary history has no 
where recorded this audacious crime. It is mentioned neither by 
Jewish nor Roman historians. Tacitus, who has stamped forever 
the crimes of despots with the brand of reprobation, it would seem 
then, did not think such infamies worthy of his condemnation. 
Josephus also, who gives us a minute account of the atrocities per 
petrated by Herod up to even the very last moment of his life, 
does not say a single word about this unheard-of crime, which must 
have been so notorious. Surely he must have known of it, and 
must have mentioned it, had it ever been committed. " We can 
readily imagine the Pagans," says Mr. Reber, " who composed the 
learned and intelligent men of their day, at work in exposing 
the story of Herod s cruelty, by showing that, considering the ex- 

Bible for Learners, vol. iii. pp. 71-74. 


tent of territory embraced in the order, and the population within 
it, the assumed destruction of life stamped the story false and 
ridiculous. A governor of a Roman province who dared make 
such an order would be so speedily overtaken by the vengeance of 
the Roman people, that his head would fall from his body before 
the blood of his victims had time to dry. Archelaus, his son, was 
deposed for offenses not to be spoken of when compared with this 
massacre of the infants." 

No wonder that there is no trace at all in the Roman catacombs, 
nor in Christian art, of this fictitious story, until about the begin 
ning of the fifth century. 1 Never would Herod dared to have taken 
upon himself the odium and responsibility of such a sacrifice. 
Such a crime could never have happened at the epoch of its pro 
fessed perpetration. To such lengths were the early Fathers led, 
by the servile adaptation of the ancient traditions of the East, they 
required a second edition of the tyrant Kansa, and their holy wrath 
fell upon Herod. The Apostles of Jesus counted too much upon 
human credulity, they trusted too much that the future might not 
unravel their maneuvers, the sanctity of their object made them 
too reckless. They destroyed all the evidence against themselves 
which they could lay their hands upon, but they did not destroy 
it all. 

See Monumental Christianity, p. 838. 



WE are informed by the Matthew narrator that, after being bap 
tized by John in the river Jordan, Jesus was led by the spirit into 
the wilderness " to be tempted of the devil" 

" And when he had fasted forty days and forty niyhts, he was afterward an 
hungered. And when the tempter came to him he said: If thou be the Son of 
God, command that these stones be made bread. . . . Then the devil taketh 
him up into the holy city, and setteth him on a pinnacle of ike temple, and saith 
unto him : If thou be the Son of God, cast thyself down. . . . Again, the devil 
taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sJioweth him all tlte l-imj- 
d&ms of the world, and the glory of them, and saith unto him: All these things icill 
1 give thee if thou wilt fall down and worship me. Then saith Jesus unto him, 
Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shall worship the Lord thy God, 
and him only shall thou serve. Then Ihe devil leavelh him, and, behold, angels 
came and ministered unlo him." 1 

This is really a very peculiar story ; it is therefore not to be 
wondered at that many of the early Christian Fathers rejected it as 
being fabulous, 2 but this, according to orthodox teaching, cannot be 
done ; because, in all consistent reason, " we must accept the whole 
of the inspired autographs or reject the whole"* and, because, ;< the 
very foundations of our faith, the very basis of our hopes, the very 
nearest and dearest of our consolations, are taken from us, when 
one line of that sacred volume, on which we base everything, is de 
clared to be untruthful and untrustworthy." 4 

The reason why we have this story in the New Testament is 
because the writer wished to show that Christ Jesus was proof 
against all temptations, that he too, as well as Buddha and others, 
could resist the powers of the prince of evil. This Angel-Messiah 
was tempted by the devil, and he fasted for forty-seven days and 
nights, without taking an atom of food. 6 

i Matthew, iv. 1-11. ford, England. 

51 See Lardner s Works, vol. viii. p. 491. The Bishop of Manchester (England), tn 

Words of the Rev. E. Qarbett, M. A., in a the " Manchester Examiner and Times." 
ermon preached before the University of Ox- See Lillie s Buddhism, p. 100. 



The story of Buddha s temptation, presented below, is taken 
from the " Siamese Life of Buddha" by Moncure D. Conway, 
and published in his " Sacred Anthology" from which we take it. 1 
It is also to be found in the Fo-pen-King* and other works on 
Buddha and Buddhism. Buddha went through a more lengthy and 
severe trial than did Jesus, having been tempted in many different 
ways. The portion which most resembles that recorded by the 
Matthew narrator is the following : 

" The Grand Being (Buddha) applied himself to practice ascetcism of the ex- 
tremest nature. He ceased to eat (that is, he fasted) and held his breath. . . . 
Then it was that the royal Mara (the Prince of Evil) sought occasion to tempt him. 
Pretending compassion, he said: Beware, O Grand Being, your state is pitiable 
to look on; you are attenuated beyond measure, . . . you are practicing 
this mortification in vain; I can see that you will not live through it. . . . 
Lord, that art capable of such vast endurance, go not forth to adopt a religious 
life, but return to thy kingdom, and in seven days thou shalt become the Emperor 
of the World, riding over the four great continents. " 

To this the Grand Being, Buddha, replied : 

" Take heed, O Mara; I also know that in seven days I might gain universal 
empire, but I desire not such possessions. I know that the pursuit of religion is 
better than the empire of the world. You, thinking only of evil lusts, would 
force me to leave all beings without guidance into your power. Avaunt ! Get 
thou away from me! 

"The Lord (then) rode onwards, intent on his purpose. The skies rained 
flowers, and delicious odors pervaded the air." 3 

Now, mark the similarity between these two legends. 

Was Jesus ;*! out "beginning to preach" when he was tempted 
by the evil spirit? So was Buddha about to go forth "to adopt 
a religious life," when he was tempted by the evil spirit. 

Did Jesus fast, and was he " afterwards an hungered " ? Sc 
did Buddha " cease to eat," and was " attenuated beyond measure." 

Did the evil spirit take Jesus and show him u all the king 
doms of the world," which he promised to give him, provided he 
did not lead the life he contemplated, but follow him ? 

So did the evil spirit say to Buddha : " Go not forth to adopt 
a religious life, and in seven days thou shalt become an emperor of 
the world." 

Did not Jesus resist these temptations, and say unto the evil 
one, " Get thee behind me, Satan " ? 

So did Buddha resist the temptations, and said unto the evil one, 
" Get thee away from me." 

1 Pp. 44 and 17-3, 173. 39. Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. xxviii., xxix.., 

a Translated by Prof. Samuel Beal. and 190, and Haidy : Buddhist Legends, p. 

* See also Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 38, xvii. 


After the evil spirit left Jesus did not " angels come and minis 
ter unto him " ? 

So with Buddha. After the evil one had left him " the skies 
rained flowers, and delicious odors pervaded the air." 

These parallels are too striking to be accidental. 

Zoroaster, the founder of the religion of the Persians, was 
tempted by the devil, who made him magnificent promises, in order 
to induce him to become his servant and to be dependent on him, 
but the temptations were in vain. 1 " His temptation by the devil, 
forms the subject of many traditional reports and legends. " 

Quetzalcoatle, the virgin-born Mexican Saviour, was also 
tempted by the devil, and the forty days fast was found among 
them. 3 

Fasting and self-denial were observances practiced by all nations 
of antiquity. The Hindoos have days set apart for fasting on 
many different occasions throughout the year, one of which is when 
the birth-day of their Lord and Saviour Crishna is celebrated. On 
this occasion, the day is spent in fasting and worship. They ab 
stain entirely from food and drink for more than thirty hours, at 
the end of which Crishna s image is worshiped, and the story of his 
miraculous birth is read to his hungry worshipers. 4 

Among the ancient Egyptians, there were times when the 
priests submitted to abstinence of the most severe description, be 
ing forbidden to eat even bread, and at other times they only ate 
it mingled with hyssop. " The priests in Heliopolis," says Plu 
tarch, "have many fasts, during which they meditate on divine 
things." 6 

Among the Sabians, fasting was insisted on as an essential act 
of religion. During the month Tammuz, they were in the habit 
of fasting from sunrise to sunset, without allowing a morsel of food 
or drop of liquid to pass their lips. 6 

The Jews also hud their fasts, and on special occasions they 
gave themselves up to prolonged fasts and mortifications. 

Fasting and self-denial were observances required of the Greeks 
who desired initiation into the Mysteries. Abstinence from food, 
chastity and hard couches prepared the neophyte, who broke his 
fast on the third and fourth day only, on consecrated food. 7 

The same practice was found among the ancient Mexicans and 
Peruvians. Acosta, speaking of them, says : 

Dnpuis : Origin of Religions Belief, p. 240. Life and Rellg. of the Hindoos, p. 134. 

Chamber s Enclyclo. art. " Zoroaster." Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, Tol. L 

See Kingsborough : Mexican Antiquities, p. 341. 
TOI. vi. p. 200. Ibid. 1 1bid. p. 340. 


"These prissts and religious men used great fastings, of five and ten days 
together, before any of their great feasts, and they were unto them as our four 
ember weeks. . . . 

" They drank no wine, and slept little, for the greatest part of their exercises 
(of penance) were at night, committing great cruelties and martyring themselves 
for the devil, and all to be reputed great fasters and penitents." 1 

In regard to the number of clays which Jesus is said to have 
fasted being specified as forty, this is simply owing to the fact that 
the number forty as well as seven was a sacred one among most 
nations of antiquity, particularly among the Jews, and because 
others had fasted that number of days. For instance ; it is related* 
that Moses went up into a mountain, " and he was there with the 
Ijord forty days and forty nights, and he did neither eat bread, 
nor drink water" which is to say that he fasted. 

In Deuteronomy 3 Moses is made to say for he did not write 
it, u Wheii I was gone up into the mount to receive the tables 
of stone, . . . then I abode in the mount forty days and forty 
nights, I neither did eat bread nor drink water." 

Elijah also had a long fast, which, of course, was continued for a 
period si forty days and forty nights* 

St. Joachim, father of the " ever-blessed Virgin Mary," had a 
long fast, which was also continued for a period of forty days and 
forty nights. The story is to be found in the apocryphal gospel 
JProtevangelion. 5 

The ancient Persians had a religious festival which they an 
nually celebrated, and which they called the " Salutation of Mith 
ras." During this festival, forty days were set apart for thanks 
giving and sacrifice. 6 

Tiie forty days fast was found in the New World. 

Godfrey liiggins tells us that : 

"The ancient Mexicans had a forty days? fast, in memory of one of their sacred 
persons (Quetzalcoatle) who was tempted (and fasted) forty days on a moun 
tain." 7 

Lord Kingsborough says : 

"The temptation of Quetzalco 
curious and mysterious."* 

The ancient Mexicans were also in the habit of making their 

"The temptation of Quetzalcoatle, and the fast of forty days, . . . are 
very curious and mysterious."* 

i Acosta : Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 339. Chapter i. 

a Esodus, xxiv. 88. See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 272. 

Deut. ix. 18. T Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 19. 

* 1 Kings, xix. 8. Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. pp. 197-200. 


prisoners of war fast for a term of forty days before they were 
put to death. 1 

Mr. Bonwick says : 

" Tho Spaniards were surprised to see the Mexicans keep the vernal forty days 
fast. The Tammuz month of Syria was in the spring. The forty days were 
kept for Proserpine. Thus does history repeat itself." 2 

The Spanish monks accounted for what Lord Kingsborough 
calls " very curious and mysterious" circumstances, by the agency 
of the devil, and burned all the books containing them, whenever 


it was in their power. 

The forty days fast was also found among some of the Indian 
tribes in the New "World. Dr. Daniel Brinton tells us that u the 
females of the Orinoco tribes fasted forty days before marriage," 8 
and Prof. Max Muller informs us that it was customary for somo 
of the females of the South American tribes of Indians " to fast 
before and after the birth of a child," and that, among the Carib- 
Coudave tribe, in the West Indies, "when a child is born the 
mother goes presently to work, but the father begins to complain, 
and takes to his hammock, and there he is visited as though he 
wore sick. He then fasts for forty days" 

The females belonging to the tribes of the Upper Mississippi, 
were held unclean for forty days after childbirth. 5 The prince of 
the Tezcuca tribes fasted forty days when he wished an heir to 
his throne, and the Mandanas supposed it required forty days and 
forty nights to wash clean the earth at the deluge. 8 

The number forty is to be found in a great many instances in 
the Old Testament ; for instance, at the end of forty days Noah 
sent out a raven from the ark. 7 Isaac and Esau were each forty 
years old when they married. 8 Forty days were fulfilled for the 
embalming of Jacob. 9 The spies were forty days in search of the 
land of Canaan. 10 The Israelites wandered forty years in the 
wilderness. 11 The land "had rest " forty years on three occasions. 1 * 
The land was delivered into the hand of the Philistines forty years. 1 * 
Eli judged Israel forty years. 1 * King David reigned forty years. 1 * 

1 See Kingsborough s Mexican Antiquities, 7 Genesis, viii. 6. 

Tol. vi. p. 223. 8 Gen. xxv. 20 xxvi. 34. 

a Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 370. Gen. i. 3. 

1 Brinton : Myths of the New World, p. 94. 10 Numbers, xiii. 25. 

Max Mflller 1 8 Chips, vol. ii. p. 279. " Numbers, xiii. 13. 

Brinton : Myths of the New World, p. 94. ia Jud. iii. 11 ; v. 31 ; rilL 28. 

Ibid. According to Genesis, vii. 12, " the 1S Jud. xiii. 1. 

rain was upon the earth forty days and forty 14 1. Samuel, iv. 18. 

nights " at the time of the flood. 18 I. Kings, ii. 11. 


King Solomon reigned forty years} 1 Goliath presented himself 
forty days? The rain was upon the earth forty days at the time 
of the deluge. 8 And, as we saw above, Moses was on the mount 
forty days and forty nights on each occasion. 4 Can anything be 
more mythological than this? 

The number forty was used by the ancients in constructing 
temples. There were forty pillars around the temple of Chilminar, 
in Persia ; the temple at Baalbec had forty pillars ; on the frontiers 
of China, in Tartary, there is to be seen the " Temple of the forty 
pillars." Forty is one of the most common numbers in the Dru- 
idical temples, and in the plan of the temple of Ezekiel, the four 
oblong buildings in the middle of the courts have each forty pil 
lars. 6 Most temples of antiquity were imitative were microcosms 
of the Celestial Templum and on this account they were sur 
rounded with pillars recording astronomical subjects, and intended 
both to do honor to these subjects, and to keep them in perpetual 
remembrance. In the Abury temples were to be seen the cycles of 
650-608-600-60-40-30-19-12, etc. 8 

1 1. Kings, xi. 42. See Higgins Anacalypsifl, vol. i. p. 708 ; 

a I. Samuel, xvii. 16. Yol. II. p. 402. 

Gen. vii. 12. See Ibid. vol. II. p. 708. 

< Exodus, xxiv. 18 xxxiv. 2*. 



THE punishment of an individual by crucifixion, for claiming 
to be " King of the Jews," " Son of God," or " The Christ ;" 
which are the causes assigned by the Evangelists for the Cru 
cifixion of Jesus, would need but a passing glance in our in 
quiry, were it not for the fact that there is much attached to it 
of a dogmatic and heathenish nature, which demands considerably 
more than a " passing glance." The doctrine of atonement for sin 
had been preached long before the doctrine was deduced from the 
Christian Scriptures, long before these Scriptures are pretended to 
have been written. Before the period assigned for the birth of 
Christ Jesus, the poet Ovid had assailed the demoralizing 
delusion with the most powerful shafts of philosophic scorn : 
" When thou thyself art guilty" says he, " why should a victim 
die for thee f What folly it is to expect savlation from the death 
of another" 

The idea of expiation by the sacrifice of a god was to be 
found among the Hindoos even in Vedic times. The sacrificer 
was mystically identified with the victim, which was regarded as 
the ransom for sin, and the instrument of its annulment. The 
Rig -Veda represents the gods as sacrificing Purusha, the primeval 
male, supposed to be coeval with the Creator. This idea is even 
more remarkably developed in the Tandy a-brdhmanas, thus: 

" The lord of creatures (prajd-pati) offered himself a sacrifice far the gods." 
And again, in the Satapatha-brdhmana : 

"He who, knowing this, sacrifices the Purusha-medha, or sacrifice of the 
primeval male, becomes everything." 1 

Prof. Monier Williams, from whose work on Hindooism we 
quote the above, says : 

1 Monier Williams : Hinduism, pp. 3&-40. 



"Surely, in these mystical allusions to the sacrifice of a representative man, 
we may perceive traces of the original institution of sacrifice as a divinely-ap 
pointed ordinance typical of the one great sacrifice of the Son of God for the sins of 
the world." 1 

This idea of redemption from sin through the sufferings and 
death of a Divine Incarnate Saviour, is simply the crowning-point of 
the idea entertained by primitive man that the gods demanded a 
sacrifice of some kind, to atuiio fur some tin, or avert some calamity. 

Jn primitive ages, when men lived mostly on vegetables, they 
offered only grain, water, salt, fruit, and flowers to the r^ods, to 
propitiate them and thereby obtain temporal blessings. But when 
they began to eat meat and spices, and drink wine, they offered 
the same ; naturally supposing the deities would be pleased with 
whatever was useful or agreeable to themselves. They imagined 
that some gods were partial to animals, others to fruits, flowers, 
etc. To the celestial gods they offered white victims at sunrise, 
or at open day. To the infernal deities they sacrificed black 
animals in the night. Each god had some creature peculiarly 
devoted to his worship. They sacrificed a lull to Mars, a dove to 
Venus, and to Minerva, a heifer without blemish, which had never 
been put to the yoke. If a man was too poor to sacrifice a living 
animal, he offered an image of one made of bread. 

In the course of time, it began to be imagined that the gods 
demanded something more sacred as offerings or atonements for sin. 
This led to the sacrifice of human leings, principally slaves and 
those taken in war, then, their own children, even their most 
beloved * first-born." It came to be an idea that every sin must 
have its prescribed amount of punishment, and that the gods would 
accept the life of one person as atonement for the sins of others. 
This idea prevailed even in Greece and Rome : but there it mainly 
took the form of heroic self -sacrifice for the public good. Cicero 
says : " The force of religion was so great among our ancestors, that 
some of their commanders have, with their faces veiled, and with 
the strongest expressions of sincerity, sacrificed themselves to the 
immortal gods to save their country"* 

In Egypt, offerings of human sacrifices, for the atonement of 
sin, became so general that u if the eldest born of the family of 
Athamas entered the temple of the Laphystan Jupiter at Alos in 
Achaia, he was sacrificed, crowned with garlands like an animal 
victim." 8 

Monier Williams: Hinduism, p. 36. 2 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 303. 

Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 443. 


When the Egyptian priests offered up a sacrifice to the gods, 
they pronounced the following imprecations on the head of the 
victim : 

" If any evil is about to befall either those who now sacrifice, or Egypt in 
general, may it be averted on this head." 1 

This idea of atonement finally resulted in the belief that the 
incarnate Christ, the Anointed, the God among us, was to save 
mankind from a curse by God imposed. Man had sinned, and 
God could not and did not forgive without a propitiatory sacrifice. 
The curse of God must be removed from the sinful, and the 
sinless must bear the load of that curse. It was asserted that 
divine justice required BLOOD. 

The belief of redemption from sin by the sufferings of a Divine 
Incarnation, whether by death on the cross or otherwise, was 
general and popular among the heathen, centuries before the time 
of Jesus of Nazareth, and this dogma, no matter how sacred it may 
have become, or how consoling it may be, must fall along with the 
rest of the material of which the Christian church is built. 

Julius Firrnicius, referring to this popular belief among the 
Pagans, says : " The devil has his Christs"* This was the 
general off-hand manner in which the Christian Fathers disposed 
of such matters. Everything in the religion of the Pagans wliich 
corresponded to their religion was of the devil. Most Protestant 
divines have resorted to the type theory, of which we shall speak 

As we have done heretofore in our inquiries, we will first turn 
to India, where we shall find, in the words of M. PAbbe Hue, 
that " the idea of redemption by a divine incarnation," who came 
into the world for the express purpose of redeeming mankind, was 
" general and popular." 4 

" A sense of original corruption," says Prof. Monier Williams, 

1 Herodotus : bk. ii. ch. 39. Jesus as your Saviour, you can take the blood of 

* In the trial of Dr. Thomas (at Chicago) for Jesus, and with boldness present it to the Father 

doctrinal heresy" one of the charges made as payment in full of the penalties of all your sins. 

against him (Sept. 8, 1881) was that he had Sinful man has no right to the benefits and the 

6aid "the BLOOD of the Lamb had nothing beauties and glories of nature. These icere all 

to do with salvation." And in a eermon lost to him through Adam s sin, but to the 

preached in Boston, Sept. 2, 1881, at the blood of Christ s sacrifice he has a right ; it 

Columbus Avenue Presbyterian Churcti, by the was shed for him. It is Christ s death that 

Rev. Andrew A. Bonar, D.D., the preacher said : does the blessed work of salvation for us. It 

" No sinner dares to meet the holy God until was not his life nor his Incarnation. His Incar- 

his sin has been forgiven, or until he has re- nation could not pay a farthing of our debt, but 

ceived remission. The penalty of sin is death, his blood shed in redeeming love, pays it all. 1 

and this penalty is not remitted by anything (See Boston Advertiser, Sept. 3, 1881.) 

the sinner can do for himself, but only through 3 Uaf/et frgo biaboltts C hrintos suos. 

the BLOOD of Jesus. If you have accepted Hue s Travels, vol. i. pp. 326 and 327. 


seems to be felt by all classes of Hindoos, as indicated by the follow* 
ing prayer used after the Gdyatrl by some Yaishnavas : 

" I am sinful, I commit sin, my nature is sinful, I am conceived in sin. 
Save me, O thou lotus-eyed Heri (Saviour), the remover of sin. M 

Moreover, the doctrine of bhakti (salvation l>y faith) existed 
among the Hindoos from the earliest times. 3 

Crishna, the virgin-born, " the Divine Vishnu himself, " 
"he who is without beginning, middle or end," 4 being moved 
" to relieve the earth of her load," 5 came upon earth and redeemed 
man by his sufferings to save him. 

The accounts of the deaths of most all the virgin-born Saviours 
of whom we shall speak, are conflicting. It is stated in one place 
that such an one died in such a manner, and in another place we 
may find it stated altogether differently. Even the accounts of the 
death of Jesus, as we shall hereafter see, are conflicting ; therefore, 
until the chapter on " Explanation " is read, these myths cannot 
really be thoroughly understood. 

As the Rev. Geo. W. Cox remarks, in his Aryan Mythology, 
Crishna is described, in one of his aspects, as a self-sacrificing and 
unselfish hero, a being who is filled with divine wisdom and love, 
who offers up a sacrifice which he alone can make. 6 

The Vishnu Pur ana? speaks of Crishna being shot in tliefoot 
with an arrow, and states that this was the cause of his death. Other 
accounts, however, state that he was suspended on a tree, or in 
other words, crucified. 

Mons. Guigniaut, in his " Religion de V Antiquit e" says : 

" The death of Crishna is very differently related. One remarkable and con 
vincing tradition makes him perish on a tree, to which he was nailed by the 
stroke of an arrow." 8 

Rev. J. P. Lundy alludes to this passage of Guigniaut s in his 
" Monumental Christianity," and translates the passage " un bois 
fatal " (see note below) " a cross." Although we do not think he 
is justified in doing this, as M. Guigniaut has distinctly stated that 
this " bois fatal " (which is applied to a gibbet, a cross, a scaffold, 
etc.) was " un arbre " (a tree), yet, he is justified in doing so on 
other accounts, for we find that Crishna is represented hanging on 
a cross, and we know that a cross was frequently called the " ac- 

> Hinduism, p. 214. 7 Pages 274 and 612. 

Ibid. p. 115. 8 "On reconte fort diversement la niort de 
Vishnu Purana, p. 440. Crishna. Une tradition remarquable et averee 
Ibid. le fait perir sur un bois fatal (un arbre), ou il 

Ibid. fut cloue" d un coup de fleche." (Quoted by 
Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 132. Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 144.) 


cursed tree" It was an ancient custom to use trees as gibbets for 
crucifixion, or, if artificial, to call the cross a tree. 1 

A writer in Deuteronomy* speaks of hanging criminals upon a 
tree, as though it was a general custom, and says : 

" He that is hanged (on a tree) is accursed of God." 
And Paul undoubtedly refers to this text when he says : 

" Christ hath redeemed us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us; 
for it is written, Cursed is every one that hangeth on a tree. " 3 

It is evident, then, that to be hung on a cross was anciently 
called hanging on a tree, and to be hung on a tree was called cru 
cifixion. We may therefore conclude from this, and from what 
we shall now see, that Crishna was said to have been crucified. 

In the earlier copies of Moor s "Hindu Pantheon" is to be seen 
representations of Crishna (as Wittoba)* with marks of holes in 
both feet, and in others, of holes in the hands. In Figures 4- and > 
of Plate 11 (Moor s work), the figures have nail-holes in loth f<ct. 
Figure 6 has a round hole in tJie side to his collar or shirt hangs 
the emblem of a heart (which we often see in pictures of Christ 
Jesus) and on his head he has a Yoni-Linya (which we do not see 
in pictures of Christ Jesus.) 

Our Figure No. 7 (next page), is a pre-Christian crucifix of Asi 
atic origin, 5 evidently intended to represent Crishna crucified. Figure 
No. 8 we can speak more positively of, it is surely Crishna crucified. 
It is unlike any Christian crucifix ever made, and, with that de 
scribed above with the Yoni-Linga attached to the head, would 
probably not be claimed as such. Instead of the crown of thorns 
usually put on the head of the Christian Saviour, it has the turreted 
coronet of the Ephesian Diana, the ankles are tied together by a 
cord, and the dress about the loins is exactly the style with which 
Crishna is almost always represented.* 

Rev. J. P. Lundy, speaking of the Christian crucifix, says : 

1 See Digging : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 499, "The crucified god Wittoba is also called 
and Mrs. Jameson s History of Our Lord in Balii. lie is worshiped in a marked manner at 
Art," ii. 317, where the cross is called the Pander-poor or Bunder-poor, near Poonuh." 
"accursed tree. 1 (Iliggins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 750. note 1.) 

2 Chap. xxi. 22, 23 : "If a man have com- "A form of Vishnu (Crishna*. called 11th- 
mitted a sin worthy of death, and he be to be thai or Vithob<~i, is the popular god at Pandhar- 
put to death, and thou hang him on a tree : pur in Maha-rashtra, the favorite of the cele- 
his body shall not remain all night upon the brated Marathi poet Tukarama." (.Prof, 
tree, but thou shall in any wise bury him that Monier Williams : Indian Wisdom, p. xlviii.) 
day; (for he that is hanged Is accursed of God;) See Lundy : Monumental Christianity, p. 
that thy land be not defiled, which the Lord 160. 

thy God giveth thee for an inheritance." This can be seen by referring to Calmet, 

8 Galatians, lii. 13. Sonnerat, or Higgins, vol. ii., which contain 

4 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 146, plates representing Crishna. 

and Inman e Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 402. 



" I object to the crucifix because it is an image, and liable to gross abuse, just 
as the old Hindoo crucifix was an idol." 1 

FIG N07 

FIG N 0.8 

And Dr. Inman says : 

" Crishna, whose history so closely resembles our Lord s, was also like him in 
his being crucified." 8 

The Evangelist 3 relates that when Jesus was crucified two 
others (malefactors) were crucified with him, one of whom, through 
his favor, went to heaven. One of the malefactors reviled him, 
but the other said to Jesus : " Lord, remember me when thou com- 
est into thy kingdom." And Jesus said unto him : " Verily I say 
unto thee, to-day shalt thou be with me in paradise." According 
to the Vishnu Pur ana, the hunter who shot the arrow at Crislma 
afterwards said unto him : " Have pity upon me, who am consumed 
by my crime, for thou art able to consume me !" Crislma re 
plied : " Fear not thou in the least. Go, hunter, through my favor, 
to heaven, the abode of the gods" As soon as he had thus spoken, 
a celestial car appeared, and the hunter, ascending it, forthwith 
proceeded to heaven. Then the illustrious Crislma, having united 
himself with his own pure, spiritual, inexhaustible, inconceivable, 
unborn, undecaying, imperishable and universal spirit, which is 
one with Vasudeva (God), 4 abandoned his mortal body, and the 
condition of the threefold equalities. 6 One of the titles of Crislma 

1 Monumental Christianity, p. 128. 

* Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 411. 

* Luke, xxiii. 39-43. 

Vaeudeva means God. See Vishnu Parana, 
p. 274. 

Vishnu Purana, p 613. 



IB " Pardoner of sins" another is " Liberator from the Serpent of 
death." 1 

The monk G corgi us, in his Tibetinum Alphabctum (p. 203), 

FIG 9 

FIG. 10 

lias given plates of a crucified god who was worshiped in Nepal. 
These crucifixes were to be seen at the corners of roads and on 
eminences. lie calls it the god Indra. Figures No. 9 and No. 10 
arc taken from this work. They are also different from any 
Christian crucifix yet produced. Georgius says : 

" If the matter stands as Beausobre thinks, then the inhabitants of India, and 
the Buddhists, whose religion is the same as that of the inhabitants of Thibet, 
have received these new portents of fanatics nowhere else than from the Mani- 
cheans. For those nations, especially in the city of Nepal, in the mouth of Au 
gust, being about to celebrate the festival days of the god Indra, erect crosses, 
wreathed with Abrolono, to his memory, everywhere. You have the description of 
these in letter B, the picture following aftei ; for A is the representation of Indra 
himself crucified-, bearing on his forehead, hands and feet the signs Tekch."* 

P. Andrada la Crozius, one of the first Europeans who went to 
Nepal and Thibet, in speaking of the god whom they worshiped 
there Indra tells us that they said he spilt his Hood for Ihesalva- 

1 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 72. 

a Si ita se res habet, ut existimat Bcau- 
sobrius, Indi, et Budittce quorum reli<rio, 
eadera est ac Tibctana, nonnisi a Manichaeis 
nova haec deliriorum portenta acceperunt. Hae- 
namquo gentes prsesertim in urbe Nepal, Luna 
XII. Budr ten Bhadon Aitrjuxti mensis, dies 
festos auspicatune Dei Indne, erigunt ad illiua 

memoriara ubique locorura cruces amictas 
Abrotono. Earum flgurain dcscriplam habee 
ad lit. B, Tabula pone sequent!. Nam A effi 
gies est ipsius Indrce cruciftxi eigna Telech in 
fronte manibas pedibueque gerentis." (Alpb 
Tibet, p. 203. Quoted in Biggins AnacalypsU. 
vol. i. p. 130.) 


tion of the human race, and that he was pierced through the boc y 
with nails. He further says that, although they do not say he suf 
fered the penalty of the cross, yet they find, nevertheless, figures 
of it in their books. 1 

In regard to Beausobre s ideas that the religion of India is 
corrupted Christianity, obtained from the Manicheans, little need 
be said, as all scholars of the present day know that the religion 
of India is many centuries oldor than Muni or the Manicheans. 9 

In the promontory of India, in the South, at Tanjore, and in 
the Xortli, at Oude or Ayoudia, was found the worship of the 
crucified god Bal-li. This god, who was believed to have been 
an incarnation of Vishnu, was represented with holes in his hands 
and side. 3 

The incarnate god Buddha, although said to have expired 
peacefully at the foot of a tree, is nevertheless described as a suffer 
ing Saviour, who, "when his mind was moved by pity (for the 
human race) gave his life like grass for the sake of others" 

A hymn, addressed to Buddha, says : 

" Persecutions without end, 
Revilings aiid many prisons, 
Death and murder, 

These hast thou suffered with love and patience 
(To secure the happiness of mankind), 
Forgiving thine executioners." 5 

He was called the "Great Physician," 8 the "Saviour of 
the World," 7 the "Blessed One," 8 the "God among Gods,"* 
the " Anointed," or the " Christ," 10 the "Messiah," 11 the " Only Be 
gotten," 12 etc. He is described by the author of the " Cambridge 
Key " 1S as sacrificing his life to wash away the offenses of mankind, 
and thereby to make them partakers of the kingdom of heaven. 

1 " Us conviennent qu il a repandu sou sang 572, 667 and 750 ; vol. ii. p. 122, and note 4, 
pour le salut du genre hnraain, ayant ete perce p. 185, this chapter. 

dc clous par tout son corps. Quoiqu ils ne * See Max Mailer s Science of Religion, p. 

dieent pas qu il a eouffert le supplies de la 224. 

croix. ou en trouve pourtant la figure dans leurs 6 Quoted in Lillie s Buddhism, p. 93. 

livros." (Quoted in Higgius Anacalypsis, vol. 6 See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 20. 

ii. P- 118.) T see Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 20, 25, 35. 

2 "Although the nations of Europe have Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 247. Hue s Travels, 
changed their religions during the past eighteen vol. i. pp. 326, 327, and almost any work on 
centuries, the Hindoo has not done so, except Buddhism. 

very partially. . . . The religious creeds, 8 g ee Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 20. 
rites, customs, and habits of thought of the 9 Ibid. Johnson s Oriental Religions, p. 604. 
Hindoos generally, have altered little since the See also Asiatic Researches, vol. iii., or chap- 
days of Manu, 500 years B. c." (Prof. Monier ter xii. of this work. 
Williams : Indian Wisdom, p. iv.) 1 See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 18. 
1 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 147, n Ibid. 

ia Ibid. 13 Vol. i p. 118. 


This induces him to say " Can a Christian doubt that this Buddha 
was the TYPE of the Saviour of the World." 1 

As a spirit in the fourth heaven, he resolves to give up 
" all that glory, in order to be born into the world," " to rescue 
all men from their misery and every future consequence of it." 
He vows " to deliver all men, who are left as it were without a 

While in the realms of the blest, and when about to descend 
upon earth to be born as man, he said : 

" I am now about to assume a body; not for the sake of gaining wealth, or 
enjoying the pleasures of sense, but I am about to descend and be born, among 
men, simply to give peace and rest to all flesh ; to remove all sorrow and grief frorr 
the world." 3 

M. 1 Abbe Hue says ; 

" In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage (Buddha) is sometimes a man 
and sometimes a god, or rather both one and the other a divine incarnation, a 
man-god who came into the world to enlighten men, to redeem t/tem, and to 
indicate to them the way of safety. This idea of redemption by a divine incarna 
tion is so general and popular among the Buddhists, that during our travels in 
Upper Asia we everywhere found it expressed in a neat formula. If we ad 
dressed to a Mongol or a Thibetan the question Who is Buddha? he would im 
mediately reply: The Saviour of Men! " 4 

According to Prof. Max Muller, Buddha is reported as say 
ing : 

" Let all the sins that were committed in this world fall on me, that tJie world 
may be delivered."* 

The Indians are no strangers to the doctrine of original sin. 
It is their invariable belief that man is a fallen being / admitted 
by them from time immemorial. 8 And what we have seen con 
cerning their beliefs in Crishna and Buddha unmistakably shows 
a belief in a divine Saviour, who redeems man, and takes upon 
himself the sins of the world ; BO that " Baddlia paid it all, all to 
him is due." 7 

1 Quoted in Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 118. expiate their crimes, and mitigate the punish- 

2 Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 20. ment they must otherwise inevitably undergo." 
Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 33. (Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 86.) 

4 Hue s Travels, vol. i. pp. 326, 327. " The object of his mission on earth was to 
* Muller : Hist. Sanscrit Literature, p. 80. instruct those who were straying from the right 
See Maurice : Indian Antiquities, vol. v. path, :xpiate the sins of mortals by his own 
p. 95, and Williams : Hinduism, p. 214. sufferings, and produce for them a happy en- 
7 "He in mercy left paradise, and came trance into another existence by obedience to 
down to earth, because he was filled with com- his precepts and prayers in his name. They 
passion for the sins and miseries of mankind. always speak of him as one with God from all 
He sought to lead them into better paths, and eternity. His most common title is The Set- 
took their sufferings upon himself, that he might viour of the World. " (Ibid. vol. i. p. 247.) 


The idea of redemption through the sufferings and death of a 
Divine Saviour, is to be found even in ihe ancient religions of 
China. One of their five sacred volumes, called the Y-Kmg, says, 
in speaking of Tien y the " Holy One "/ 

" The Holy One will unite in himself all the virtues of heaven and earth. By 
his justice the world will be re-established in the ways of righteousness. He will 
labor and suffer much. He must pass the great torrent, whose waves shall enter 
into his soul; but he alone can offer up to the Lord a sacrifice worthy of him" 1 

An ancient commentator says : 

" The common people sacrifice their lives to gain bread; the philosophers to 
gain reputation; the nobility to perpetuate their families. The Holy One (Tien) 
does not seek himself, but the good of others. He dies to save the world."* 

Tien, the Holy One, is always spoken of as one with God, 
existing with him from all eternity, u before anything was 

Osiris and Horus, the Egyptian virgin-born gods, suffered 
death. 8 Mr. Bon wick, speaking of Osiris, says : 

"He is one of the Saviours or deliverers of humanity, to be found in almost 
all lands." "In his efforts to do good, he encounters evil; in struggling with 
that he is overcome; he is killed." 4 

Alexander Murray says : 

" 2 he Egyptian Saviour Osiris was gratefully regarded as the great exemplar 
of self-sacrifice, in giving his life for others."* 

Sir J. G. Wilkinson says of him : 

" The sufferings and death of Osiris were the great Mystery of the Egyptian 
religion, and some traces of it are perceptible among other peoples of antiquity. 
His being the Divine Goodness, and the abstract idea of good, his manifestation 
upon earth (like a Hindoo god), his death and resurrection, and his office as 
judge of the dead in a future state, look like the early revelation of a future mani 
festation of the deity converted into a my tlwlogical fable " 6 

Horus was also called " The Saviour." " As Horus Sneb, he 
is the Redeemer. He is the Lord of Life and the Eternal One." 7 
He is also called " The Only-Begotten." 8 

Attys, who was called the " Only Begotten Son"" and "Swiour" 
was worshiped by the Phrygians (who were regarded as one of the 

1 Quoted in Preg. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 211. 6 In Eawlinson s Herodotus, vol. ii. p. 171. 

2 Ibid. Quoted in Knight s Art and Mythology, p. 71. 

3 See Renouf : Religions of Ancient Egypt, 7 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 185. 
p. 178. 8 See Mysteries of Adoni, p. 88. 

Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 155. See Knight : Ancient Art anrl Mythology, 

Murray : Manual of Mythology, p. 348. p. xxii. note. 


oldest races of Asia Minor). lie was represented by them as a man 
tied to a tree, at the foot of which was alamo, 1 and, without doubt, 
also as a man nailed to tJie tree, or stake, for we find Lactantius mak 
ing this Apollo of Miletus (anciently, the greatest and most flour 
ishing city of Ionia, in Asia Minor) say that : 

"He was a mortal according to the flesh; wise in miraculous works; but, 
being arrested by an armed force by command of the Chaldean judges, lie suffered 
a death made bitter with nails and stakes." 1 

In this god of the Phrygians, we again have the myth of the 
crucified Saviour of Paganism. 

By referring to Mrs. Jameson s " History of Our Lord in Art, " 
or to illustrations in chapter xl. this work, it will be seen thatacom- 
mon mode of representing a crucifixion was that of a man, tied 
with cords by the hands and feet, to an upright beam or stake. 
The lamb, spoken of above, which signifies considerable, we shall 
Bpeak of in its proper place. 

Tammuz, or Adonis, the Syrian and Jewish Adonai (in He 
brew " Our Lord "), was another virgin-born god, who suffered for 
mankind, and who had the title of Saviour. The accounts of his 
death are conflicting, just as it is with almost all of the so-called 
Saviours of mankind (including the Christian Sa/viour, as we shall 
hereafter see) one account, however, makes him a, crucified Saviour * 

It is certain, however, that the ancients who honored him as 
their Lord and Saviour, celebrated, annually, a feast in commem 
oration of his death. An image, intended as a representation of 
their Lord, was laid on a bed or bier, and bewailed in mournful 
ditties just as the Iloman Catholics do at the present day in their 
" Good Friday " mass. 

During this ceremony the priest murmured : 

" Trust ye in your Lord, for the pains which lie endured, our salvation have 
procured. " 6 

The Rev. Dr. Parkhurst, in his " Hebrew Lexicon," after re 
ferring to what we have just stated above, says : 

" I find myself obliged to refer Tammuz to that class of idols which were 
originally designed to represent the promised Saviour, the Desire of all Nations. 
His other name, Adonis, is almost the very Hebrew Adoni or Lord, a well-known 
title of Christ." 6 

1 Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 255. 4 See chapter xxxix, this work. 

* Vol. ii. See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 114, 

1 Lactant. Inst., div. iv. chap. xiii. in Anac- and Taylor s Diegesis, p. 163. 
alypsie, vol. i. p. 544. See the chapter on " The Resurrection of 



Prometheus was a crucified Saviour. He was " an immortal 
god, a friend of the human race, who does not shrink even from 
sacrificing himself for their salvation" 1 

The tragedy of the crucifixion of Prometheus, written by 
^Eschylus, was acted in Athens five hundred years before the 
Christian Era, and is by many considered to be the most ancient 
dramatic poem now in existence. The plot was derived from ma 
terials even at that time of an infinitely remote antiquity. Noth 
ing was ever so exquisitely calculated to work upon the feelings 
of the spectators. No author ever displayed greater powers of 
poetry, with equal strength of judgment, in supporting through the 
piece the august character of the Divine Sufferer. The specta 
tors themselves were unconsciously made a party to the interest of 
the scene : its hero was their friend, their benefactor, their creator, 
and their Saviour ; his wrongs were incurred in their quarrel 
his sorrows were endured for their salvation / " he was wounded 
for their transgressions, and bruised for their iniquities ; the chas 
tisement of their peace was upon him, and by his stripes they were 
healed ; " " he was oppressed and afflicted, yet he opened not his 
mouth." The majesty of his silence, whilst the ministers of an 
offended god were nailing him ~by the hands and feet to Mount 
Caucasus? could be only equaled by the modesty with which he 
relates, while hanging with arms extended in the form of a cross, 
his services to the human race, which had brought on him that 
horrible crucifixion. 8 " None, save myself," says he, " opposed 
his (Jove s) will," 

" I dared; 

And boldly pleading saved them from destruction, 
Saved them from sinking to the realms of night. 
For this offense I bend beneath these pains, 
Dreadful to suffer, piteous to behold: 
For mercy to mankind I am not deem d 
Worthy of mercy; but with ruthless hate 
In this uncouth appointment am fix d here 
A spectacle dishonorable to Jove." 4 

1 Chambers s Encyclo., art. "Prometheus." extended. 1 1 (Alexander Murray : Manual of 

2 " Prometheus has been a favorite subject Mythology, p. 82.) " Prometheus is said to have 
with the poets. He is represented as the friend been nailed up with arms extended, near the 
of mankind, who interposed in their behalf Caspian Straits, on Mount Caucasus. The 
when Jove was incensed against them. 11 (Bui- history of Prometheus on the Cathedral at Bor- 
finch : The Age of Fable, p. 32.) deaux (France) here receives its explanation." 

In the mythos relating to Prometheus, he (Higgins : Auacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 113.) 

always appears as the friend of the human 3 See J^schylus "Prometheus Chained," 

race, suffering in its behalf the most fearful Translated by the Rev. R. Potter : Harper A 

tortures. 1 (John Fiske : Myths and Myth- Bros.,N.Y. 

makers, pp. 64, 65.) " Prometheus was nailed * Ibid. p. 82. 
to the rosks on Mount Caucasus, with arms 


In the catastrophe of the plot, his especially professed friend, 
Oceanus, the Fisherman as his name Petrc&us indicates, 1 being 
unable to prevail on him to make his peace with Jupiter, by throw 
ing the cause of human redemption out of his hands, 2 forsook him 
and fled. None remained to be witness of his dying agonies but 
the chorus of ever-amiable and ever-faithful which also bewailed 
and lamented him, 3 but were unable to subdue his inflexible phil 
anthropy. 4 

In the words of Justin Martyr: " Suffering was common to all 
the sons of Jove." They were called the " Slain Ones," " Sav 
iours," " Redeemers," &c. 

J3acchuSj the offspring of Jupiter and Semele, 5 was called the 
"Saviour"* He was called the u Only Begotten Son" 1 the u Slain 
One," 8 the "Sin Bearer," 9 the " Redeemer," 10 &c. Evil having 
spread itself over the earth, through the inquisitiveness of Pandora, 
the Lord of the gods is begged to come to the relief of mankind. 
Jupiter lends a willing ear to the entreaties, u and wishes that 
his son should be the redeemer of the misfortunes of the world ; 
The Bacchus Saviour. He promises to the earth a Liberator . 
The universe shall worship him, and shall praise in songs his 
blessings." In order to execute his purpose, Jupiter overshad 
ows the beautiful young maiden the virgin Semele who be 
comes the mother of the Redeemer. 11 

"It is I (says the lord Bacchus to mankind), who guides you; it is I who 
protects you, and who saves you; I who am Alpha and Omega." 1 * 

Hercules, the son of Zeus, was called " The Saviour." 13 The 
words u Hercules the Saviour " were engraven on ancient coins 
and monuments. 14 He was also called " The Only Begotten," and 
the " Universal Word." He was re-absorbed into God. He was 
said by Ovid to be the " Self-produced," the Generator and Ruler 
of all things, and the Father of time. 15 

1 Petraeus was an interchangeable synonym xxii. note. 

)f the name Oceanus. 8 Ibid. 

a " Then Peter took him, and began to re- 8 Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 169. 

buke him, saying : Be it far from thee. Lord ; 10 Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 135. 

this shall not be unto thec." (Matt. xvi. 22.) u Ibid 

* "And there followed him a great company ia Beausobre quotes the inscription on a 
of people, and of women, which also bewailed monument of Bacchus, thus : " C est ruoi, ditil, 
and lamented him." (Luke, xxiii. 27.) qui vous conduis, < "est moi, qui vous conserve, 

4 See Taylor s Diegesia, pp. 193, 194, or Pot- ou qui vous sauve ; Je sui Alpha et Omega, 

ter s ^Eschylus. &c." (See chap, xxxix this work.) 

6 " They say that the god (Bacchus), the off- 1S See Higgina : Aiiiicalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. 

spring of Zeus and Demeter, was torn to Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 195. 

pieces." (Diodorns Siculus, in Knight, p. 156, Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 152. Dunlap : 

note.) Mysteries of Adoni, p. 94. 

See Knight : Anct. Art and Mythology, p. See Celtic Druids, Taylor s Diegesis, p. 
98, note. Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, 153, and Montfaucon, vol. i. 

5258. Biggins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102. See Mysteries of Adoni, p. 91, and Hig- 

T Knight : Ancient Art and Mythology, p. gins : Anac., vol. i. p. 322. 



^ x 

^Esculapius was distinguished by the epithet " The Saviour." 1 
The temple erected to his memory in the city of Athens was called : 
The Temple of the Saviour."* 

Apollo was distinguished by the epithet " The Saviour"* In 
a hymn to Apollo he is called : " The willing Saviour of dis 
tressed mankind." 4 

Serapis was called " The Saviour." 5 He was considered by 
Hadrian, the Roman emperor (117-138 A. D.), and the Gentiles, to 
be the peculiar god of the Christians. 6 A cross was found under 
the ruins of his temple in Alexandria in Egypt. 7 Fig. No. 11 is a 
representation of this Egyptian Saviour, taken 
from Murray s "Manual of Mythology." It 
certainly resembles the pictures of " the peculiar 
God of the Christians." It is very evident that 
the pictures of Christ Jesus, as we know them 
to-day, are simply the pictures of some of the 
Pagan gods, who were, for certain reasons which 
we shall speak of in a subsequent chapter, always 
represented with long yellow or red hair, and 
a florid complexion. If such a person as Jesus of Nazareth ever 
lived in the flesh, he was undoubtedly a Jew, and would there 
fore have Jewish features / this his pictures do not betray. 8 

Mithras, who was " Mediator between God and man," 9 was 
called " The Saviour." He was the peculiar god of the Persians, 
who believed that he had, by his sufferings, worked their salvation, 
and on this account he was called their Saviour. 10 He was also 
called " The Logos." 11 

The Persians believed that they were tainted with original sin, 
owing to the fall of their lirst parents who were tempted by the 
evil one in the form of a serpent. 12 

They considered their law-giver Zoroaster to be also a Divine 
Messenger, sent to redeem men from their evil ways, and they always 
worshiped his memory. To this day his followers mention him 
with the greatest reverence, calling him " The Immortal Zoroaster" 


1 See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 153. 

3 See the chapter on " Miracles of Jesus." 

8 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 

4 See Monumental Christianity, p. 186. 

6 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 15. 

8 See Giles : Hebrew and Christian Records, 
vol. ii. p. 86. 

7 See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 15, and our 
chapter on Christian Symbols. 

8 This subje?t will be referred to again in 

chapter xxxix. 

See Dnnlap s Spirit Hist., pp. 237, 241, 242, 
and Mysteries of Adoni, p. 123, note. 

10 See Iliggins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99. 

11 See Dnnlap s Son of the Man, p. 20. 
"According to the most ancient tradition 

of the East-Iranians recorded in the Zend- 
Aiesta, the God of Light (Orinuzd) communi 
cated his mysteries to some men through his 
Word. 1 1 (Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 75.) 

12 Wake : Phallism, &c., p. 47. 


" Thf Blessed Zoroaster? " The First-Born of the Eternal One," 

&C. 1 

" In the life of Zoroaster the common mythos is apparent. lie 
was born in innocence, of an immaculate conception, of a ray of 
the Divine Reason. As soon as he was born, the glory arising 
from his body enlightened the room, and he laughed at his mother. 
He was called a Splendid Light from tlie Tree of Knowledge , and, 
in fine, he or his soul was suspensus a lingo, hung upon a tree, 
and this was the Tree of Knowledge." 8 


How much this resembles " the mystery which hath been hid 
from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to hia 
saints. " 

Hermes was called " The Saviour" On the altar of Pepi (B. c. 
3500) are to be found prayers to Hermes " He who is the good 
Saviour"* He was also called " The Logos" The church fa 
thers, Ilippolytus, Justin Martyr, and Plutarch (de Iside et Osir) 
assert that the Logos is Hermes? The term " Logos" is Greek, 
and signifies literally " Word" He was also "The Messenger of 

Dr. Inman says : 

There are few words which strike more strongly upon the senses of an 
inquirer into the nature of ancient faiths, than Salvation and Saviour. Both 
were used long before the birth of Christ, and they are still common among 
those who never heard of Jesus, or of that which is known among us as the 
Gospels." 8 

He also tells us that there is a very remarkable figure copied in 
Payne Knight s work, in which we see on a man s shoulders a cock? 8 
head, whilst on the pediment are placed the words : " The Saviour 
of the World." 9 

Besides the titles of " God s First-Born," " Only Begotten," 
the " Mediator," the " Shepherd," the " Advocate," the " Para 
clete or Comforter," the "Son of God," the "Logos," &c., 10 being 
applied to heathen virgin-born gods, before the time assigned for 
the birth of Jesus of Nazareth, we have also that of Christ and 

1 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 258, 259. 
Maicom : Hist. Persia, vol. i. Ap. p. 494 ; 
Nimrod, vol. ii. p. 81. Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 649. 
Col. i. 26. 
See Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 102. Kn 

See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. 69 and 71. 

Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 652. 

Ibid. vol. i. p. 537. 
See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 119. 
ght s Ancient Art and Mythology, pp. xxii. 

See Dnnlap a Son of the Man, p. 39, mar- and 98. Dunlap s Son of the Man, p. 71, and 

ginal note. Spirit History, pp. 183, 205, 206, 249. Bible for 

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Learners, vol. ii. p. 25. Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. 

Word was with God. and the Word was God." pp. 195, 237, 516, besides the authorities already 

(John, i. 1.) cited. 


Cyrus, King of Persia, was called the " Christ," or the 
u Anointed of God." 1 As Dr. Giles says, "Christ" is " a name 
having no spiritual signification, and importing nothing more than 
an ordinary surname. The worshipers of Serapis were called 
" Christians" and those devoted to Serapis were called " Bishops 
of Christ." 3 Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian, says, that the 
names of " Jesus " and " Christ," were both known and honored 
among the ancients. 4 

Mithras was called the " Anointed " or the " Christ ; " 6 and 
Ilorus, Mano, Mithras, Bel- Minor, lao, Adoni, &c., were each 
of them " God of Light," "Light of the World," the " Anointed," 
or the " Christ." 6 

It is said that Peter called his Master the Christ, whereupon 
"he straightway charged them (the disciples), and commanded 
them to tell no man that tiling" 1 

The title of " Christ " or " The Anointed," was held by the 
kings of Israel. " Touch not my Christ and do my prophets no 
harm," says the Psalmist. 8 

The term " Christ " was applied to religious teachers, leaders of 
factions, necromancers or wonder-workers, &c. This is seen by the 
passage in Matthew, where the writer says : 

"There shall arise false Christs and false prophets, and snail show great 
signs and wonders, insomuch that, if it were possible, they shall deceive the 
very elect." 9 

The virgin-born Crishna and Buddha were incarnations of 
Vishnu, called Avatars. An Avatar is an Angel-Messiah, a God- 
man, a CHRIST ; for the word Christ is from the Greek Christos, an 
Anointed One, a Messiah. 

The name Jesus, which is pronounced in Hebrew Yezua, and is 
sometimes Grecized into Jason, was very common. After the 
Captivity it occurs quite frequently, and is interchanged with the 
name Joshua. Indeed Joshua, the successor of Moses, is called 
Jesus in the New Testament more than once, 10 though the mean 
ing of the two names is not really quite the same. We know of a 
Jesus, son of Sirach, a writer of proverbs, whose collection is 

1 See Bunsen s Bible Chronology, p. 5. 7 Luke, iv. 21. 

Keys of St. Peter, 125. Volney s Ruins, p. 168. 8 Psalm, cv. 15. The term "au Anointed 

3 Giles : Hebrew and Christian Records, p. One" which we use in English, is Ohristos in 

64, vol. ii. Greek, and Messiah in Hebrew. (See Bible for 

3 Ibid. p. 86, and Taylor s Diegesis, pp. 203, Learners, and Religion of Israel, p. 147.) 
20o, 407. Dupuis : p. 267. 9 Matthew, xxiv. 24. 

Eusebius : Eccl. Hist., lib. 1, ch. iv. 10 Acts, vii. 45 ; Hebrews, iv. 8 ; compare 

6 See Dunlap s Son of the Man, p. 78. Nehemiah, viii. 17. 

See Ibid. p. 39. 


preserved among the apocryphal books of the Old Testament. 
The notorious Bar albas 1 or son of Abbas, was himself called Jesus. 
ALinong Paul s opponents we find a magician called Elymas, the 
Son of Jesus. Among the early Christians a certain Jesus, also 
sailed Justus, appears. Flavins Josephus mentions more than ten 
distinct persons priests, robbers, peasants, and others who bore 
the name of Jesus, all of whom lived during the last century of the 
Jewish state. 8 

To return now to our theme crucified gods before the time 
of Jesus of Nazareth. 

The holy Father Minucius Felix, in his Octavius, written as 
late as A. p. 211, indignantly resents the supposition that t/ie sign 
of the cross should be considered exclusively as a Christian symbol, 
and represents his advocate of the Christian argument as re 
torting on an infidel opponent. His words are : 

"As for the adoration of crosses which you (Pagans) object against us 
(Christians), I must tell you, tfiat we neither adore crosses nor desire them ; you it 
is, ye Pagans . . . who are the most likely people to adore wooden crosses 
. . . for what else are your ensigns, flags, and standards, but crosses gilt and 
beautiful. Your victorious trophies not only represent a simple cross, but a cross 
with a man upon it." 3 

The existence, in the writings of Minucius Felix, of this 
passage, is probably owing to an oversight of the destroyers of 
all evidences against the Christian religion that could be had. The 
practice of the Romans, here alluded to, of carrying a cross with a 
man on it, or, in other words, a crucifix, has evidently been con 
cealed from us by the careful destruction of such of their works as 
alluded to it. The priests had everything their own way for 
centuries, and to destroy what was evidence against their claims 
was a very simple matter. 

It is very evident that this celebrated Christian Father alludes 
to some Gentile mystery, of which the prudence of his successors 
has deprived us. When we compare this with the fact that for 
centuries after the time assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus, he 
was not represented as a man on a cross, and that the Christians 
did not have such a thing as a crucifix, we are inclined to think 
that the effigies of a black or dark-skinned crucified man, which 
were to be seen in many places in Italy even during the last 
century, may have had something to do with it. 4 

1 He who, it is eaid, was liberated at the 3 Octavias, c. xxix. 

time of the crucifixion of Jesus of Nazareth. See Anacalypsis, vol ii. p. 116. 

8 See Bible for Learners, vol. iii. p. 60. 


While speaking of " a> cross with a man on it " as beHg carried 
by the Pagan Romans as a standard, we might mention the fact, 
related by Arrian the historian, 1 that the troops of Poms, in their 
war with Alexander the Great, carried on their standards the 
figure of a man? Here is evidently the crucifix standard again. 

"This must have been (says Mr. Higgins) a Staurobates or Salivahana, 
and looks very like the figure of a man carried on their standards by the Romans. 
This was similar to the dove carried on the standards of the Assyrians. This 
must have been the crucifix of Nepaul." 3 

Tertullian, a Christian Father of the second and third centuries, 
writing to the Pagans, says : 

" The origin of your gods is derived from figures moulded on a cross. All 
those rows of images on your standards are the appendages of crosses ; those 
hangings on your standards and banners are the robes of crosses." 4 

We have it then, on the authority of a Christian Father, as late 
as A. D. 211, that the Christians " neither adored crosses nor desired 
them" but that the Pagans " adored crosses," and not that alone, 
but k a cross with a man upon it." This we shall presently find to 
be the case. Jesus, in those days, nor for centuries after, was not rep 
resented as a man on a cross. He was represented as a lamb, and 
the adoration of the crucifix, by the Christians, was a later addition 
to their religion. But this we shall treat of in its place. 

We may now ask the question, who was this crucified man 
whom the Pagans " adored " before and after the time of Jesus of 
Nazareth ? Who did the crucifix represent? It was, undoubtedly, 
" the Saviour crucified for the salvation of mankind," long before 
the Christian Era, whose effigies were to be seen in many places 
all over Italy. These Pagan crucifixes were either destroyed, 
corrupted, or adopted ; the latter was the case with many ancient 
paintings of the Bambino* on which may be seen the words Deo 
Soli. Now, these two words can never apply to Christ Jesus. He 
was not Deus Solus, in any sense, according to the idiom of 
the Latin language, and the Romish faith. Whether we construe 
the words to " the only God," or " God alone," they are equally 
heretical. No priest, in any age of the Church, would have 
thought of putting them there ; but finding them there, they tol 
erated them. 

In the " Celtic Druids" Mr. Higgins describes a crucifix, a 
lamb, and an elephant, which was cut upon the " fire tower " so- 

1 In his History of the Campaigns of Alex- * Apol. c. 1(5 ; Ad Natioues, c. xii. 
ander. 6 See the chapter on " The Worship of the 

a See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 118. Virgin." 


called at Brechin, a town of Forfarshire, in Scotland. Although 
they appeared to be of very ancient date, he supposed, at that 
time, that they were modern, and belonged to Christianity, but 
some years afterwards, he wrote as follows : 

" I now doubt (the modern date of the tower), for we have, over and over 
again, seen the crucified man before Christ. We have also found The Lamb 
that taketh away the sins of the world, among the Carnutes of Gaul, before the 
time of Christ ; and when I contemplate these, and the Elephant or Ganesa, l and the 
Rinrp and its Cobra, 3 Linga, 4 Iona, & and Nandies, found not far from the tower, 
<nithe estate of Lord Castles, with the Colidei, the island of lona, and li, . . . 
i am induced to doubt my former conclusions. The Elephant, the Ganesa of 
India, is a very stubborn fellow to be found here. The Ring, too, when joined 
with other matters, I cannot get over. All these superstitions must haw come 
from India."* 

On one of the Irish " round towers " is to be seen a crucifix 
of unmistakable Asiatic origin. 1 

If we turn to the New World, we shall find, strange though it 
may appear, that the ancient Mexicans and Peruvians worshiped 
a crucified Saviour. This was the virgin-born Quetzalcoatle 
whose crucifixion is represented in the paintings of the " Codex 
Borgianus" and the " Codex Vaticanus.^ 

These paintings illustrate the religious opinions of the ancient 
Mexicans, and were copied from the hieroglyphics found in Mexico. 
The Spaniards destroyed nearly all the books, ancient monuments 
and paintings which they could find ; had it not been for this, much 
more regarding the religion of the ancient Mexicans would have 
been handed down to us. Many chapters were also taken by the 
Spanish authorities from the writings of the first historians who 
wrote on ancient Mexico. All manuscripts had to be inspected 
previous to being published. Anything found among these heathens 
resembling the religion of the Christians, was destroyed when pos 
sible. 9 

The first Spanish monks who went to Mexico were surprised 
to find the crucifix among the heathen inhabitants, and upon in 
quiring what it meant, were told that it was a representation of 

1 Ganesa is the Indian God of Wisdom. male or generative power of nature. 

(See Asiatic Researches, vol. i.) lona, or Yoni, is the counterpart of Linga, 

2 The Ring and circle was an emblem of t.<?., an emblem of the female generative power. 
god, or eternity, among the Hindoos. (See We have seen that these were attached to the 
Lundy : Monumental Christianity, p. 87.) effigies of the Hindoo crucified Saviour, Criah- 

The Cobra, or hooded snake, is a native of na. 

the East Indies, where it is held as sacred. Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 130. 

(See Knight : Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 16, and See Lundy : Monumental Christianity, pp. 

Ferguseon s Tree and Serpent Worship. 253, 254, 255. 

4 Linga denotes, in the sectarian worship of 8 See Kingsborough : Mexican Antiquities, 

the Hindoos, the Phallus, an emblem of the vol. vi. pp. 105 and 179. 


Bacob (Quetzalcoatle), the Son of God, who was put to death by 
Eopuco. They said that he was placed on a beam of wood, with 
his arms stretched out, and that he died there. 1 

Lord Kingsborough, from whose very learned and elaborate 
work we have taken the above, says : 

" Being questioned as to the manner in which they became acquainted with 
these things, they replied that the lords instructed their sons in them, and that 
thus this doctrine descended from one to another." 2 

Sometimes Qnetzalcoatle or Bacob is represented as tied to the 
cross j us t as we have seen that Attys was represented by the 
Phrygians and at other times he is represented " in the attitude 
of a person crucified, with impressions of nail-holes in his hands 
and feet, but not actually upon a cross " just as we have found 
the Hindoo Crishna, and as he is represented in Fig. No. 8. Be 
neath this representation of Quetzalcoatle crucified, is an image of 
Death, which an angry serpent seems threatening to devour. 3 

On the 73d page of the Borgian MS., he is represented crucified 
on a cross of the Greek form. In this print there are also impres 
sions of nails to be seen on the feet and hands, and his body is 
strangely covered with suns.* 

In vol. ii. plate 75, the god is crucified in a circle of nineteen 
figures, and a serpent is depriving him of the organs of generation. 

Lord Kingsborough, commenting on these paintings, says : 

"It is remarkable that in these Mexican paintings the faces of many of the 
figures are black, and that the visage of Quetzalcoatle is frequently painted in a 
very deformed manner." 6 

His lordship further tells us that (according to the belief of the 
ancient Mexicans), " the death of Quetzalcoatle upon the cross " 
was "an atonement for the sins of mankind"* 

Dr. Daniel Brinton, in his " Myths of the New World" tells 
us that the Aztecs had a feast which they celebrated " in the early 
spring" when " victims were nailed to a cross and shot with an 
arrow." 1 

Alexander Yon Humboldt, in his " American Researches" also 
speaks of this feast, when the Mexicans crucified a man, and pierced 
him with an arrow. 8 

J See Kingsborougli : Mexican Antiquities, Brinton : Myths of the New World, p. 95. 

vol. vi. p. 166. 8 See, also, Monumental Christianity, p. 

2 Ibid. p. 162. 393. 

3 Ibid. p. 161. " Once a year the ancient Mexicans made an 

4 Ibid. p. 167. image of one of their gods, which was pierced 
8 Ibid. p. 167. by an arrow, shot by a priest of Quetzalcoatle." 
Ibid. p. 166. (Dunlap B Spirit Hist., 207.) 


The author of Monumental Christianity, speaking of this > 

" Here is the old story of the PrometJieus crucified oil the Caucasus, and of all 
other Pagan crucifixions of the young incarnate divinities of India, Persia, Asia 
Minor and Egypt."* 

This we believe ; but how did this myth get there ? He does 
not say, but we shall attempt to show, in a future chapter, how this 
and oilier myths of Eastern origin became known in the New 
World. 2 

It must not be forgotten, in connection with what we have seen 
concerning the Mexican crucified god being sometimes represented as 
black, and the feast when the crucified man was shot with an arrow, 
that effigies of a black crucified man wire found in Italy ; that 
Crishna, the crucified, is very often represented Hack ; and that 
Crishna was shot with an arrow. 

Crosses were also found in Yucatan, as well as Mexico, with a 
man upon them. 3 Cogolludo, in his " History of Yucatan," speak 
ing of a crucifix found there, says : 

" Don Eugenio de Alcantara (one of the true teachers of the Gospel), told me, 
not only once, that I might safely write that the Indians of Cozumel possessed 
this holy cross in the time of their paganism; and that some years had elapsed 
since it was brought to Medira; for having heard from many persons what was 
reported of it, he had made particular inquiries of some very old Indians who 
resided there, who assured him that it was the fact." 

He then speaks of the difficulty in accounting for this cruci 
fix being found among the Indians of Cozumel, and ends by say 
ing : 

"But if it be considered that these Indians believed that the Son of God, 
whom they called Bacob, had died upon a crow, with his arms stretcJied out upon it, 
it cannot appear so dillicult a matter to comprehend that they should have 
formed his image according to the religious creed which they possessed." 4 

We shall find, in another chapter, that these virgin-born 
" Saviours " and " Slain Ones ;" Crishna, Osiris, Horus, Attys, 
Adonis, Bacchus, &c. whether torn in pieces, killed by a boar, or 
crucified will all melt into ONE. 

We now come to a very important fact not generally known, 
namely : There are no early representations of Christ Jesus suffer 
ing on the cross. 

1 Monumental Christianity, p. 393. Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 169. 

See Appendix A. 4 Quoted by Lord Kingsborough : Mexican 

See Monumental Christianity, p. 390, and Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 172. 


Rev. J. P. Limdy, speaking of this, says : 

" Why should a fact so well known to the heathen as the crucifixion be con 
cealed? And yet its actual realistic representation never once occurs in the monu 
ments of L/hristianity , for more than six or seven centuries" 1 

Mrs. Jameson, in her " History of Our Lord in Art," says : 

" The crucifixion is not one of the subjects of early Christianity. The death 
of our Lord was represented by various types, but never in its actual form. 

" The earliest instances of the crucifixion are found in illustrated manuscripts 
of various countries, and in those ivory and enameled forms which are described 
in the Introduction. Some of these are ascertained, by historical or by internal 
evidence, to have been executed in the ninth century, there is one also, of an ex 
traordinary rude and fantastic character, in a MS. in the ancient library of St. 
Galle, which is ascertained to be of the eighth century. At all events, there seems 
no just grounds at present for assigning an earlier date."* 

"Early Christian art, such as it appears in the bas-reliefs on sarcophagi, gave 
but one solitary incident from the story of Our Lord s Passion, and that utterly 
divested of all circumstances of suffering. Our Lord is represented as young and 
beautiful, free from bonds, with no accursed tree on his shoulders." 3 

The oldest representation of Christ Jesus was a figure of a 
lamb,* to which sometimes a vase was added, into which his blood 
flowed, and at other times couched at the foot of a cross. This 
custom subsisted up to the year 680, and until the pontificate of 
Agathon, during the reign of Constantine Pogonat. By the sixth 
synod of Constantinople (canon 82) it was ordained that instead of 
the ancient symbol, which had been the LAMB, the figure of a man 
fastened to a cross (such as the Pagans had adored), should be 
represented. All this was confirmed by Pope Adrian I. 6 

A simple cross, which was the symbol of eternal life, or of sal- 
ration, among the ancients, was sometimes, as we have seen, placed 
alongside of the Lamb. In the course of time, the Lamb was put 
on the cross, as the ancient Israelites had put the paschal lamb 
centuries before, 6 and then, as we have seen, they put a man 
upon it. 

Christ Jesus is also represented in early art as the " Good 
Shepherd," that is, as a young man with a lamb on his shoulders. 7 

Monumental Christianity, p. 246. over) was roasted whole, with two spits thrust 

a History of Our Lord in Art, vol. ii. p. 137. through it one lengthwise, and one transversely 

a ibid. p. 317. crossing each other near the fore legs ; so 

* See Illustrations in Ibid. vol. i. that the animal was, in a manner, c?*ucijied. 
6 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. Not a bone of it might be broken a circum- 

252. Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. Ill, and stance strongly representing the sufferings of 
Monumental Christianity, p. 246, et seq. our Lord Jesus, the passover slain for us. 1 " 

The paschal lamb was roasted on a cross, (Barnes s Notes, vol. i. p. 292.) 

by ancient Israel, and is still so done by the 7 See King : The Gnostics and their Re- 
Samaritans at Nablous. (See Luudy s Monu- mains, p. 138. Also. Monumental Christianity, 
mental Christianity, pp. 19 and 247.) and Jameson s History of Our Lord in Art, for 
" The lamb slain (at the feast of the pass- illustrations. 


This is just the manner in which the Pagan Apollo, Mercury and 
others were represented centuries before. 1 
Mrs. Jameson says : 

" Mercury attired as a sliepJierd, with a ram on his shoulders, borne in the 
same manner as in many of the Christian representations, was no uufrequeut 
object (in ancient art) and in some instances led to a difficulty in distinguishing 
between the two," 2 that is, between Mercury and Christ Jesus. 

M. Renaii says : 

" The Good Shepherd of the catacombs in Rome is a copy from the A^isteus, 
or from the Apollo Nomius, which figured in the same posture on tne Pagan 
sarcophagi; and still carries the flute of Pan, in the midst of the four half-naked 
seasons." 3 

The Egyptian Saviour Ilorus was called the " Shepherd of the 
People." 4 

The Hindoo Saviour Crishna was called the " Royal Good Shep 
herd." 6 

We have seen, then, on the authority of a Christian writer 
who has made the subject a special study, that, "there seems no 
just grounds at present for assigning an earlier date," for the " ear 
liest instances of the crucifixion " of Christ Jesus, represented in 
art, than the eighth or ninth century. Now, a few words in re 
gard to what these crucifixes looked like. If the reader imagines 
that the crucifixes which are familiar to us at the present day are 
similar to those early ones, we would inform him that such is not the 
case. The earliest artists of the crucifixion represent the Christian 
Saviour as young and beardless, always without the crown of 
thorns, alive, and erect, apparently elate ; no signs of bodily suf 
fering are there. 9 

On page 151, plate 181, of Jameson s " History of Our Lord 
in Art " (vol. ii.), he is represented standing on a foot-rest on the 
cross, alive, and eyes open. Again, on page 330, plate 253, lie is 
represented standing ik with body upright and arms extended 
straight, with no nails, no wounds, no crown of thorns frequently 
clothed, and with a regal crown a God, young and beautiful, 
hanging, as it were, without compulsion or pain." 

On page 167, plate 188, are to be seen " the thieves bound to their 

1 See King s Gnostics, p. 178. Knight : thology, p. xxii. note. 
Ancient Art and Mythology, p. xxii., and 4 Dunlap : Spirit Hist., p. 185. 

Jameson s History of Our Loni in Art. ii. 3-10. See chapter rvii. and vol. ii. Hist. Hindo- 

9 Jameson : Hist, of Our Lord in Art, p. stan. 
840, vol. ii. See Jameson s Hist, of Our Lord in Art, 

Quoted in Knight : Ancient Art and My- vol. ii. p. 142. 



cross (which is simply an upright learn, without cross-hat ?), with 
the figure of the Lord standing between them." He is not bound 
nor nailed to a cross ; no cross is there. He is simply standing 
erect in the form of a cross. This is a representation of what is 
styled, "Early crucifixion with thieves" On page 173, plate 190, 
we have a representation of the crucifixion, in which Jesus and the 
thieves are represented crucified on the Egyptian tau (see Fig. 
No. 12). The thieves are tied, but the man-god is nailed to the 
cross. A similar representation may be seen on page 189, plate 

On page 155, plate 183, there is a representation of what is 
called " Virgin and St. John at foot of cross," but this cross is sim 
ply an u-priyht learn (as Fig. No. 13). There are no cross-bars 
attached. On page 167, plate 188, the thieves are tied to an up 
right beam (as Fig. 13), and Jesus stands between them, with arms 
extended in the form of a cross, as the Hindoo Crishna is to be 
seen in Fig. No. 8. On page 157, plate 185, Jesus is represented 
crucified on the Egyptian cross (as No. 12). 

Some ancient crucifixes represent the Christian Saviour cruci 
fied on a cross similar in form to the Roman figure which stands for 
the number ten (see Fig. No. 14). Thus we see that there was 
no uniformity in representing the "cross of Christ," among the 
early Christians ; even the cross which Constantino put on his 
" Labarum," or sacred banner, was nothing more than the mono 
gram of the Pagan god Osiris (Fig. No. 15), 1 as we shall see in a 
subsequent chapter. 


N?I2 N9I3 


The dogma of the vicarious atonement has met with no success 
whatever among the Jews. The reason for this is very evident. 
The idea of vicarious atonement, in any form, is contrary to Jew- 

1 "It would be difficult to prove that the 
cross of Constantino was of the simple con 
struction as now understood. ... As re 
gards the Labarum, the coins of the time, in 
which it is especially set forth, prove that the 

so-called cross upon it was nothing else than 
the same ever-recurring monogram of Christ" 
(that is, the XP). (History of Our Lord in Art, 
vol. ii. p. 316. See also, Smith s Bible Dic 
tionary, art. " Labarnm. ") 


ish ethics, but it is in full accord with tlic Gentile. The law or 
dains that 1 " every man shall be put to death for his own sin," and 
not for the sin or crime committed by any other person. No ran 
som should protect the murderer against the arm of justice. 3 The 
principle of equal rights and equal responsibilities is fundamental 
in the law. If the law of God for as such it is revived de 
nounces the vicarious atonement, viz., to slaughter an innocent 
person to atone for the crimes of others, then God must abhor it. 
What is more, Jesus is said to have sanctioned this law, for is he 
not made to say : u Think not that I am come to destroy the law, 
or the prophets : I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill For 
verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one 
tittle shall in no wise pass from the law." 8 

" Salvation is and can be nothing else than learning the laws of 
life and keeping them. There is, in the modern world, neither 
place nor need for any of the theological schemes of salvation 
or theological Saviours. No wrath of either God or devil stands 
in man s way ; and therefore no sacrifice is needed to get them 
out of the way. Jesus saves only as he helps men know and keep 
God s laws. Thousands of other men, in their degree, are Saviours 
in precisely the same way. As there has been no fall of man, 
all the hundreds of theological devices for obviating its supposed 
effects are only imaginary cures for imaginary ills. What man does 
need is to be taught the necessary laws of life, and have brought to 
bear upon him adequate motives for obeying them. To know and 
keep God s laws is being reconciled to him. This is health ; and 
out of health that is, the perfect condition of the whole man, 
called holiness or wholeness comes happiness, in this world and 
in all worlds." 

Deat. xxiv. 18. Num. ixv. 81-34. Matt. v. 17, 18. 



THE Luke narrator informs us that at the time of the death of 
Christ Jesus, the sun was darkened, and there was darkness over 
the earth from the sixth until the ninth hour ; also the veil of the 
temple was rent in the midst. 1 

The Matthew narrator, in addition to this, tells us that : 

" The earth did quake, and the rocks were rent, and the graves were opened, 
and many bodies of the saints which slept arose, and came out of their graves . . . 
and went into the holy city and appeared unto many."* 

His star " having shone at the time of his birth, and his having 
been born in a miraculous manner, it was necessary that at the 
death of Christ Jesus, something miraculous should happen. 
Something of an unusual nature had happened at the time of the 
death of other supernatural beings, therefore something must hap 
pen at his death ; the myth would not have been complete with 
out it. In the words of Viscount Arnberly : " The darkness from 
the sixth to the ninth hour, the rending of the temple veil, the 
earthquake, the rending of the rocks, are altogether like the prodi 
gies attending the decease of other great men. 

The Rev. Dr. Geikie, one of the most orthodox writers, says : 4 

" It is impossible to explain the origin of this darkness. The passover moon 
was then at the full, so that it could not have been an eclipse. The early Fathers, 
telying on a notice of an eclipse that seemed to coincide in time, though it really 
did not, fancied that the darkness was caused by it, but incorrectly." 

Perhaps " the origin of this darkness " may be explained from 
what we shall now see. 

At the time of the death of the Hindoo Saviour Crishna, there 

fLuke, xxiii. 44, 45. Amberly : Analysis of Religious Belief, 

Matthew, xxvii. 51-53. p. 268. Life of Christ, vol. ii. p. 643. 



came calamities and bad omens of every kind. A black circle sur 
rounded the moon, and the sun was darkened at noon-day the 
sky rained fire and ashes ; flames burned dusky and livid ; demons 
committed depredations on earth ; at sunrise and sunset, thousands 
of figures were seen skirmishing in the air ; spirits were to be seen 
on all sides. 1 

When the conflict began between Buddha, the Saviour of the 
World, and the Prince of Evil, a thousand appalling meteors fell j 
clouds and darlcn ess prevailed. Even this earth, with the oceans 
and mountains it contains, though it is unconscious, quaked lilte a 
conscious being like a fond bride when forcibly torn from her 
bridegroom like the festoons of a vine shaken under the blast of 
a whirlwind. The ocean rose under the vibration of this earthquake ; 
rivers flowed back toward their sources ; peaks of lofty mountains, 
where countless trees had grown for ages, rolled crumbling to the 
earth ; a fierce storm howled all around ; the roar of the concussion 
became terrific ; the very sun enveloped itself in awful darkness, 
and a host of headless spirits filled the air? 

When Prometheus w T as crucified on Mount Caucasus, tlie whole 
frame of nature became convulsed. The earth did quake, thunder 
roared, lightning flashed, the wild winds rent the vexed air, the 
boisterous billows rose, arid the dissolution of the universe seemed 
to be threatened. 3 

The ancient Greeks and Romans, says Canon Farrar, 4 had always 
considered that the births and deaths of great men were announced 
by celestial signs. We therefore find that at the death of Romulus, 
the founder of Rome, the sun was darkened, and there was dark 
ness over the face of tJie earth for the space of six hours." 

When Julius Caesar, who was the son of a god, was murdered, 
there was a darkness over the earth, the sun being eclipsed for ths 
#pace of six hours. 9 

This is spoken of by Virgil, where he says : 

" He (the Sun) covered his luminous head with a sooty darkness, 
And the impious ages feared eternal night." 1 

It is also referred to by Tibullus, Ovid, and Lucian (poets), 
Pliny, Appian, Dion Cassius, and Julius Obsequenes (historians.) 8 

1 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71. 159 and 590, also Josephus : Jewish Antiquities, 

3 Rhys David s Buddhism, pp. 36, 87. book xiv. ch. xii. and note. 

8 See Potter s ^Eschylus, "Prometheus T "Cnm caput obscura nitidum ferrugine 

Chained," last stanza. texit 

4 Farrar s Life of Christ, p. 52. Impiaquse seternam timuerant saecula 

5 See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp.616,617. noctem." 

* See Ibid, and Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. pp. 8 See Gibbon s Rome, vol.i. pp. 159 and 590. 


When ^Esculapius the Saviour was put to death, the sun shone 
dimly from the heavens / the birds were silent in the darkened 
groves ; the trees bowed down their heads in sorrow ; and the 
hearts of all the sons of men fainted within them, because the healer 
of their pains and sickness lived no more upon the earth. 1 

When Hercules was dying, he said to the faithful female (lole) 
who followed him to the last spot on earth on which he trod, " Weep 
not, my toil is done, and now is the time for rest. I shall see thee 
again in the bright land which is never trodden by the feet of 
night." Then, as the dying god expired, darkness was on the face 
of the earth; from the high heaven came down the thick cloud, 
and the din of its thunder crashed through the air. In this man 
ner, Zeus, the god of gods, carried his son home, and the halls of 
Olympus were opened to welcome the bright hero who rested from 
his mighty toil. There he now sits, clothed in a white robe, with 
a crown upon his head. 2 

When (Edipus was about to leave this world of pain and sor 
row, he bade Antigone farewell, and said, " Weep not, my child, 
I am going to my home, and I rejoice to lay down the burden of 
my woe." Then there were signs in the heaven above and on the 
earth beneath, that the end was nigh at hand, for the earth did 
quake , and the thunder roared and echoed again and again through 
the sky. 3 

" The Romans had a god called Quirinius. His soul emanated 
from the sun, and was restored to it. He was begotten by the 
god of armies upon a virgin of the royal blood, and exposed by 
order of the jealous tyrant Amulius. and was preserved and edu 
cated among shepherds. He was torn to pieces at his death, when 
he ascended into heaven ; upon which the sun was eclipsed or 

When Alexander the Great died, similar prodigies are said to 
have happened ; again, when foul murders were committed, it is 
said that the sun seemed to hide its face. This is illustrated in the 
story of AtreuSj King of Mycenae, who foully murdered the chil 
dren of his brother Thyestes. At that time, the sun, unable to 
endure a sight so horrible, " turned his course backward and with 
drew his light. 

At the time of the death of the virgin-born Quetzalcoatle, the 

1 Tales of Ancient Greece, p. 46. 4 Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. 

2 Ibid. pp. 61, 62. See Bell s Pantheon, vol. I. p. 106. 
8 Ibid. p. 270. 


Mexican crucified Saviour, the sun was darkened, and withheld its 
light. 1 

Lord Kiugsborongh, speaking of this event, considers it very 
strange that tne Mexicans should have preserved an account of it 
among their records, when " the great eclipse which sacred history 
records " is not recorded in profane history. 

Gibbon, the historian, speaking of this phenomenon, says : 

" Under the reign of Tiberius, the whole earth, 9 or at least a celebrated prov 
ince of the Roman empire, 3 was involved in a perpetual darkness of three hours. 
Even this miraculous event, which ought to have excited the wonder, the curi 
osity, and the devotion of mankind, passed without notice in an age of science and 
history. It happened during the life-time of Seneca 4 and the elder Pliny, 6 who 
must have experienced the immediate effects, or received the earliest intelligence, 
of the prodigy. Each of these philosophers, in a laborious work, has recorded 
all the great phenomena of nature, earthquakes, meteors, comets and eclipses, 
which his indefatigable curiosity could collect. 6 But the one and the other have 
omitted to mention the greatest phenomenon to which the mortal eye has been 
witness since the creation of the globe." 1 

This account of the darkness at the time of the death of Jesus 
of Nazareth, is one of the prodigies related in the New Testament 
which no Christian commentator has been able to make appear 
reasonable. The favorite theory is that it was a natural eclipse of 
the sun, which happened to take place at that particular time, but, if 
this was the case, there was nothing supernatural in the event, and 
it had nothing whatever to do with the death of Jesus. Again, it 
would be necessary to prove from other sources that such an event 
happened at that time, but this cannot be done. The argument 
from the duration of the darkness three hours is also of great 
force against such an occurrence having happened, for an eclipse 
seldom lasts in great intensity more than six minutes. 

Even if it could be proved that an eclipse really happened at 
the time assigned for the crucifixion of Jesus, how about the earth 
quake, when the rocks were rent and the graves opened ? and how 
about the "saints which slept" rising bodily and walking in the 
streets of the Holy City and appearing to many ? Surely, the faith 
that would remove mountains, 8 is required here. 

1 See Kingsborough s Mexican Antiquities, Seneca, a celebrated philosopher and his- 
vol. vi. p. 5. torian. born in Spain a few years B. c., but edu- 

2 The Fathers of the Church eeem to cover cated in Rome, nud became a "Roman." 

the whole earth with darkness, in which they 6 Pliny the elder, a celebrated Roman phil- 

are followed by most of the moderns. (Gib- osopher and historian, born about 23 A. D. 

bon. Luke, xxiii. 44, e&ys "over cUWte earth.") Seneca: Quaest. Natar. 1. i. 15, vi. 1. viL 

Origen (a Father of the third century) and 17. Pliny : Hist. Natur. 1. ii. 

a few modern critics, are desirous of confining T Gibbon s Rome, i. 589, 590. 

it to the land of Judea. (Gibbon.) Matt. xvi. 20. 



Shakespeare has embalmed some traditions of the kind exactlj 
analogous to the present case : 

" In the most high and palmy state of Rome, 
A little ere the mightiest Julius fell, 
The graves stood tenantless, and the sheeted dead 
Did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets." 1 

Belief in the influence of the stars over life and death, and in 
special portents at the death of great men, survived, indeed, to 
recent times. Chaucer abounds in allusions to it, and still later 
Shakespeare tells us : 

" When beggars die there are no comets seen ; 
The heavens themselves blaze forth the death of princes." 

It would seem that this superstition survives even to the present 
day, for it is well known that the dark and yellow atmosphere 
which settled over so much of the country, on ilk 1 day of the re 
moval of President Garfield from Washington to Long Branch, was 
sincerely held by hundreds of persons to be a death-warning sent 
from heaven, and there were numerous predictions that disso 
lution would take place before the train arrived at its destination. 

As Mr. Greg remarks, there can, we think, remain little doubt 
in unprepossessed minds, that the whole legend in question was one 
of those intended to magnify Christ Jesus, which were current 
in great numbers at the time the Matthew narrator wrote, and 
which he, with the usual want of discrimination and somewhat 
omnivorous tendency, which distinguished him as a compiler, ad 
mitted into his Gospel. 

i Hamlet, act 1, . 1. 



THE- doctrine of Christ Jesus descent into hell is emphatically 
part of the Christian belief, although not alluded to by Christian 
divines excepting when unavoidable. 

In the first place, it is taught in the Creed of the Christians, 
wherein it says : 

" He, descended into hell, and on the third day he rose again from the dead." 

The doctrine was also taught by the Fathers of the Church. 
St. Chrysostom (born 347 A. D.) asks : 

" Who but an infidel would deny that Christ was in hell ? " 

And St. Clement of Alexandria, who nourished at the begin 
ning of the third century, is equally clear and emphatic as to 
Jesus descent into hell. He says : 

" The Lord preached the gospel to those in Hades, as well as to all in earth, 
in order that all might believe and be saved, wherever they were. If, then, the 
Lord descended to Hades for no other end but to preach the gospel, as He did 
descend, it was either to preach the gospel to all, or to the Hebrews only. If 
accordingly to all, then all who believe shall be saved, although they may be of 
the Gentiles, on making their profession there."* 

Origen, who flourished during the latter part of the second, and 
beginning of the third centuries, also emphatically declares that 
Christ Jesus descended into hell. 

Ancient Christian works of art represent his descent into hell. 4 
The apocryphal gospels teach the doctrine of Christ Jesus 
descent into hell, the object of which was to preach to those in 
bondage there, and to liberate the saints who had died before 
his advent on earth. 

1 Quoted by Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. Contra CeLsus. bk. ii. c. 43. 

46. 4 See Jameson s Hist, of Our Lord in Art, 

2 Strom, vi. c. 6. vol. ii. pp. 354, 356. 



On account of the sin committed by Adam in the Garden of 
Eden, all mankind were doomed, all had gone to hell excepting 
those who had been translated to heaven even those persons who 
were " after God s own heart," and who had belonged to his 
"chosen people." The coming of Christ Jesus into the world, 
however, made a change in the affairs of man. The saints 
were then liberated from their prison, and all those who believe 
in the efficacy of his name, shall escape hereafter the tortures of 
hell. This is the doctrine to be found in the apocryphal gospels, 
and was taught by the Fathers of the Church. 1 

In the " Gospel of Nicodemus " (apoc.) is to be found the 
wholo story of Christ Jesus descent into hell, and of his liberating 
the saints. 

Satan, and the Prince of Hell, having heard that Jesus of Naza 
reth was about to descend to their domain, beiran to talk the matter 

7 <3 

over, as to what they should do, &c. While thus engaged, on a 
sudden, there was a voice as of thunder and the rushing of winds, 
saying : " Lift up your gates, O ye Princes, and be ye lifted up, O 
ye everlasting gates, and the King of Glory shall come in." 

When the Prince of Hell heard this, he said to his impious offi 
cers : " Shut the brass gates . . . and make them fast with 
iron bars, and light courageously." 

The saints having heard what had been said on both sides, im- 


mediately spoke with a loud voice, saying : " Open thy gates, that 
the King of Glory may come in." The divine prophets, David 
and Isaiah, were particularly conspicuous in this protest against the 
intentions of the Prince of Hell. 

Again the voice of Jesus was heard saying : " Lift up your gates, 
O Prince ; and be ye lifted up, ye gates of hell, and the King of 
Glory will enter in." The Prince of Hell then cried out : " Who 
is the King of Glory ? " upon which the prophet David com 
menced to reply to him, but while he was speaking, the mighty 
Lord Jesus appeared in the form of a man, and broke asunder the 
fetters which before could not be broken, and crying aloud, said : 
" Come to me, all ye saints, who were created in my image, who 
were condemned by the tree of the forbidden fruit . . . live 
now by the word of my cross." 

Then presently all the saints were joined together, hand in hand, 
and the Lord Jesus laid hold on Adam s hand, and ascended from 
hell, and all the saints of God followed him. 2 

1 See Jameson s Hist, of Our Lord in Art, a Nicodemus : Apoc. ch. xvi. and xix. 

vol. ii. pp. 250, 251. 


When the saints arrived in paradise, two " very ancient men " 
met them, and were asked by the saints: "Who are ye, who have 
not been with us in hell, and have had your bodies placed in par 
adise?" One of these "very ancient men" answered and said : 
" I am Enoch, who was translated by the word of God, and this 
man who is with me is Elijah the Tishbite, who was translated in a 
fiery chariot." 1 

The doctrine of the descent into hell may be found alluded to 
in the canonical books ; thus, for instance, in I. Peter : 

" It is better, if the will of God be so, that ye suffer for well doing, than for 
evil doing. For Christ also hath suffered for sins, the just for the unjust, that he 
might bring us to God, being put to death in the llesh, but quickened by the 
spirit: by which also he went and preached unto tlie spirits in 

Again, in "Acts," where the writer is speaking of David as a 
prophet, he says : 

" lie, seeing this before, spake of the resurrection of Christ, that his soul was 
not left in hell, neither his flesh did see corruption." 3 

The reason why Christ Jesus has been made to descend into 
hell, is because it is a part of the universal vujthos, even the three 
days duration. The Saviours of mankind had all done so, he 
must therefore do likewise. 

Crishna, the Hindoo Saviour, descended into hell, for the pur 
pose of raising the dead (the doomed),* before he returned to his 
heavenly seat. 

Zoroaster, of the Persians, descended into hell? 
Osiris, the Egyptian Saviour, descended into hell* 
Ilorus, the virgin-born Saviour, descended into hell. 1 
Adonis, the virgin-born Saviour, descended into hell* 
Bacchus, the virgin-born Saviour, descended into hell? 
Hercules, the virgin-born Saviour, descended into hell. 10 
Mercury, the Word and Messenger of God, descended into hett." 

i Nicodemus : Apoc. ch. xx. Dunlap s Mysteries of Adoni, p. 33. 

3 I. Peter, iii. 17-19. 10 See Taylor s Mysteries, p. 40, and Mys- 

3 Acts, ii. 31. teries of Adoni, pp. 94-96. 

See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 237. Bon- n See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 72. Onr 

wick s Egyptian Belief, p. 168, and Maurice : Christian writers discover considerable appre- 

Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 85. hension, and a jealous caution in their lan- 

See Monumental Christianity, p. 286. guage, when the resemblance between 1 uyan- 

See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. ism and Christianity might bo apt to strike 
256, Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, and Dunlap s the mind too cogently. In quoting Horace s 
Mysteries of Adoni. pp. 125, 152. account of Mercury s descent into hell, and his 

7 See Chap. XXXIX. causing a cessation of the sufferings there, Mr. 

8 See Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 12. Spence, in " Bell s Pantheon," says : "A3 this, 

See Higgius : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322. perhaps, may be a mythical part of his charac- 
Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 257, and ter, ue had better Itt it alone," 


Baldur, the Scandinavian god, after being killed, descended 
into hell. 1 

Quetzalcoatle, the Mexican crucified Saviour, descended into 
hell. 1 

All these gods, and many others that might be mentioned, 
remained in hell for the space of three days and three nights. 
" They descended into hell, and on the third day rose again." 8 

i See Bonwick : Egyptian Belief, p. 169, See Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 166. 

and Mallet, p. 448. * See the chapter on Explanation. 



THE story of the resurrection of Christ Jesus is related by the 
four Gospel narrators, and is to the effect that, after being cruci 
fied, his body was wrapped in a linen cloth, laid in a tomb, and a 
" great stone " rolled to the door. The sepulchre was then made 
sure by " sealing the stone " and " setting a watch." 

On the first day of the week some of Jesus followers came to see 
the sepulchre, when they found that, in spite of the " sealing " and 
the " watch," the angel of the Lord had descended from heaven, 
had rolled back the stone from the door, and that "Jesus had risen 
from the dead" 1 

The story of his ascension is told by the Mark* narrator, who 
says " he was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of 
God ; " by Luke* who says " he was carried up into heaven ; " and 
by the writer of the Acts* who says " he was taken up (to heaven) 
and a cloud received him out of sight." 

Wo will find, in stripping Christianity of its robes of Paganism, 
that these miraculous events must be put on the same level with 
those we have already examined. 

Crishna, the crucified Hindoo Saviour, rose from the dead* and 
ascended bodily into heaven. 6 At that time a great light enveloped 
the earth and illuminated the whole expanse of heaven. Attended 
by celestial spirits, and luminous as on that night when he was born 
in the house of Vasudeva, Crishna pursued, by his own light, the 
journey between earth and heaven, to the bright paradise from 
whence he had descended. All men saw him, and exclaimed, 
" 2,o, Crishna?8 soul ascends its native sides ! " 

1 See Matthew, xxviii. Mark, xvi. Luke, 8 See Biggins : Anacalypsis^ vol. i. p. 131. 

xxiv. and John, xx. a Mark, xvl. 19. Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 168. Asiatic 

Luke. xxiv. 51. Acts, i. 9. Researches, vol i. pp. 2o9 and 361. 

8 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 7 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 72. Hist. 

240. Biggins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 142 and Hindostan, ii. pp. 466 and 473. 

145. " In Hindu pictures, Vishnu, who is identi- 



Samuel Johnson, in his " Oriental Religions," tells us that Rama 
an incarnation of Vishnu after his manifestations on earth, "at 
last ascended to heaven" "resuming his divine essence." 

" By the blessings of Rama s name, and through previous faith 
in him, all sins are remitted, and every one who shall at death pro 
nounce his name with sincere worship shall be forgiven." 1 

The mythological account of Buddha, the son of the Virgin 
Maya, who, as the God of Love, is named Cam-deo, Cam, and 
Cama, is of the same character, as that of other virgin-born gods. 
When he died there were tears and lamentations. Heaven and earth 
are said equally to have lamented the loss of " Divine Love" inso 
much that Maha-deo (the supreme god) was moved to pity, and ex 
claimed, " Rise, holy love!" on which Cama was restored and the 
lamentations changed into the most enthusiastic joy. The heavens 
are said to have echoed back the exulting sound ; then the deity, 
supposed to be lost (dead), was restored, " heWs great dread and 
heaveris eternal admiration"* 

The coverings of the body unrolled themselves, and the lid of 
his coffin was opened by supernatural powers. 8 

Buddha also ascended bodily to the celestial regions when his 
mission on earth was fulfilled, and marks on the rocks of a high 
mountain are shown, and believed to be the last impression of 
his footsteps on this earth. By prayers in his name his fol 
lowers expect to receive the rewards of paradise, and finally to 
become one with him, as he became one with the Source of Life. 4 

Lao-Iiun, the virgin-born, he who had existed from all eter 
nity, when his mission of benevolence was completed on earth, 
ascended ~bodily into the paradise above. Since this time he has 
been worshiped as a god, and splendid temples erected to his 
memory. 6 

Zoroaster, the founder of the religion of the ancient Persians, 
who was considered " a divine messenger sent to redeem men from 
their evil ways," ascended to heaven at the end of his earthly 
career. To this day his followers mention him with the greatest 
reverence, calling him " The Immortal Zoroaster," " The Blessed 
Zoroaster," " The Living Star," &c. 6 

fled with Crishna, is often seen mounted on 2 Asiatic Res., vol. x. p. 129. Anac&lypsis, 

the Eagle Garuda." (Moore : Hindu Panth. vol. ii. p. 103 

p. 214.) And M. Sonnerat noticed " two basso- 3 Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. 49. 

relievos placed at the entrance of the choir of 4 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 86. See also, 

Bordeaux Cathedral, one of which represents Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 159. 
the ascension of our Saviour to heaven on an 6 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 214. 

Eagle." (Higgins : Anac., vol. i. p. 273.) Ibid. p. 258. 

1 Oriental Religions, pp. 494, 495, 


^Esculapius, the Son of God, the Saviour, after being put to 
death, rose from the dead. His history is portrayed in the follow 
ing lines of Ovid s, which are prophecies foretelling his life and 
actions : 

" Once, as the sacred infant she surveyed. 
The god was kindled in the raving maid; 
And thus she uttered her prophetic tale: 
Hail, great Physician of the world ! all hail ! 
Hail, mighty infant, \vho in years to come 
Shalt heal the nations, and defraud the tomb ! 
Swift be thy growth, thy triumphs uncoutiued, 
Make kingdoms thicker, and increase mankind. 
Thy daring art shall animate the dead, 
And draw the thunder on thy guilty head; 
Then slialt thou die, but from the dark abode 
Shalt rise victorious, and be twice a yod." 1 

The Saviour Adonis or Tammuz, after being put to death, rose 
from the dead. The following is an account given of the rites of 
Tammuz or of Adonis by Julius Firmicius (who lived during the 
reign of Constantine) : 

" On a certain night (while the ceremony of the Adonia, or religious rites in 
honor of Adonis, lasted), an image was laid upon a bed (or bier) and bewailed in 
doleful ditties. After they had satiated themselves with fictitious lamentations, 
light was brought in: then the mouths of all the mourners were anointed by the 
priests {with oil), upon which he, with a gentle murmur, whispered : 

Trust, ye Saints, your God restored. 
Trust ye, in your risen Lord ; 
For the pains which he endured 
Our salvation have procured. 

"Literally, Trust, ye communicants: the God having been saved, there shall 
be to us out of pain, Salvation. " 2 

Upon which their sorrow was turned into joy. 
Godwyn renders it : 

" Trust ye in God, for out of pains, 
Salvation is come unto us." s 

Dr. Prichard, in his " Egyptian Mythology" tells us that the 
Syrians celebrated, in the early spring, this ceremony in honor of 
the resurrection of Adonis. After lamentations, his restoration 
was commemorated with joy and festivity. 4 

Mons. Dupuis says : 

" The obsequies of Adonis were celebrated at Alexandria (in Egypt) with the 
utmost display. His image was carried with great solemnity to a tomb, which 
served the purpose of rendering him the last honors. Before singing his return 

1 Ovid s Metamorphoses, as rendered by 114. See also, Taylor s Diegesis, pp. .63, 1G4. 
Addison. Quoted in Taylor s Diegesis. p. 148. 3 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 104. 

2 Quoted by Higgins : Anacalypeis, vol. ii. p. 4 Prichard s Egyptian Mythology, pp. G6, 67. 


to life, there were mournful rites celebrated in honor of his suffering and his 
death. The large wound he had received was shown, just as the wound was 
shown which was made to Christ by the thrust of the spear. The feast of his 
resurrection was fixed at the 25t/i of March." 1 

Li Calmet s u Fragments," the resurrection of Adonis is referred 

to as follows : 

"In these mysteries, after the attendants had for a long time bewailed the 
death of ihisjust person, he w;is at length understood to be restored to life, to have 
experienced a resurrection; signified by the re-admission of light. On this the 
priest addressed the company, saying, Comfort yourselves, all ye who have 
been partakers of the mysteries of the deity, thus preserved: for we shall now 
enjoy some respite from our labors: to which were added these words: I have 
scaped a sad calamity, and my lot is greatly mended. The people answered by 
the invocation : Hail to the Dove ! the Restorer of Light ! " 2 

Alexander Murray tells us that the ancient Greeks also cele 
brated tliis festival in honor of the resurrection of Adonis, in the 
course of which a figure of him was produced, and the ceremony of 
burial, with weeping and songs of wailing, gone through. After 
these a joyful shout was raised : " Adonis Lives and is risen 
again ^ 

Plutarch, in his life of Alcibiades and of Nicias, tells us that it 
was at the time of the celebration of the death of Adonis that the 
Athenian ileet set sail for its unlucky expedition to Sicily ; that 
nothing but images of dead Adonises were to be met with in the 
streets, and that they were carried to the sepulchre in the midst of 
an immense train of women, crying and beating their breasts, and 
imitating in every particular the lugubrious pomp of interments. 
Sinister omens were drawn from it, which were only too much 
realized by subsequent events. 4 

It was in an oration or address delivered to the Emperors Con- 
stans and Constantius that Julius Firmicius wrote concerning the 
rites celebrated by the heathens in commemoration of the resurrec 
tion of Adonis. In his tide of eloquence he breaks away into 
indignant objurgation of the priest who officiated in those heathen 
mysteries, which, he admitted, resembled the Christian sacrament 
in honor of the death and resurrection of Christ Jesus, so closely 
that there was really no difference between them, except that no 
sufficient proof had been given to the world of the resurrection of 
Adonis, and no divine oracle had borne witness to his resurrection, 

1 Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 161. 2 Calmet s Fragments, vol. ii. p. 21. 

See also, Dunlap s Mysteries of Adoni, p. 23, 8 Murray : Manual of Mythology, p. 86. 

and Spirit Hist, of Man, p. 216. 4 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Beliefs, 

p. 201. 


nor had he shown himself alive after his death to those who were 
concerned to have assurance of the fact that they might believe. 

The divine oracle, be it observed, which Julias Firmicius says 
had borne testimony to Christ Jesus resurrection, was none other 
than the answer of the god Apollo, whom tfie Pagans worshiped 
at Delphos, which this writer derived from Porphyry s books 
" On the Philosophy of Grades 

Eusebius, the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, has also con 
descended to quote this claimed testimony from a Pagan oracle, 
as furnishing one of the most convincing proofs that could be ad 
duced in favor of the resurrection of Christ Jesus. 

"But thou at least (says he to the Pagans), listen to thine own gods, to thy 
orticubir deities themselves, who have borne witness, and ascribed to our Saviour 
(Jesus Christ) not imposture, but piety and wisdom, and ascent into heaven." 

This was vastly obliging mid liberal of the god Apollo, but, it 
happens awkwardly enough, that the whole work (consisting of 
several books) ascribed to Porphyry, in which this and other admis 
sions equally honorable to the t vidences of the Christian religion are 
made, was not written by Porphyry, but is altogether the pious 
fraud of Christian hands, who have kindly fathered the great 
philosopher with admissions, which, as he would certainly never 
have made himself, they have very charitably made for him. 2 

The festival in honor of the resurrection of Adonis was observed 
in Alexandria in Egypt the cradle of Christianity in the time 
of St. Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria (A. n. 412), and at Antioch the 
ancient capital of the Greek Kings of Syria even as late as the 
time of the Emperor Julian (A. D. 361-363), whose arrival there, 
during the solemnity of the festival, was taken as an ill omen. 3 

It is most curious that the arrival of the Emperor Julian at 
Antioch where the followers of Christ Jesus, it is said, were n rst 
called Christians at that time, should be considered an ill omen. 
Why should it have been so ? lie was not a Christian, but a known 
apostate from the Christian religion, and a zealous patron of 
Paganism. The evidence is very conclusive ; the celebration in 
honor of the resurrection of Adonis had become to he known as a 
Christian festival, which has not been abolished even unto this day. 
The ceremonies held in Roman Catholic countries on Good Friday 
and on Easter Sunday, are nothing more than the festival of the 
death and resurrection of Adonis, as we shall presently see. 

1 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Beliefs, a See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 164. We shall 

p. 247, and Taylor s Diegesis, p. Ifrl epeak of Christian forgeries anon. 

8 See Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 2. 


Even as late as the year A. D. 386, the resurrection of Adonis 
was celebrated in Judea. St. Jerome says : 

" Over Bethlehem (in the year 386 after Christ) the grove of Tammuz, that is, 
of Adonis, was casting its shadow ! And in the grotto where formerly the infant 
Anointed (i. e., Christ Jesus) cried, the lover of Venus was being mourned." 1 

In the idolatrous worship practiced by the children of Israel 
was that of the worship of Adonis. 

Under the designation of Tammuz, this god was worshiped, 
and had his altar even in the Temple of the Lord which was at 
Jerusalem. Several of the Psalms of David were parts of the 
liturgical service employed in his worship ; the 110th, in partic 
ular, is an account of a friendly alliance between the two gods, 
Jehovah and Adonis, in which Jehovah adorns Adonis for his 
priest, as sitting at his right hand, and promises to fight for him 
against his enemies. This god was worshiped at Byblis in Phos- 
nicia with precisely the same ceremonies : the same articles of faith 
as to his mystical incarnation, his precious death and burial, and his 
glorious resurrection and ascension, and even in the very same 
words of religious adoration and homage which are now. with the 

O O / 

slightest degree of variation that could well be conceived, addressed 
to the Christ of the Gospel. 

The prophet Ezekiel, when an exile, painted once more the 
scene he had so often witnessed of the Israelitish women in the 
Temple court bewailing the death of Tammuz. 3 

Dr. Parkhurst says, in his " Hebrew Lexicon ": 

" I find myself obliged to refer Tammuz, as well as the Greek and Roman Her 
cules, to that class of idols wldch were originally designed to represent the prom 
ised Saviour (Christ Jesus), the desire of all nations. His other name, Adonis, 
is almost the very Hebrew word Our Lord, a well-known title of Christ." 4 

So it seems that the ingenious and most learned orthodox Dr. 
Parkhurst w r as obliged to consider Adonis a type of " the promised 
Saviour (Christ Jesus), the desire of all nations." This is a very 
favorite way for Christian divines to express themselves, when 
pushed thereto, by the striking resemblance between the Pagan, 
virgin-born, crucified, and resurrected gods and Christ Jesus. 

If the reader is satisfied that all these things are types or sym 
bols of what the u real Saviour " was to do and suffer, he is welcome 

i Quoted in Dnnlap s Son of the Man, p. of Jerusalem, the Anointed was worshiped in 

vii. See also, Knight : Ancient Art and My- Babylon, Basan, Galilee and Palestine." (Son 

thology, p. xxvii. of the Man, p. 38.) 

" From the days of the prophet Daniel, down 3 Ezekiel, viii. 14. 

to the time when the red cross knights gave no 4 Quoted in Taylor s Diegesis, p. 162, and 

quarter (fighting for the Christ) in the streets Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 114. 


to such food. The doctrine of Dr. Parkhurst and others comes 
with but an ill grace, however, from Roman Catholic priests, who 
have never ceased to suppress information when possible , and when 
it warf impossible for them to do so, they claimed these things 
to be the work of the devil, in imitation of their predecessors, the 
Christian Fathers. 

Julius Firmicius has said: "The devil has his Christs," and 
does not deny that Adonis was one. Tertullian and St. Justin 
explain all the conformity which exists between Christianity and 
Paganism, by asserting "that a long time before there were Chris 
tians in existence, the devil had taken pleasure to have their future 
mysteries and ceremonies copied by his worshipers." 1 

Osiris, the Egyptian Saviour, after being put to death, rose 
from the dead* and bore the title of " The Resurrected One." 9 

Prof. Mahaffy, lecturer on ancient history in the University of 
Dublin, observes that : 

"The Insurrection and reign over an eternal kingdom, by an incarnate 
mediating deity born of a virgin, was a theological conception which pervaded 
the oldest religion of Egypt." 4 

The ancient Egyptians celebrated annually, in early spring, 
about the time known in Christian countries as Easter, the resur 
rection and ascension of Osiris. During these mysteries the mis 
fortunes and tragical death of the " Sav lo ur " were celebrated in 
a species of drama, in which all the particulars were exhibited,, 
accompanied with loud lamentations and every mark of sorrow. 
At this time his image was carried in a procession, covered as 
were those in the temples with black veils. On the 25th of March 
his resurrection from the dead was celebrated with great festivity 
and rejoicings. 5 

Alexander Murray says : 

The worship of Osiris was universal throughout Egypt, where he was grate 
fully regarded as the great exemplar of self-sacrifice in giving his life for others 
as the manifestor of good, as the opener of truth, and as being full of goodness 
and truth. After being dead, he was restored to life." 6 

Mons. Dupuis says on this subject : 

The Fathers of the Church, and the writers of the Christian sect, speak 
frequently of these feasts, celebrated in honor of Osiris, icho died and arose from 

1 see Justin : Cum. Typho, and Tertullian: s g ee Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 166, and 

De Bap. Dunlap s Mysteries of Adoni, pp. 124, 125. 

a See Higgir.8 : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 16, Prolegomena to Ancient History, 

and vol. i. p. E 19. Also, Prichard s Egyptian See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102. 

Mythology, p. 66, and Bonwick s Egyptian Murray : Manual of Mythology, pp. 847, 

Belief, p. 163. 348. 


the dead, and they draw a parallel with the adventurers of their Christ. 
Athanasius, Augustin, Theophilus, Athenagoras, Minucius Felix, Lactantius, 
Firmicius, as also the ancient authors who have spoken of Osiris ... all 
agree in the description of the universal mourning of the Egyptians at the festi 
val, when the commemoration of that death took place. They describe the cere 
monies which were practiced at his sepulchre, the tears, which were there shed 
during several days, and the festivities and rejoicings, which followed after that 
mourning, at the moment when his resurrection \v:is announced." 1 

Mr. Bon wick remarks, in his "Egyptian Belief," that : 

"It is astonishing to find that, at least, five thousand years ago, men trusted 
an Osiris as the Risen Saviour, and confidently hoped to rise, as he arose, from 
the grave." 2 

Again he says : 

" Osiris was, unquestionably, the popular god of Egypt. . . . Osiris was 
dear to the hearts of the people. He was pre-eminently good. He was in life 
and death their friend. His birth, death, burial, resurrection and ascension, 
embraced the leading points of Egyptian theology." " In his efforts to do good, 
he encounters evil. In struggling with that, he is overcome. He is killed. The 
story, entered into in the account of the Osiris myth, is a circumstantial one. 
Osiris is buried. His tomb was the object of pilgrimage for thousands of years. 
But he did not rest in his grave. At the end of three days, or forty, lie arose again, 
and ascended to heaven. This is the story of his humanity." " As Iheinrictus 
Osiris, his tomb was illuminated, as is the holy sepulchre of Jerusalem now. 
The mourning song, whose plaintive tones were noted by Herodotus, and has 
been compared to the miserere of Rome, was followed, in three days, by the 
language of triumph. " 3 

Herodotus, who had been initiated into the Egyptian and Gre 
cian " Mysteries" speaks thus of them : 

"At Sais (in Egypt), in the sacred precinct of Minerva; behind the chapel 
and joining the wall, is the tomb of one whose name I consider it impious to 
divulge on such an occasion; and in the inclosure stand large stone obelisks, and 
there is a lake near, ornamented with a stone margin, formed in a circle, and in 
size, as appeared to me, much the same as that iu Delos, which is called the cir 
cular. In this lake they perform by night the representation of that person s 
adventures, which they call mysteries. On these matters, however, though 
accurately acquainted with the particulars of them, / must observe a discreet 
silence ; and respecting the sacred rites of Ceres, which the Greeks call Thesmy- 
phoria, although I am acquainted with them, I must observe silence except so 
far as is lawful for me to speak of them." 4 

HoruS) son of the virgin Isis, experienced similar misfortunes. 
The principal features of this sacred romance are to be found in 
the writings of the Christian Fathers. They give us a description 
of the grief which was manifested at his death, and of the rejoicings 
at his resurrection, which are similar to those spoken of above. 5 

1 Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, p. 256. 4 Herodotus, bk. ii. chs. 1TO, 171. 

" Berwick s Egyptian Belief, p. vi. See Dupuis : Origin of Religions Belief, p, 

Ibid. pp. 150-155, 178. 263, and Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. 102. 


Atys y the Phrygian Saviour, was put to death, and rose again 
from the dead. Various histories were given of him in various 
places, but all accounts terminated in the usual manner. He was 
one of the u Slain Ones " who rose to life again on the 25th of 
March, or the " Ililaria " or primitive Easter. 1 

Mithras, the Persian Saviour, and mediator between God and 
man, was believed by the inhabitants of Persia, Asia Minor and 
Armenia, to have been put to death, and to have risen again from 
the dead. In their mysteries, the body of a young man, apparently 
dead, was exhibited, which was feigned to be restored to life. By 
his sufferings he was believed to have worked their salvation, and 
on this account he was called their " Saviour" Ilis priests watched 
his tomb to the midnight of the veil of the 25th of March, with, 
loud cries, and in darkness ; when all at once the lights burst 
forth from all parts, and the priest cried : 

"Rejoice, Oh sacred Initiated, your god is risen. His death, his pains, his suf 
ferings, have worked oar salvation. " 2 

Mons. Dupuis, speaking of the resurrection of this god, says : 

" It is chiefly in the religion of Mithras. . . . that we find mostly these 
features of analogy with the death and resurrection of Christ, aud with the mys 
teries of the Christians. Mithras, who was also born on the 25th of December, 
like Christ, died as he did; and he had his sepulchre, over which his disciples 
came to shed tears. During the night, the priests carried his image to a tomb, 
expressly prepared for him; he was laid out on a litter, like the Phoenician 

"These funeral ceremonies, like those on Good Friday (in Roman Catholic 
churches), were accompanied with funeral dirges and groans of the priests; after 
having spent some time with these expressions of feigned grief; after having 
lighted the sacred Jlambcau, or their paschal candle, and anointed the image with 
chrism or perfumes, one of them came forward and pronounced with the gravest 
mien these words: Be of good cheer, sacred band of Initiates, your yod has risen 
from the dead. His pains and his sufferings shall be your salvation. " 3 

In King s " Gnostics and their Remains " (Plate XL), may be 
seen the representation of a bronze medal, or rather disk, engraved 

1 See Berwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 169. body have separated, the souls, in the third 

Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 104. Dnpuis : nig/it after death as soon as the shining sun 

Origin of Religious Belief, p. 255. Dunlap a ascends come over the Mount Berezaiti upon 

Mysteries of Adoni, p. 110, and Knight: Anct. the bridge Tshina vat which leads to Garoumana, 

Art and Mythology, p. 86. the dwelling of the good gods." (Dunlap a 

a Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 99. Mith- Spirit Ilist., p. 210, and Mysteries of Adoui, 00.) 

ras remained in the grave a period of three days, The Ghost of Polydore says : 

as did Christ Jesus, and the other Christs. " Being raised up this third day light, 

" The Persians believed that the soul of man Having deserted my body 1" (Euripides, 

remained jvt three days in the world after its Hecuba, 31, 32.) 

separation from the body." (Dunlap : Mya- s Dupuis : Origin of Religious Beliefs, pp 

teries of Adoni, p. 03.) 246, 247. 

" In the Zoroastrian religion, after BOU! and 


in the coarsest manner, on which is to be seen a female figure, 
standing in the attitude of adoration, the object of which is ex 
pressed by the inscription ORTVS SALT AT, " The Rising of the 
Saviour" i. <?., of Mithras. 1 

"This medal " (says Mr. King), " doubtless had accompanied the interment of 
some individual initiated into the Mithraic mysteries; and is certainly the most 
curious relic of that faith that has come under my notice." 2 

Bacchus, the Saviour, son of the virgin Semele, after being put 
to death, also arose from the dead. During the commemoration 
of the ceremonies of this event the dead body of a young man was 
exhibited with great lamentations, in the same manner as the cases 
cited above, and at dawn on the 25th of March his resurrection 
from the dead was celebrated with great rejoicings. 3 After having 
brought solace to the misfortunes of mankind, he, after his resurrec 
tion, ascended into heaven.* 

Hercules, the Saviour, the son of Zeus by a mortal mother, was 
put to death, but arose from the funeral pile, and ascended into 
heaven in a cloud, mid peals of thunder. His followers manifested 
gratitude to his memory by erecting an altar on the spot from 
whence he ascended. 5 

Memnon is put to death, but rises again to life and immortality. 
His mother Eos weeps tears at the death of her son as Mary does 
for Christ Jesus but her prayers avail to bring him back, like 
Adonis or Tammuz, and Jesus, from the shadowy region, to dwell 
always in Olympus. 6 

The ancient Greeks also believed that Amphiaraus one of 
their most celebrated prophets and demi-gods rose from the dead. 
They even pointed to the place of his resurrection. 7 

Baldur, the Scandinavian Lord and Saviour, is put to death, but 
does not rest in his grave. He too rises again to life and immor 
tality. 8 

When " Baldur the Good," the beneficent god, descended into 
hell, Hela (Death) said to Hermod (who mourned for Baldur) : 
" If all things in the world, both living and lifeless, weep for him, 
then shall he return to the ^Esir (the gods)." Upon hearing this, 
messengers were dispatched throughout the world to beg every- 

1 King s Gnostics and their Remains, p. 225. 6 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 294. See also, 

2 ibid. p. 220. Goldzhier s Hebrew Mythology, p. 127. Hig> 

3 See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102. gins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 322, and Cham- 
Dnpuis : Origin of Religious Belief, pp. 256, bers s Encyclo., art. " Hercules." 

257, and Bouwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 1C9. Aryan Mytho.. vol. ii. p. 90. 

4 See Dupuis: Origin of Religious Belief, p. 7 See Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 56. 
135, and Higgius: Anacalypsis, vol. i. 322. 8 Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 94. 


thing to weep in order that Baldnr might be delivered from hell. 
All things everywhere willingly complied with this request, both 
men and every other living being, so that wailing was heard in all 
quarters. * 

Thus we see the same myth among the northern nations. As 
Bunsen says : 

" The tragedy of the murdered and risen god is familiar to us from the days 
of ancient Egypt: must it not be of equally primeval origin here?" [In Teutonic 

The ancient Scandinavians also worshiped a god called Frey, 
who was put to death, and rose again from the dead? 

The ancient Druids celebrated, in the British Isles, in heathen 
times, the rites of the resurrected Bacchus, and other ceremonies, 
similar to the Greeks and Romans. 3 

Quetzalcoatle, the Mexican crucitied Saviour, after being put to 
death, rose from the dead. His resurrection was represented in 
Mexican hieroglyphics, and may be seen in the Codex Borgianus* 

The Jews in Palestine celebrated their Passover on the same 
day that the Pagans celebrated the resurrection of their gods. 

Besides the resurrected gods mentioned in this chapter, who 
were believed in for centuries before the time assigned for the birth 
of Christ Jesus, many others might be named, as we shall see in 
our chapter on " Explanation." In the words of Duubar T. 
Heath : 

" We find men taught every where, from Southern Arabia to Greece, by 
hundreds of symbolisms, the birth, death, and resurrection of deities, and a res 
urrection too, apparently after the second day, i. e., on the third." 5 

And now, to conclude all, another god is said to have been born 
on the same day 6 as these Pagan deities ; he is crucitied and buried, 
and on the same day 1 rises again from the dead. Christians of 
Europe and America celebrate annually the resurrection of their 

1 Mallet s Northern Antiquities, p. 449. Origin of Reiigious Belief, pp. 244, 255.) 

3 See Knight: Ancient Art and .Mythology, A very long and terrible schism took place 
p. 85. in the Christian Church upon the question 

3 SeeDavies: Myths and Rites of the British whether Easter, the day of the resurrection, 

Druids, pp. 89 and 208. was to be celebrated on the 14th day of the first 

4 See Kingsborough s Mexican Antiquities, month, after the Jewish custom, or on the 
/ol. vi. p. 106. Lord s day afterward; and it was at last de- 

4 Quoted in Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. cided in favor of the Lord s day. (See Hig- 

174. gins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 90, and Cham- 

* As we shall see in the chapter on " The bers s Encyclopaedia, art. " Easter.") 
Birth-day of Christ Jesus." The day upon which Easter should be cele- 

7 Easter, the triumph of Christ, was origin- brated was not settled until the Council of Nice, 

ally solemnized on the 25th of March, the very (See Euseb. Life of Constantino, lib. 3, ch. xr*L 

day upou which the Pagan gods were believed Also, Socrates Eccl. Hist. lib. 1, ch. vi.) 
to have risen from the dead. (See Dupuis: 



Saviour in almost the identical manner in which the Pagans cele 
brated the resurrection of their Saviours, centuries before the God 
of the Christians is said to have been born. In Roman Catholic 
churches, in Catholic countries, the body of a young man is laid on 
a bier, and placed before the altar ; the wound in his side is to be 
seen, and his death is bewailed in mournful dirges, and the verse, 
Gloria Patri, is discontinued in the mass. All the images in the 
churches and the altar are covered with black, and the priest and 
attendants are robed in black ; nearly all lights are put out, and the 
windows are darkened. This is the " Agonie," the "Miserere," 
the " Good Friday " mass. On Easter Sunday 1 all the drapery has 
disappeared ; the church is illuminated, and rejoicing, in place of 
sorrow, is manifest. The Easter hymns partake of the following 
expression : 

"Rejoice, Oh sacred Initiated, your God is risen. His death, his pains, his suf 
fering*, have worked our salvation." 

Cedrenus (a celebrated Byzantine writer), speaking of the 25th 
of March, says : 

" The first day of the first month, is the first of the month Nisan ; it corre 
sponds to the 25 th of March of the Romans, and the Phamenot of the Egyptians. 
On that clay Gabriel saluted Mary, in order to make her conceive the Saviour. 
I observe that it is the same month, Phamenot, that Osiris gave fecundity to Isis, 
according to the Egyptian theology. On the very same day, our God Saviour 
(Christ Jesus), after the termination of his career, arose from the dead; that is, 
what our forefathers called the Pass-over, or the passage of the Lord. It is also 
on the same day, that our ancient theologians have fixed his return, or hi/ 
second advent. " 8 

We have seen, then, that a festival celebrating the resurrection 
of their several gods was annually held among the Pagans, before 
the time of Christ Jesus, and that it was almost universal. That 
it dates to a period of great antiquity is very certain. The adven 
tures of these incarnate gods, exposed in their infancy, put to death, 
and rising again from the grave to life and immortality, were acted 
on the Deisuls and in the sacred theatres of the ancient Pagans, 3 
just as the " Passion Play " is acted to-day. 

Eusebius relates a tale to the effect that, at one time, the Chris- 

1 Even the name of " EASTER " is derived deavored to give a Christian significance to 

from the heathen goddess, Osf-rt, of the Saxons, such of the rites as could not be rooted out ; 

and the Eostrt of the Germans. and in this case the conversion was prac- 

"Many of the popular observances con- tically easy." (Chambers s Encyclo., art. 

nected with Easter are clearly of Pagan origin. " Easter.") 

The goddess Ostara or Eastre seems to have 3 Quoted in Dupuis : Origin of Religious 

been the personification of the morning or Belief, p. 244. 

East and also of the opening year or Spring. 3 See Higgins : Anacalypsie, vol. ii. p. 340. 

. . . With hfr usual policy, the church en- 


tians were about to celebrate " the solemn vigils of Easter," when, 
to their dismay, they found that oil was wanted. Narcissus, Bishop 
of Jerusalem, who was among the number, " commanded that such 
as had charge of the lights, speedily to bring unto him water, drawn 
up out of the next well." This water Narcissus, " by the wonder 
ful power of God," changed into oil, and the celebration was 
continued. 1 

This tells the whole story. Here we see the oil which the 
Pagans had in their ceremonies, and with which the priests anointed 
the lips of the Initiates and the lights, which were suddenly 
lighted when the god was feigned to have risen from the dead. 

With her usual policy, the Christian Church endeavored to give 
a Christian significance to the rites borrowed from Paganism, and 
in this case, as in many others, the conversion was particularly 

In the earliest times, the Christians did not celebrate the resur 
rection of their Lord from the grave. They made the Jewish 
Passover their chief festival, celebrating it on the same day as the 
Jews, the 14th of Nisan, no matter in what part of the week that 
day might fall. Believing, according to the tradition, that Jesus on 
the eve of his death had eaten the Passover with his disciples, they 
regarded such a solemnity as a commemoration of the Supper and 
not as a memorial of the Resurrection. But in proportion as Chris 
tianity more and more separated itself from Judaism and imbibed 
paganism, this way of looking at the matter became less easy. A. 
new tradition gained currency among the Roman Christians to the 
effect that Jesus before his death had not eaten the Passover, but 
had died on the very day of the Passover, thus substituting himself 
for the Paschal Lamb. The great Christian festival was then made 
the Resurrection of Jesus, and was celebrated on the first pagan 
holiday $w7i-flfo?/ after the Passover. 

This Easter celebration was observed in China, and called a 
"Festival of Gratitude to Tien." 4 From there it extended over 
the then known world to the extreme West. 

The ancient Pagan inhabitants of Europe celebrated annually 
this same feast, which is yet continued over all the Christian world. 
This festival began with a week s indulgence in all kinds of sports, 
called the carne-vale, or the taking a farewell to animal food, 
because it was followed by a fast of forty days. This was in honor 
of the Saxon goddess Ostrt or Eostre of the Germans, whence our 

Eccl. Hist., lib. 6, c. viii. a Anacalypsis, ii. 59. 


The most characteristic Easter rite, and the one most widely 
diffused, is the use of Easter eggs. They are usually stained of 
various colors with dye-woods or herbs, and people mutually make 
presents of them ; sometimes they are kept as amulets, sometimes 
eaten. Now, "dyed eggs were sacred Easter offerings in Egypt y" 1 
the ancient Persians, " when they kept the festival of the solar 
new year (in March), mutually presented each other with colored 
eggs ; " 2 " the Jews used eggs in the feast of the Passover ;" and 
the custom prevailed in Western countries. 8 

The stories of the resurrection written by the Gospel narrators 
are altogether different. This is owing to the fact that the story, as 
related by one, was written to correct the mistakes and to endeavor 
to reconcile with common sense the absurdities of the other. Eor 
instance, the " Matthew " narrator says : " And when they saw him 
(after he had risen from the dead) they worshiped him ; but some 

To leave the question where this writer leaves it would be fatal. 
In such a case there must be no doubt. Therefore, the "Mark " 
narrator makes Jesus appear three times, under such circumstances 
as to render a mistake next to impossible, and to silence the most 
obstinate skepticism. He is first made to appear to Mary Mag 
dalene, who was convinced that it was Jesus, because she went and 
told the disciples that he had risen, and that she had seen him. 
The} 7 notwithstanding that Jesus had foretold them of his resur 
rection disbelieved, nor could they be convinced until he appeared 
to them. They in turn told it to the other disciples, who were also 
skeptical ; and, that they might be convinced, Jesus also appeared 
to them as they sat at meat, when he upbraided them for their 

This story is much improved in the hands of the " Mark" nar 
rator, but, in the anxiety to make a clear case, it is overdone, as 
often happens when the object is to remedy or correct an oversight 
or mistake previously made. In relating that the disciples doubted 
the words of Mary Magdalene, he had probably forgotten Jesus had 
promised them that he should rise, for, if he had told them this, 
why did they doubt f 

Neither the " Matthew " nor the " Mark " narrator says in what 
way Jesus made his appearance whether it was in the body or only 
in the spirit. If in the latter, it would be fatal to the whole theory 

1 See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 24. * Matthew, xxviii. 17. 

* See Chambers s Encyclo., art. " Easter." * See xii. 40 ; xvi. 21 ; Mark, ix. 31 ; xiv. 28 i 

Ibid. John. ii. 19. 


of the resurrection, as it is a material resurrection that Christianity 
taught just like their neighbors the Persians and not a spirit 
ual. 1 

To put this disputed question in its true light, and to silence 
the objections which must naturally have arisen against it, was 
the object which the " Luke " narrator had in view. He says that 
when Jesus appeared and spoke to the disciples they were afraid : 
" But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed they had 
seen a spirit Jesus then to show that he was not a spirit 
showed the wounds in his hands and feet. " And they gave him a 
piece of a broiled h sh, and of a honeycomb. And he took it, and 
did eat before them. After this, who is there that can doubt ? 
but, if the fish and honeycomb story was true, why did the " Mat 
thew " and " Mark " narrators fail to mention it ? 

The " Luke " narrator, like his predecessors, had also overdone 
the matter, and instead of convincing the skeptical, he only excited 
their ridicule. 

The " John " narrator now comes, and endeavors to set matters 
right. lie does not omit entirely the story of Jesus eating fisl^ybr 
that would not do, after there had been so much said about it. 
He might leave it to be inferred that the " Luke " narrator made 
a mistake, so he modifies the story and omits the ridiculous part. 
The scene is laid on the shores of the Sea of Tiberias. Under the 
direction of Jesus, Peter drew his net to land, full of fish. " Jesus 
said unto them : Come and dine. And none of the disciples durst 
ask him, Who art thou ? knowing that it was the Lord. Jesus then 
cometh, and taketh bread, and giveth them, and^A likewise." 4 

It does not appear from this account that Jesus ate the fish at 
all. He took the fish and gave to the disciples ; the inference is 
that they were the ones that ate. In the " Luke " narrator s ac 
count, the statement is reversed; the disciples gave the fish to 
Jesus, and he ate. The " John " narrator has taken out of the story 
that which was absurd, but he leaves us to infer that the "Luke " 
narrator was careless in stating the account of what took place. If 
we leave out of the ^ Luke* narrator s account the part that re 
lates to the fish and honeycomb, he fails to prove what it really 

1 " And let not any one among you eay, that eaved us, being first a spirit, was made flesh, 

this very flesh is not judged, neither raised np. and so called us : even so we also in this fles i, 

Consider, in what were ye saved ? in what did ye shall receive the reward (of heaven). (II. Cor- 

look up, if not whilst ye were in this flesh ? We iuthians, ch. iv. Apoc. See also the Christian 

must, taerefore, keep our flesh as the temple Creed : " I believe in the resurrection of the 

of God. For in like manner as ye were called body") 
in the flesh, ye shall also come to judgment in a Luke, xxiv. 37. 

the flesh. Our one Lord Jesua Christ, who has Luke, xxiv. 42, 43. John, xxi. 12, 13. 


was which appeared to the disciples, as it seems from this that the 
disciples could not be convinced that Jesus was not a spirit until he 
had actually eaten something. 

Now, if the eating part is struck out which the "John " nar 
rator does, and which, no doubt, the ridicule cast upon it drove him 
t do the "Luke" narrator leaves the question just where he 
found it. It was the business of the " John " narrator to attempt 
to leave it clean, and put an end to all cavil. 

Jesus appeared to the disciples when they assembled at Jerusa 
lem. " And when he had so said, he shewed unto them his hands 
and his side." 1 They were satisfied, and no doubts were expressed. 
But Thomas was not present, and when he was told by the breth 
ren that Jesus had appeared to them, he refused to believe ; nor 
would he, " Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, 
and put my finger into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand 
into his side, I will not believe." 2 Now, if Thomas could be con 
vinced, with all his doubts, it would be foolish after that to deny 
that Jesus was not in the body when he appeared to his disciples. 

After eight days Jesus again appears, for no other purpose as 
it would seem but to convince the doubting disciple Thomas. 
Then said he to Thomas : " Reach hither thy finger, and behold 
my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust it into my side ; 
and be not faithless, but believing." 3 This convinced Thomas, and 
he exclaimed : " My Lord and my God." After this evidence, if 
there were still unbelievers, they were even more skeptical than 
Thomas himself. We should be at a loss to understand why the 
writers of the first three Gospels entirely omitted the story of 
Thomas, if we were not aware that when the " John " narrator 
wrote the state of the public mind was such that proof of the most 
unquestionable character was demanded that Christ Jesus had risen 
in the body. The " John " narrator selected a person who claimed 
he was hard to convince, and if the evidence was such as to satisfy 
him, it ought to satisfy the balance of the world. 4 

The first that we knew of the fourth Gospel attributed to 
John is from the writings of Irenoeus (A. D. 177-202), and the 
evidence is that he is the author of it? That controversies were 
rife in his day concerning the resurrection of Jesus, is very evident 
from other sources. We find that at this time the resurrection of 

1 John, xx. 20. tion, Reber s Christ of Paul ; Scott s English 

2 John, xx. 25. Life of Jesus ; and Greg s Creed of Christen. 
* John, xx. 27. dom. 

See, for a further account of the resurrec- See the Chapter xxxviii. 


the dead (according to the accounts of the Christian forgers) was 
very far from being esteemed an uncommon event ; that the 
miracle was frequently performed on necessary occasions by great 
fasting and the joint supplication of the church of the place, and 
that the persons thus restored by their prayers had lived afterwards 
among them many years. At such a period, when faith could 
boast of so many wonderful victories over death, it seems difficult 
to account for the skepticism of those philosophers, who still re 
jected and derided the doctrine of the resurrection. A noble Gre 
cian had rested on this important ground the whole controversy, 
and promised Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, that if he could be 
gratified by the sight of a single person who had been actually 
raised from the dead, lie would immediately embrace the Christian 

" It is somewhat remarkable," says Gibbon, the historian, from 
whom we take the above, " that the prelate of the h rst Eastern 
Church, however anxious for the conversion of his friend, thought 
proper to decline this fair and reasonable challenge." 1 

This Christian saint, Irenaeus, had invented many stories of 
others being raised from the dead, for the purpose of attempting 
to strengthen the belief in the resurrection of Jesus. In the words 
of the Rev. Jeremiah Jones : 

" Such pious frauds were very common among Christians even in the first 
three centuries ; and a forgery of this nature, with the view above-mentioned, 
seems natural and probable. " 

One of these " pious frauds" is the " Gospel of Nicodemus 
the Disciple, concerning the Sufferings and Resurrection of our 
Master and Saviour Jesus Christ" Although attributed to 
Nicodemus, a disciple of Jesus, it has been shown to be a forgery, 
written towards the close of the second century during the time 
of Irenceus, the well-known pious forger. In this book we find the 
following : 

"And now hear me a little. We all know the blessed Simeon, the high- 
priest, who took Jesus when an infant into his arms in the temple. This same 
Simeon had two sons of his own, and we were all present at their death and 
funeral. Go therefore and see their tombs, for these are open, and tJiey are risen ; 
and behold, they are in the city of Arimathaea, spending their time together in 
offices of devotion." 9 

The purpose of this story is very evident. Some " zealous 
believer," observing the appeals for proof of the resurrection, 
wishing to make it appear that resurrections from the dead were 

1 Gibbon s Rome, vol. I. p. 641. * Nicodemus, Apoc. ch. jdl. 


common occurrences, invented this story towards the dose of the 
second century, and fathered it upon Nicodemus. 

We shall speak, anon, more fully on the subject of the frauds 
of the early Christians, the " lying and deceiving/*?/ 1 the cause of 
Christ" which is carried on even to the present day. 

As President Cheney of Bates College has lately remarked, 
" The resurrection is the doctrine of Christianity and the founda 
tion of the entire system" 1 but outside of the four spurious gos 
pels this greatest of all recorded miracles is hardly mentioned. 
" We have epistles from Peter, James, John, and Jude all of 
whom are said by the evangelists to have seen Jesus after he rose 
from the dead, in none of which epistles is the fact of the resurrec 
tion even stated, much less that Jesus was seen by the writer after 
his resurrection." 2 

Many of the early Christian sects denied the resurrection of 
Christ Jesus, but taught that he will rise, when there shall be a 
general resurrection. 

No actual representation of the resurrection of the Christian s 
Saviour has yet been found among the monuments of early Chris 
tianity. The earliest representation of this event that has been 
found is ar ivory carving, and belongs to the fifth or sixth 
century. 8 

Sermon, June 26th, 1881. See Jameson s Hist, of Our Lord in Art, 

Great : The Olwed of Christendom, p. 884. vol. IL, and Lundy s Monumental Christianity. 



THE second coming of Christ Jesus is clearly taught in the 
canonical, as well as in the apocryphal, books of the New Testa 
ment. Paul teaches, or is made to teach it? in the following 
words : 

" If we believe that Jesus died and rose again, even so fhem also which sleep 
in Jesus will God bring with him. For this we say unto you by the word of the 
Lord, that we which are alive and remain unto the coming of the Lord, shall not 
prevent them which are asleep. F>>r the Lord himself shall descend from heaven 
with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God, 
and the dead in Christ shall rise first: Then we which are alive and remain shall 
be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air : and 
so shall we ever be with the Lord." 2 

He further tells the Thessalonians to "abstain from all appear 
ance of evil," and to " be preserved blameless unto the coming of 
our Lord Jesus Christ"* 

James, 4 in his epistle to the brethren, tells them not to be in 
too great a hurry for the coming of their Lord, but to " be patient " 
and wait for the " coming of the Lord," as the " husbandman 
waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth." But still he assures 
them that " the coming of the Lord draweth nigh." 5 

Peter, in his first epistle, tells his brethren that " the end of 
all things is at hand," 8 and that when the " chief shepherd " does 
appear, they " shall receive a crown of glory that fadeth not 
away." 7 

John, in his first epistle, tells the Christian community to " abide 

1 We say "is made to teach it," for the we have, in this epistle of James, another pseu- 

probability is that Paul never wrote this pas- donymous writing which appeared after the 

sage. The authority of both the Letters to the time that James must have lived. (See The 

Thessalonians, attributed to Paul, is undoubt- Bible of To-Day, p. 225.) 
edly spurious. (See The Bible of To-Day, pp. James, v. 7, 8. 

811, 212.) I. Peter, iv. 7. 

a I. Thessalonians, iv. 14-17. 7 I. Peter, v. 7. This Epistle is not authen- 

Ibid. v. 22, 23. tic. (See The Bible of To-Day, pp. 226, 227, 

We bay "James," but, it is probable that 228.) 



in him" (Christ), so that, " when he shall appear, we may have con- 
fidence, and not be ashamed before him." 1 
He further says : 

"Behold, now are we the sons of God, and it doth not yet appear what we 
shall be, but we know that, when he shall appear, we shall be like him, for we 
shall see him as he is." 2 

According to the writer of the book of " The Acts," when 
Jesus ascended into heaven, the Apostles stood looking up towards 
heaven, where he had gone, and while thus engaged : " behold, two 
men stood by them (dressed) in white apparel," who said unto them : 

" Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven ? This same Jesus 
which is taken, up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have 
seen him go (up) into heaven."* 

The one great object which the writer of the book of Revela 
tions wished to present to view, was " the second coming of Christ" 
This writer, who seems to have been anxious for that time, which 
was " surely " to come " quickly ; " ends his book by saying : 
" Even so, come Lord Jesus." 4 

The two men, dressed in white apparel, who had told the 
Apostles that Jesus should " come again," were not the only per 
sons whom they looked to for authority. He himself (according 
to the Gospel) had told them so : 

"The Son of man shall come (again) in the glory of his Father with his 

And, as if to impress upon their minds that his second coming 
should not be at a distant day, he further said : 

"Verily I say unto you, there be some standing here, which shall not taste of 
death, till they see the Son of man coming in his kingdom."* 

This, surely, is very explicit, but it is not the only time he 
speaks of his second advent. When foretelling the destruction 
of the temple, his disciples came unto him, saying : 

" Tell us when shall these things be, and what shall be the sign of thy com 

His answer to this is very plain : 

"Verily I say unto you, this generation shaU not pass till all these things fc 
fulfilled (i. e., the destruction of the temple and his second coming), but of that 
day and hour knoweth no man, no, not the angels of heaven, but my Father 
only. " 1 

1 1. John, ii. 28. This epistle is not authen- Rev. xxii. 20. 

tic. (See Ibid. p. 231.) Matt. xvi. 27, 28. 

I. John, v. 2. Ibid. xxiv. 3. 

Acts, i. 10 11. T Ibi d xx 


In the second Epistle attributed to Peter, which was written 
after that generation had passed away, 1 there had begun to be some 
impatience manifest among the lelievers, on account of the long 
delay of Christ Jesus second coming. " Where is the promise of 
his coming ? " say they, " for since the fathers fell asleep all things 
continue as they were from the beginning of tlio creation." 3 In 
attempting to smoothe over matters, this writer says : " There shall 
come in the last days scoffers, saying : c Where is the promise of 
his coming? " to which he replies by telling them that they were 
ignorant of all the ways of the Lord, and that : " One day is with 
the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day." 
He further says : "The Lord is not slack concerning his promise ;" 
and that " the day of the Lord will come" This coming is to be 
"as a thief in the night," that is, when they least expect it. 8 

No wonder there should have been scoffers as this writer calls 
them the generation which was not to have passed away before 
his coming, had passed away ; all those who stood there had been 
dead many years ; the sun had not yet been darkened ; the stars 
were still in the heavens, and the moon still continued to reflect 
light. None of the predictions had yet been fulfilled. 

Some of the early Christian Fathers have tried to account for 
the words of Jesus, where he says : " Verily I say unto you, there 
be some standing here which shall not taste of death, till they see 
the Son of man coming in his kingdom," by saying that he referred 
to John only, and that that Apostle was not dead, but sleeping. 
This fictitious story is related by Saint Augustin, "from the re 
port," as he says, " of credible persons," and is to the effect that : 

" At Ephesus, where St. John the Apostle lay buried, he was not believed to 
be dead, but to be sleeping only in Hie grace, which he had provided for himself 
till our Saviour s second coming: in proof of which, they alfirm, that the earth, 
under which he lay, was seen to heave up and down perpetually, in conformity 
to the motion of his body, in the act of breathing." 4 

This story clearly illustrates the stupid credulity and superstition 
of the primitive age of the church, and the faculty of imposing any 
fictions upon the people, which their leaders saw fit to inculcate. 

The doctrine of the millennium designates a certain period in 
the history of the world, lasting for a long, indefinite space (vaguely 
a tJwusand years, as the word " millennium " implies) during which 
the kingdom of Christ Jesus will be visibly established on the earth. 
The idea undoubtedly originated proximately in the Messianic ex- 

1 Towards the close of the second century. II. Peter, iii. 4. * II. Peter, iii. 8-10. 

(See Bible of To-Day.) * See Middleton s Worka, vol. i. p. 188. 


pectation of the Jews (as Jesus did not sit on the throne of David 
and become an earthly ruler, it must be that he is coming again for 
this purpose), but more remotely in the Pagan doctrine of the final 
triumph of the several " Christs " over their adversaries. 

In the first century of the Church, millenarianism was a whis 
pered belief, to which the book of Daniel, and more particularly the 
predictions of the Apocalypse 1 gave an apostolical authority, but, 
when the church imbibed Paganism, their belief on this subject 
lent it a more vivid coloring and imagery. 

The unanimity which the early Christian teachers exhibit in 
regard to mittenarianism, proves how strongly it had laid hold of 
the imagination of the Church, to which, in this early stage, immor 
tality and future rewards were to a great extent things of this world 
as yet. Not only did Cerinthus, but even the orthodox doctors 
such as Papias (Bishop of Hierapolis), Irenseus, Justin Martyr and 
others delighted themselves with dreams of the glory and magnifi 
cence of the millennial kingdom. Papias, in his collection of 
traditional sayings of Christ Jesus, indulges in the most monstrous 
representations of the re-building of Jerusalem, and the colossal 
vines and grapes of the millennial reign. 

According to the general opinion, the millennium was to be 
preceded b} r great calamities, after which the Messiah, Christ Jesus, 
would appear, and would bind Satan for a thousand years, annihilate 
the godless heathen, or make them slaves of the believers, overturn 
the Roman empire, from the ruins of which a new order of things 
would spring forth, in which " the dead in Christ " would rise, and 
along with the surviving saints enjoy an incomparable felicity in 
the city of the "New Jerusalem." Finally, all nations would bend 
their knee to him, and acknowledge him only to be the Christ his 
religion would reign supreme. This is the " Golden Age " of the 
future, which all nations of antiquity believed in and looked for 
ward to. 

We will first turn to India, and shall there find that the Hin 
doos believed their " Saviour, " or " Preserver" Vishnu, who ap 
peared in mortal form as Crishna, is to come again in the latter 
days. Their sacred books declare that in the last days, when the 
fixed stars have all apparently returned to the point whence 
they started, at the beginning of all things, in the month Scorpio, 
Vishnu will appear among mortals, in the form of an armed war 
rior, riding a winged white horse* In one hand he will carry a 

1 Chapters xx. and xxi. in particular. doo Saviour, will appear " in the latter days" 

8 The Christian Saviour, as well as the Hin- among mortals " in the form of an armed war- 


scimitar, "blazing like a comet," to destroy all the impure who 
shall then dwell on the face of the earth. In the other hand he 
will carry a large shining ring, to signify that the great circle of 
Yugas (ages) is completed, and that the end has come. At his 
approach the sun and moon will be darkened, the earth will tremble, 
and the stars fall from the firmament. 1 

The Buddhists believe that Buddha has repeatedly assumed a 
human form to facilitate the reunion of men with his own universal 
soul, so they believe that " in the latter days " he will come again. 
Their sacred books predict this coming, and relate that his mission 
will be to restore the worid to order and happiness. 8 This is exact 
ly the Christian idea of the millennium. 

The Chinese also believe that " in the latter days " there is to be 
a millennium upon earth. Their five sacred volumes are full of 
prophesies concerning this ."Golden Age of the Future." It is the 
universal belief among them that a " .Divine Man " will establish 
himself on earth, and everywhere restore peace and happiness.* 

The ancient Persians believed that in the last days, there would 
be a millennium on earth, when the religion of Zoroaster would be 
accepted by all mankind. The Parsees of to-day, who are the 
remnants of the once mighty Persians, have a tradition that a holy 
personage is waiting in a region called Kanguedez, for a summons 
from the Ized Serosch, who in the last days will bring him to Per 
sia, to restore the ancient dominion of that country, and spread the 
religion of Zoroaster over the whole earth. 4 

The Rev. Joseph B. Gross, in his " Heathen Religion," 5 speak 
ing of the belief of the ancient Persians in the millennium, says : 

" The dead would be raised, 6 and he who has made all things, cause the 
earth and the sea to return again the remains of the departed. 1 Then Ormuzd 
shall clothe them with flesh and blood, while they that live at the time of the 
resurrection, must die in order to likewise participate in its advantage. 

" Before this momentous event takes place, three illustrious prophets shall 
appear, who will announce their presence by the performance of miracles. 

" During this period of its existence, and till its final removal, the earth will 
be afflicted with pestilence, tempests, war, famine, and various other baneful 

rlor, riding a white horee" St. John sees this s See Pros. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 209. 

1n his vision, and prophecies it in his " Revela- See Ibid. p. 279. The Angel-Messiah, p. 

tion " thus : " And I saw, and behold a white 287, and chap. xiii. this work. 

horse: and he that sat on him had a bow ; 6 Pp. 122, 123. 

and a crown was given unto him : and he went " And I saw the dead, small and great, 

forth conquering, and to conquer." (Rev. vi. 2.) stand before God." (Rev. xx. 12.) 

1 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. L p. 75. Hist. T " And the sea gave up the dead which 

Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 497-503. See also, Wil- were in it." (Rev. xx. 13.) 

lianas : Hinduism, p. 109. 8 " And ye shall hear of wars, and rumors of 

8 Prog. Relig. Ideas, 1. 247, and Bunsen s " \rars." " Nation shall rise against nation, and 
Angel-Messiah, p. 48. 


" After the resurrection, every one will be apprised of the good or evii 
which he may have done, and the righteous and the wicked will be separated 
from each other. l Those of the latter whose offenses have not yet been expiated, 
will be cast into hell during the term of three days and three nights, 2 in the 
presence of an assembled world, in order to be purified in the burning stream of 
liquid ore. 3 After this, they enjoy endless felicity in the society of the blessed, 
and the pernicious empire of Ahriman (the devil), is fairly exterminated. 4 Even 
this lying spirit will be under the necessity to avail himself of this fiery ordeal, 
and made to rejoice in its expurgating and cleansing efficacy. Nay, hell itself is 
purged of its mephitic impurities, and washed clean in the flames of a universal 
regeneration. 5 

" The earth is now the habitation of bliss, all nature glows in light; and the 
equitable and benignant laws of Ormuzd reign supremely through the illimitable 
universe. 6 Finally, after the resurrection, mankind will recognize each other 
again; wants, cares, and passions will cease; 7 and everything in the paradisian 
and all-embracing empire of light, shall rebound to the praise of the benificeat 
God." 8 

The disciples of Bacchus expected liis second advent. They 
hoped he would assume at some future day the government of the 
universe, and that he would restore to man his primary felicity. 9 

The Estlionian from the time of the German invasion lived a 
life of bondage under a foreign yoke, and the iron of his slavery 
entered into his soul. lie told how the ancient hero Kalewipoeg 
sits in the realms of shadows, waiting until his country is in its 
extremity of distress, when he will return to earth to avenge the 
injuries of the Esths, and elevate the poor crushed people into a 
mighty power. 10 

The suffering Celt has his Brian Boroihme, or Arthur, who will 
come again, the first to inaugurate a Fenian millennium, the second 
to regenerate Wales. Olger Dansk waits till the time arrives when 
he is to "start from sleep to the assistance of the Dane against the 
hated Prussian. The Messiah is to come and restore the kingdom 

kingdom against kingdom, and thero shall be lake of fire." (Rev. xx. 14.) 

famines, pestilences, and earthquakes in divers " And I saw a new heaven and a new 

places. 1 (Matt. xxiv. 6, 7.) earth ; for the first earth, and the first heaven 

1 "And before him shall be gathered all na- were passed away." (Rev. xxi. 1.) 

tions : and he shall separate them one from 7 " And God shall wipe away all tears 

another, as a shepherd divideth hia sheep from from their eyes ; and there shall be no jnore 

the goats. (Matt. xxv. 32, 33.) death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither 

2 " He descended into hell, the third day he shall there be any more pain : for the former 
rose (again) from the dead." (Apostles things are passed away." (Rev. xxi. 4.) 
Creed.) 8 " And after these things I heard a great 

3 Purgatory a place in which souls are voice of much people in heaven, saying, AJle- 
supposed by the papists to be purged by fire luia; salvation, and glory, and honor, and 
from carnal impurities, before they are received power, unto the Lord, our God. 1 " (Rev. 
into heaven. xix. 1.) "For the Lord God omnipotent 

4 "And he laid hold on the dragon, that reigneth." (Rev. xix. 6.) 

old serpent, which is the Devil, and Satan, and Dupnis : Orig. Relig. Belief, 

bound him a thousand years." (Rev. xx. 2.) 10 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. 1. 

" And death and hell were cast into the p. 407. 


of the Jews. Charlemagne was the Messiah of mediaeval Teuton- 
dom. He it was who founded the great German empire, and shed 
over it the blaze of Christian truth, and now he sleeps in the Kyff- 
hauserberg, waiting till German heresy has reached its climax and 
Germany is wasted through internal conflicts, to rush to earth once 
more, and revive the great empire and restore the Catholic faith. 1 

The ancient Scandinavians believed that in the "latter days 
great calamities would befall mankind. The earth would tremble, 
and the stars fall from heaven. After which, tln3 great serpent 
would be chained, and the religion of Odin would reign supreme. 8 

The disciples of Quetzalcoatle, the Mexican Saviour, expected 
his second advent. Before he departed this life, he told the in 
habitants of Cholula that he would return again to govern them. 8 
This remarkable tradition was so deeply cherished in their hearts, 
says Mr. Prescott in his " Conquest of Mexico," that u the Mexicans 
looked confidently to the return of their benevolent deity." 4 

So implicitly was this believed by the subjects, that when the 
Spaniards appeared on the coast, they were joyfully hailed as the 
returning god and his companions. Montezuma s messengers re 
ported to the Inca that " it was Quetzalcoatle who was coming, 
bringing his temples (ships) with him." All throughout New 
Spain they expected the reappearance of this " Son of the Great 
God " into the world, who would renew all things. 5 

Acosta alludes to this, in his " History of the Indies," as fol 
lows : 

" In the beginning of the year 1518, they (the Mexicans), discovered a fleet at 
sea, in the which was the Marques del Valle, Don Fernando Cortez, with his com 
panions, a news which much troubled Montezuma, and conferring with his 
council, they all said, that without doubt, their great and ancient lord Quetzal 
coatle was come, who had said that he would return from the East, whither he 
had gone." 6 

The doctrine of the millennium and the second advent of Christ 
Jesus, has been a very important one in the Christian church. The 
ancient Christians were animated by a contempt for their present 
existence, and by a just confidence of immortality, of which the 
doubtful and imperfect faith of modern ages cannot give us any 
adequate notion. In the primitive church, the influence of truth 
was powerfully strengthened by an opinion, which, however iv.uch 
it may deserve respect for its usefulness and antiquity, has not been 

1 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. I. Prescott : Con. of Mexico vol. i. p. 60. 

P- 407. Ferguseon : Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 

2 See Mallet s Northern Antiquities. 37. Squire : Serpent Symbol, p. 187, 

Humboldt : Amer. Res., vol. i. p. 91. Acosta : Hist, Indies, vol. ii.p. 513. 


found agreeable to experience. It was universally believed, that 
the end of the world and theJcmgdom of heaven were at hand. 1 The 
near approach of this wonderful event had been predicted, as we 
have seen, by the Apostles ; the tradition of it was preserved by 
their earliest disciples, and those who believed that the discourses 
attributed to Jesus were really uttered by him, were obliged to expect 
the second and glorious corning of the " Son of Man " in the clouds, 
before that generation was totally extinguished which had beheld 
his humble condition upon earth, and which might still witness 
the calamities of the Jews under Yespasian or Hadrian. The revolu 
tion of seventeen centuries has instructed us not to press too closely 
the mysterious language of prophecy and revelation ; but as long as 
this error was permitted to subsist in the church, it was productive 
of the most salutary effects on the faith and practice of Christians, 
who lived in the awful expectation of that moment when the globe 
itself and all the various races of mankind, should tremble at the 
appearance of their divine judge. This expectation was counte 
nanced as we have seen by the twenty-fourth chapter of St. 
Matthew, and by the first epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians. 
Erasmus (one of the most vigorous promoters of the Reformation) 
removes the difficulty by the help of allegory and metaphor y and 
the learned Grotius (a learned theologian of the 16th century) ven 
tures to insinuate, that, for wise purposes, tlie pious deception was 
permitted to take place. 

The ancient and popular doctrine of the millennium, was inti 
mately connected with the second coming of Christ Jesus. As the 
works of the creation had been fixed in six days, their duration in 
the present state, according to a tradition which was attributed to 
the prophet Elijah, was fixed to six thousand years? By the same 
analogy it was inferred, that this long period of labor and conten 
tion, which had now almost elapsed, would be succeeded by a joyful 
Sabbath of a thousand years, and that Christ Jesus, with the trium 
phant band of the saints and the elect who had escaped death, or who 
had been miraculously revived, would reign upon earth until the time 
appointed for the last and general resurrection. So pleasing was this 
hope to the mind of the believers, that the " New Jerusalem," the 

1 Over all the Higher Asia there seems to and was afterwards adopted by the Christians. 

have been diffused an immemorial tradition (II. Peter, iii. 9. Hist. Hindostau, vol. ii. pp. 

relative to a second grand convulsion of na- 498-500.) 

tare, and the final dissolution of the earth by 2 " And God made, in six days, the works of 

the terrible agency of FIRE, as the first is said his hands, ... the meaning of it is this ; 

to have been by that of WATER. It was that in six thousand years the Lord will bring 

taught by tin; Hindoos, the Egyptians, Plato, all things to an end." (Barnabas. Apoc. c. 

Pythagoras, Zoroaster, the Stoics, and others, xiii.) 


seat of this blissful kingdom, was quickly adorned with all the gay 
est colors of the imagination. A felicity consisting only of pure 
and spiritual pleasure would have been too refined for its in 
habitants, who were still supposed to possess their human nature 
and senses. A " Garden of Eden," with the amusements of the 
pastoral life, was no longer suited to the advanced state of society 
which prevailed under the Roman empire. A city was therefore 
erected of gold and precious stones, and a supernatural plenty of 
corn and wine was bestowed on the adjacent territory ; in the free 
enjoyment of whose spontaneous productions, the happy and benev 
olent people were never to be restrained by any jealous laws of ex 
clusive property. Most of these pictures were borrowed from a 
misrepresentation of Isaiah, Daniel, and the Apocalypse. One of 
the grossest images may be found in Irenaeus (1. v.) the disciple of 
Papias, who had seen the Apostle St. John. Though it might not 
be universally received, it appears to have been the reigning senti 
ment of the orthodox believers ; and it seems so well adapted to 
the desires and apprehensions of mankind, that it must have con 
tributed in a very considerable degree to the progress of the Chris 
tian faith. But when the edifice of the church was almost com 
pleted, the temporary support was laid aside. The doctrine of 
Christ Jesus reign upon earth was at first treated as a profound 
allegory, was considered by degrees as a doubtful and useless opin 
ion, and was at length rejected as the absurd invention of heresy 
and fanaticism. But although this doctrine had been " laid aside," 
and " rejected," it was again resurrected, and is alive and rife at 
the present day, even among those who stand as the leaders of the 
orthodox faith. 

The expectation of the " last day " in the year 1000 A. D., rein 
vested the doctrine with a transitory importance ; but it lost all 
credit again when the hopes so keenly excited by the crusades 
faded away before the stern reality of Saracenic success, and the 
predictions of the " Everlasting Gospel," a work of Joachim do 
Floris, a Franciscan abbot, remained unfulfilled. 1 

At the period of the Reformation, millenarianism once more 
experienced a partial revival, because it was not a difficult matter 

1 After the devotees aud followers of the Francis was " wholly and entirely transformed 

new gospel had in vain expected the Holy into the person of Christ "Totum Christo 

One who was to come, they at last pitched cor\figuratum. Some of them maintained that 

upon St. Francis as having been the expected the gospel of Joachim was expressly prefer- 

one, and, of course, the most surprising and red to the gospel of Christ. (Mosheim : Hist, 

absurd miracles were said to have been per- Cent., xiii. pt. ii. sects, xxxiv. and mvi. 

formed by him. Some of the fanatics who Auacalypsie, vol. i. p. 605,) 
believed in this man, maintained that St. 



to apply some of its symbolism to the papacy. The Pope, for ex 
ample, was Antichrist a belief still adhered to by some extreme 
Protestants. Yet the doctrine was not adopted by the great body 
of the reformers, but by some fanatical sects, such as the Anabaptists, 
and by the Theosophists of the seventeenth century. 

During the civil and religions wars in France and England, 
when great excitement prevailed, it was also prominent. The 
" Fifth Monarchy Men " of Cromwell s time were millenarians of the 
most exaggerated and dangerous sort. Their peculiar tenet was that 
the millennium had come, and that they were the saints who were 
to inherit the earth. The excesses of the French Roman Catholic 
Mystics and Quietists terminated in chiliastic 1 views. Among the 
Protestants it was during the " Thirty Years War " that the most en 
thusiastic and learned chiliasts flourished. The awful suffering and 
wide-spread desolation of that time led pious hearts to solace them 
selves with the hope of a peaceful and glorious future. Since then 
the penchant which has sprung up for expounding the prophetical 
books of the Bible, and particularly the Apocalypse^ with a view to 
present events, has given the doctrine a faint semi-theological life, 
very different, however, from the earnest faith of the first Christians. 

Among the foremost chiliastic teachers of modern centuries are 
to be mentioned Ezechiel Meth, Paul Felgenhauer, Bishop Co- 
menius, Professor Jurien, Seraris, Poiret, J. Mede ; while Thomas 
Burnet and William Whiston endeavored to give chiliasm a geolog 
ical foundation, but without finding much favor. Latterly, es 
pecially since the rise and extension of missionary enterprise, the 
opinion has obtained a wide currency, that after the conversion of 
the whole world to Christianity, a blissful and glorious era will en 
sue ; but not much stress except by extreme literalists is now 
laid on the nature or duration of this far off felicity. 

Great eagerness, and not a little ingenuity have been exhibited 
by many persons in fixing a date for the commencement of the 
millennium. The celebrated theologian, Johann Albrecht Bengel, 
who, in the eighteenth century, revived an earnest interest in the 
subject amongst orthodox Protestants, asserted from a study of the 
prophecies that the millennium would begin in 1836. This date 
was long popular. Swedenborg held that the last judgment took 
jplaiie in 1757, and that the new church, or "Church of the New 
Jerusalem" as his followers designate themselves in other words, 
the millennial era then ~began. 

1 Chiliasm the thousand years when Satan is bound. 


In America, considerable agitation was excited by the prea3hing 
of one William Miller, who fixed the second advent of Christ 
Jesus about 1843. Of late years, the most noted English millen- 
arian was Dr. John Gumming, who placed the end of the present 
dispensation in 1866 or 1867 ; but as that time passed without 
any millennial symptoms, he modified his original views consider 
ably, before he died, and conjectured that the beginning of 
the millennium would not differ so much after all from the 
years immediately preceding it, as people commonly suppose. 



ACCORDING to Christian dogma, " God the Father " is not to be 
the judge at the last day, but this very important office is to be 
held by " God the Sou. " This is taught by the writer of " The 
Gospel according to St. John" whoever he may have been 
when lie says : 

"For the Father judgeth no man, but hath committed all judgment unto the 
Son." 1 

Paul also, in his "Epistle to the Romans" (or some other person 
who has interpolated the passage), tells us that : 

" In the day when God shall judge the secrets of men," this judgment shall 
be done "by Jesus Chrixt" his son. 8 

Again, in his "Epistle to Timothy," 8 he says: 

" The Lord Jesus Christ shall judge the quick and the dead, at his appearing 
and his kingdom." 4 

The writer of the " Gospel according to St. Matthew," also de 
scribes Christ Jesus as judge at the last day. 6 

Now, the question arises, is this doctrine original with Chris 
tianity f To this we must answer no. It was taught, for ages be 
fore the time of Christ Jesus or Christianity, that the Supreme 
Being whether "Brahma," "Zeruane Akerene," "Jupiter," 
or " Yahweh," 6 was not to be the judge at the last day, but that 
their sons were to hold this position. 

The sectarians of Buddha taught that he (who was the Son of 
God (Brahma) and the Holy Virgin Maya), is to be the judge of the 
dead. 7 

i John, v. 22. Matt, xxv. 31-46. 

3 Romans, ii. 16. 6 Through an error we pronounce this 

8 Not authentic. (See The Bible of To-Day, name Jehovah. 

p. 212.) i See Dnputa : Origin of Religious Relief, p 

< II. Timothy, iv. 1. 366. 



According to the religion of the Hindoos, Orishna (who was 
the Son of God, and the Holy Virgin Devaki), is to be the judge 
at the last day. 1 And Yama is the god of the departed spirits, 
and the judge of the dead, according to the Vedas? 

Osiris, the Egyptian " Saviour " and son of the u Immaculate 
Virgin " Neith or Nout, was believed by the ancient Egyptians to 
be the judge of the dead. 8 He is represented on Egyptian monu 
ments, seated on his throne of judgment, bearing a staff, and car 
rying the crux ansata, or cross with a handle.* 8t. Andrew s 
cross is upon his breast. His throne is in checkers, to denote the 
good and evil over which he presides, or to indicate the good and 
evil who appear before him as the judge." 5 

Among the many hieroglyphic titles which accompany his figure 
in these sculptures, and in many other places on the walls of tem 
ples and tombs, are "Lord of Life," " The Eternal Ruler," "Muni- 
fester of Good," " Revealer of Truth," " Full of Goodness and 
Truth," &c. - 

Mr. Bonwick, speaking of the Egyptian belief in the last judg 
ment, says : 

" A perusal of the twenty-fifth chapter of Matthew will prepare the reader 
for the investigation of the Egyptian notion of the last judgment. " 1 

Prof. Carpenter, referring to the Egyptian Bible which is by 
far the most ancient of all holy books 8 says : 

"In the Book of the Dead, there are used the very phrases we find in the 
New Testament, in connection with t/ie day of judgment." 9 

According to the religion of the Persians, it is Ormuzd, "The 
First Born of the Eternal One" who is judge of the dead. He 
had the title of "The All-Seeing," and "The Just Judge." 10 

Zeruane Akerene is the name of him who corresponds to " God 
the Father " among other nations. He was the " One Supreme 
essence," the "Invisible and Incomprehensible." 11 

Among the ancient Greeks, it was Aeacus Son of the Most 
High God who was to be judge of the dead. 13 

The Christian Emperor Constantino, in his oration to the clergy, 
speaking of the ancient poets of Greece, says : 

1 See Samuel Johnson s Oriental Religions, 6 See Bomvick s Egyptian Belief, p. 151. 

p. 504. See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 154.- 

a See Williams 1 Hinduism, p. 25. T Egyptian Belief, p. 419. 

8 See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 120. 8 See Ibid, p 185. 

Renouf : Religions of the Ancient Egyptians, Quoted in Ibid p. 419. 

p. 110, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 152. 10 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 259. 

See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 151, Ibid. p. 258. 

and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 152. n See Bell s Pantheon, vol. li. p. 18. 


"They affirm that men who are the sons of the gods, do judge departed 
souls." 1 

Strange as it may seem, " there are no examples of Christ 
Jesus conceived as judge, or the last judgment, in the early art 
of Christianity." 3 

The author from whom we quote the above, says, " It would be 
difficult to define the cause of this, though many may be con 

Would it be un reasonable to " conjecture" that the early Chris 
tians did not teach this doctrine, but that it was imbibed, in after 
years, with many other heathen ideas ? 

i Conetantme s Oration to the Clergy, ch. x. vol. 11. p. 392. 
> Jameson : History of Our Lord in Art, * Ibid. 



CHRISTIAN dogma also teaches that it was not " God the Father," 
ant " God the Sou " who created the heavens, the earth, and all 
that therein is. 

The writer of the fourth Gospel says : 

All things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that 
was made." 1 

Again : 

" He was in the world and the world was made by him, and the world knew 
him not." 8 

In the " Epistle to the Colossians," we read that : 

"By Am were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth, 
visible and invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or 
powers; all things were created by him. s 

Again, in the " Epistle to the Hebrews," we are told that : 

" God hath spoken unto us by his son, whom he hath appointed heir of all 
things, by whom also he made tJie world."* 

Samuel Johnson, D. O. Allen, 6 and Thomas Maurice," telt us 
that, according to the religion of the Hindoos, it is Crishna, the 
Son, and the second person in the ever-blessed Trinity, 7 " who is the 
origin and end of all the worlds ; all tMs universe came into being 
through him, the eternal maker"* 

In the holy book of the Hindoos, called the "Bhagvat Geeta] 
may be found the following words of Crishna, addressed to his 
" beloved disciple " Ar-jouan : 

" I am the Lord of all created beings." 9 "Mankind icas created by me of four 
kinds, distinct in their principles, and in their duties; know me then to fo th* 
Creator of mankind, uncreated, and without decay." 10 

i John, i. 3. Indian Antiq., vol. ii. p. 288. 

3 John, i. 10. T See the chapter on the Trinity. 

Colossinna, i. Oriental Religions, p. 502. 

* Hebrews, i. 2. Lecture iv. p. 51, 

Allen s India, pp. 137 and 880. Gteeta, p. 52. 



In Lecture YIL, entitled : " Of the Principles of Nature, and the 
Yital Spirit," he also says : 

"I am the creation and the dissolution of the whole universe. There is not 
anything greater than I, and all things hang on me." 

Again, in Lecture IX., entitled, " Of the Chief of Secrets and 
Prince of Science," Crishna says : 

" The whole world was spread abroad by me in my invisible form. All 
things are dependent on me." " I um the Father and the Mother of this world, 
the Grandsire and the Preserver. I am the Holy One worthy to be known; the 
mystic figure OM. l . . . I am the journey of the good; the Comforter ; 
the Creator; the Witness; the Resting-place; the Asylum and the Friend."* 

In Lecture X., entitled. " Of the diversity of the Divine Nature," 
he says: 

" I am the Creator of all things, and all things proceed from me. Those 
who are endued with spiritual wisdom, believe this and worship me; their very 
hearts and minds are in me; they rejoice amongst themselves, and delight in 
speaking of my name, and teaching one another my doctrine." 3 

Innumerable texts, similar to these, might be produced from the 
Hindoo Scriptures, but these we deem sufficient to show, in the 
words of Samuel Johnson quoted above, that, " According to the. 
religion of the Hindoos, it is Crishna who is the origin and the end 
of all the worlds ;" and that " all this universe came into being 
through him, the Eternal Maker." The Chinese believed in One 
Supreme God, to whose honor they burnt incense, but of whom they 
had no image. This " God the Father " was not the Creator, ac 
cording to their theology or mythology; but they had another god, 
of whom they had statues or idols, called Natigcbi, who was the- 
god of allterrestrial things ; in fact, God, the Creator of this world 
inferior or subordinate to the Supreme Being from whom they 
petition for line weather, or whatever else they want a sort of 

Lanthu, who was born of a " pure, spotless virgin," is believed 
by his followers or disciples to be the Creator of all things ; 6 and 
Taou, a deified hero, who is mentioned about 560 B. c., is believed 
by some sects and affirmed by their books, to be " the original source 
and first productive cause of all things." 6 

In the Chaldean oracles, the doctrine of the " Only Begotten 
Son," I A O, as Creator, is plainly taught. 

1 O. M. or A. U. M. is the Hindoo ineffable 2 Geeta, p. 80. 

name ; the mystic emblem of the deity. It is 8 Geeta, p. 84. 

never uttered aloud, but only mentally by the * See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol i. p. 48. 

devout. It signifies Brahma, Vishnou, and 6 See Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. p. 35. 

Siva, the Hindoo Trinity. (See Charles Wilkes 9 See Davis : Hist. China, vol. ii. pp. 109 and 
in Geeta, p. 142, and King s Gnostics and their 113, and Thornton, vol. i. p. 137. 
Bemains, p. 163.) 


According to ancient Persian mythology, there is one supreme 
essence, invisible and incomprehensible, named " Zerudne Ake- 
rene" which signifies " unlimited time," or " the eternal." From 
him emanated Ormuzd, t\\Q " King of Light," the " First-born of the 
Eternal One," &c. Now, this " First-born of the Eternal One " is 
he by whom all things were made, all things came into being 
through him ; he is the Creator. 1 

A large portion of the Zend-Avesta the Persian Sacred Book or 
Bible is tilled with prayers to Ormuzd, God s First-Born. The 
following are samples : 

"I address my prayer to Ormuzd, Creator of all things; who always has 
been, who is, and who will be forever; who is wise ami powerful; who made 
the great arch of heaven, the sun, the moon, stars, winds, clouds, waters, earth, 
tire, trees, animals and men, whom Zoroaster adored. Zoroaster, who brought 
to the world knowledge of the law, who knew by natural intelligence, and by 
the ear, what ought to be done, all that has been, all that is, and all that will be; 
the science of sciences, the excellent word, by which souls pass the luminous and 
radiant bridge, separate themselves from the evil regions, and go to light and 
holy dwellings, full of fragrance. Creator, I obey thy laws, I think, act, speak, 
according to thy orders. I separate myself from all sin. I do good works 
according to my power. I adore thee with purity of thought, word, and action. 
I pray to Ormuzd, who recompenses good works, who delivers unto the end all 
those who obey his laws. Grant that I may arrive at paradise, where all is fra 
grance, light, and happiness." 2 

According to the religion of the ancient Assyrians, it was Nar- 
duk, the Logos, the WORD, " the eldest son of Hea," " the Merciful 
One," " the Life-giver," &c., who created the heavens, the earth, and 
all that therein is." 

Adonis, the Lord and Saviour, was believed to be the Creator of 
men, and god of the resurrection of the dead. 4 

Prometheus, the Crucified Saviour, is the divine forethought, 
existing before the souls of men, and the creator Hominium.* 

The writer of "The Gospel according to St. John," has made 
Christ Jesus co-eternal with God, as well as Creator, in these words : 

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God." The 
same was in the beginning with God." 6 

Again, in praying to his Father, he makes Jesus say : 
" And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory 
which 1 had with thee before the world was." 1 

1 See Prog. Rclig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 259. In a Quoted in Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 

the most ancient parts of the Zend-Avesta, 207. 

Ormuzd is said to have created the world by 3 See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 404. 

his WORD. (See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 4 See Dunlap e Mysteries of Adoni, p. 156. 

101. and Gibbon s Rome, vol. ii. p. 302, Note 6 See Ibid. p. 150, and Bulflnch, Age of 

by Guizot.) In the beginning was the WORD, Fablt-. 
and the WORD was with God, and the WORD was Johu, i. 1, 2. 

God." (John, i. 1.) 7 John, xvii. 5. 

250 BIBLE 2IYTH3. 

Paul is made to say : 
" And lie (Christ) is before all things." 1 

Again : 
" Jesus Christ, the same yesterday, to-day, and forever."* 

St. John the Divine, in his " Revelation," has made Christ 
Jesus say : 

"I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end" "which is, and 
which was, and which is to come, the Almighty," 3 " the first and the last." 4 

Hindoo scripture also makes Crishna " the first and the last," 
tf the beginning and the end." We read in the " Geeta," where 
Orishna is reported to have said : 

"I myself never was not." 5 "Learn that he by whom all things wera 
formed" (meaniug himself) "is incorruptible." 6 "I am eternity and non- 
eternity." 7 " I am before all things, and the mighty ruler of the universe." 8 " I 
am the beginning, the middle and the end of all things. " 9 

Arjouan, his disciple, addresses him thus : 

" Thou art the Supremo Being, incorruptible, worthy to be known; thou art 
prime supporter of the universal orb; thou art the never-failing and eternal 
guardian of religion; thou art from all beginning, and I esteem thee." 10 Thou 
art " the Divine Being, before all other gods." 11 

Again he says : 

" Reverence ! Reverence be unto thee, before and behind 1 Reverence be 
unto thee on all sides, O thou who art all in all I Infinite in thy power and thy 
glory 1 Thou includest all things, wherefore thou art all things." 18 

In another Holy Book of the Hindoos, called the " Vishnu. 
Pumna," we also read that Yishnu in the form of Crishna 
" who descended into the womb of ths (virgin) Devaki, and was 
born as her son" was "without beginning, middle or end." 1 

Buddha is also Alpha and Omega, without beginning or end, 
u The Lord," " the Possessor of All," "He who is Omnipotent and 
Everlastingly to be Contemplated," "the Supreme Being, the 
Eternal One." 14 

Lao-lciun, the Chinese virgin-born God, who came upon earth 
about six hundred years before Jesus, was without beginning. It 
was said that he had existed from all eternity." 

Col. i. 17. 9 Lecture x. p. 85. 

a Hebrews, xiii. 8. l Lecture ix. p. 91 

* Rev. i. 8, 22, 13. Lecture x. p. 84. 

Rev. i, 17 ; xii. 13. IS Lecture xi. p. 95. 

Geeta, p. 35. v 13 See Vishnu Purana, Jh-440. 
Geeta, p. 36. M See chapter xii. 

r Lecture ix. p. 80. * 5 See Prog. Relig, Ideas, vol. I. p. SCXX 

8 Lecture x. p. 83. 


The legends of the Taou-tsze sect in China declare their 
founder to have existed antecedent to the birth of the elements, in 
the Great Absolute ; that he is the "pure essence of the teen;" 
that he is the original ancestor of the prime breath of life ; that he 
gave form to the heavens and the earth, and caused creations and 
annihilations to succeed each other, in an endless series, during in 
numerable periods of the world. lie himself is made to say : 

" I was in existence prior to the manifestation of any corporeal shape; I ap 
peared anterior to the supreme being, or first motion of creation." 1 

According to the Zend Avesta, Ormuzd, the first-born of the 
Eternal One, is he " who is, always has been, and who will be for 
ever." 3 

Zeus was Alpha and Omega. An Orphic line runs thus : 

"Zeus is the beginning, Zeus the middle, out of Zeus all things have been 
made." 3 

Bacchus was without beginning or end. An inscription on an 
ancient medal, referring to him, reads thus : 

" It is I who leads you; it is I who protects you, and who saves you. I am 
Alpha and Omega." 

Beneath this inscription is a serpent with his tail in his mouth, 
thus forming a circle, which was an emblem of eternity among the 

Without enumerating them, we may say that the majority of 
the virgin -born gods spoken of in Chapter XII. were like Chrisi 
Jesus without beginning or end and that many of them were 
considered Creators of all things. This has led M. Dridon to 
remark (in his Hist, de Dieu), that in early works of art, Christ 
Jesus is made to take the place of his Father in creation and in 
similar labors, just as in heathen religions an inferior deity does 
the work under a superior one. 

i Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. p. 137. Greques THE, qai sont le nombre 3G5. Le eer- 

Prog. Relig. Ideas, il. p. 2G7. p en t, qui est ordinnire un embleme de reternitS 

Muller s Chips, vol. li. p. 15. egt ici celui de eoleil ct de Se8 revolutions." 

< "C estmoi qui vous conduis, vous et tout Bean8obre . U iet. de Maiii.-hc-t-. Ton,, ii. 

ce qui vous regarde. C est moi, qui vous con- p ^g 

serve, ou qui vous eauve. Jc suis Alpha et ,, j say that l am immorUU , D iouj>u 8 

Omega. II y a au dcssous de Tinscription nn (BacchU s) son of Di-iis." i Aristophanes, in 

erpeut qui tient sa queue dans 6 a gueule et MyBt> of Adoni , pp . w , ;ilui ]0 5.) 
dans la cercle qu il decrit, cest trois lettre 



THE legendary history of Jesus of Nazareth, contained in the 
books of the New Testament, is full of prodigies and wonders. 
These alleged prodigies, and the faith which the people seem to 
have put in such a tissue of falsehoods, indicate the prevalent dis 
position of the people to believe in everything, and it was among 
such a class that Christianity was propagated. All leaders of relig 
ion had the reputation of having performed miracles ; the biogra 
phers of Jesus, therefore, not wishing their Master to be outdone, 
have made him also a wonder-worker, and a performer of miracles ; 
without them Christianity could not prosper. Miracles were needed 
in those days, on all special occasions. " There is not a single his 
torian of antiquity, whether Greek or Latin, who has not recorded 
oracles, prodigies, prophecies, and miracles, on the occasion of some 
memorable events, or revolutions of states and kingdoms. Many of 
these are attested in the gravest manner by the gravest writers, and 
were firmly believed at the time by the people " l 

Hindoo sacred books represent Crishna, their Saviour and Re 
deemer, as in constant strife against the evil spirit. He surmounts 
extraordinary dangers ; strews his way with miracles ; raising the 
dead, healing the sick, restoring the maimed, the deaf and the blind ; 
everywhere supporting the weak against the strong, the oppressed 
against the powerful. The people crowded his way and adored 
him as a GOD, and these miracles were the evidences of his divin 
ity for centuries before the time of Jesus. 

The learned Thomas Maurice, speaking of Crishna, tells us that 
he passed his innocent hours at the home of his foster-father, in 
rural diversions, his divine origin not being suspected, until repeated 
miracles soon discovered his celestial origin; 1 and Sir "William 
Jones speaks of his raising the dead, and saving multitudes by his 

i Dr. Conyers Middleton : Free Enquiry, p. 177. a Indian Antiquities, vol. iii. p. 46, 


miraculous powers. 1 To enumerate the miracles of Crishna would 
be useless and tedious ; we shall therefore mention but a few, of 
which the Hindoo sacred books are teeming. 

When Crishna was born, his life was sought by the reigning 
monarch, Kansa, who had the infant Saviour and his father and 
mother locked in a dungeon, guarded, and barred by seven iron 
doors. While in this dungeon the father heard a secret voice dis 
tinctly utter these words : " Son of Yadu, take up this child and 
carry it to Gokool, to the house of Nanda." Vasudeva, struck with 
astonishment, answered : " How shall I obey this injunction, thus 
vigilantly guarded and barred by seven iron doors that prohibit 
all egress ?" The unknown voice replied : " The doors shall open 
of themselves to let tliee pass, and behold, I have caused a deep 
slumber to fall upon thy guards, which shall continue till thy jour 
ney be accomplished." Vasudeva immediately felt his chains mirac 
ulously loosened, and, taking up the child in his arms, hurried 
with it through all the doors, the guards being buried in profound 
sleep. When he came to the river Yumna, which he was obliged 
to cross to get to Gokool, the waters immediately rose up to kiss 
the child s feet, and then respectfully retired on each side to make 
way for its transportation, so that Vasudeva passed dry-shod to the 
opposite shore. 3 

When Crishna came to man s estate, one of his first miracles 
was the cure of a leper. 

A passionate Brahman, having received a slight insult from a 
certain Rajah, on going out of his doors, uttered this curse : " That 
he should, from head to foot, be covered with boils and leprosy ;" 
which being fulfilled in an instant upon the unfortunate king, he 
prayed to Crishna to deliver him from his evil. At first, Crishna 
did not heed his request, but finally he appeared to him, asking 
what his request was? He replied, "To be freed from my dis 
temper." The Saviour then cured him of his distemper. 8 

Crishna was one day walking with his disciples, when " they 
met a poor cripple or lame woman, having a vessel filled with 
spices, sweet-scented oils, sandal- wood, saffron, civet and other per 
fumes. Crishna making a halt, she made a certain sign with her 
finger on his forehead, casting the rest upon his head. Crishna ask 
ing her what it was she would request of him, the woman replied, 
nothing but the use of my limbs. Crishna, then, setting his foot upon 
hers, and taking her by the hand, raised her from the ground, and not 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 237. 2 Hist. Hiudostan, vol. ii. p. 331. Ibid. p. 319. 


only restored her limbs, but renewed her age, so that, instead of a 
wrinkled, tawny skin, she received a fresh and fair one in an in 
stant. At her request, Crishna and his company lodged in her 
house." 1 

On another occasion, Crishna having requested a learned Brah 
man to ask of him whatever boon he most desired, the Brahman said, 
" Above all things, I desire to have my two dead sons restored to 
life." Crishna assured him that this should be done, and immedi 
ately the two young men were restored to life and brought to their 
father. 9 

The learned Orientalist, Thomas Maurice, after speaking of the 
miracles performed by Crishna, says : 

"In regard to the numerous miracles wrought by Crishna, it should be re 
membered that miracles are never wanting to the decoration of an Indian 
romance; they are, in fact, the life and soul of the vast machine; nor is it at all 
a subject of wonder that the dead should be raised to life in a history expressly 
intended, like all other sacred fables of Indian fabrication, for the propagation 
and support of the whimsical doctrine of the Metempsychosis." 3 

To speak thus of the miracles of Christ Jesus, would, of course, 
be heresy although what applies to the miracles of Crishna apply 
to those of Jesus we, therefore, find this gentleman branding as 
"mfidd" a learned French orientalist who was guilty of doing this 

BuddJia performed great miracles for the good of mankind, and 
the legends concerning him are full of the most extravagant prodi 
gies and wonders. 4 "By miracles and preaching," says Burnouf, 
" was the religion of Buddha established." 

K. Spence Hardy says of Buddha : 

" All the principal events of his life are represented as being attended by in 
credible prodigies. He could pass through the air at will, and know the 
thoughts of all beings." 6 

Prof. Max Muller says : 

"The Buddhist legends teem with miracles attributed to Buddha and his 
disciples miracles which in wonderfulness certainly surpass the miracles of any 
other religion." 6 

Buddha was at one time going from the city of Rohita-vastu to 
the city of Benares, when, coming to the banks of the river Ganges, 
and wishing to go across, he addressed himself to the owner of a 

1 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 320. Vishnu ern Monachism. Beal s Romantic Hist. 
Parana, bk. v. ch. xx. Buddha. Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, and Hue s 

2 Prog, Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 68. Travels, &c. 

8 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 269. 6 Hardy : Buddhist Legends, pp. xxi. xxii. 

4 See Hardy s Buddhist Legends, and East- The Science of Religion, p. 27. 


terry ooat, thus; "Hail! respectable sir! I pray yen take me 
across the river in your boat !" To this the boatman replied, " If you 
can pay me the fare, I will willingly take you across the river." 
Buddha said, " Whence shall I procure money to pay you your fare, 
I, who have given up all worldly wealth and riches, &c." The 
boatman still refusing to take him across, Buddha, pointing to a 
flock of geese flying from the south to the north banks of the Gan 
ges, said : 

" See yonder geese in fellowship passing o er the Ganges, 

They ask not as to fare of any boatman, 

But each by his inherent strength of body 

Flies through the air as pleases him. 

So, by my power of spiritual energy, 

Will I transport myself across the river, 

Even though the waters on this southern bank 

Stood up as high and firm as (Mount) Semeru." 1 

He then floats through the air across the stream. 

In the Lalita Vistara Buddha is called the " Great Physician" 
who is to " dull all human pain." At his appearance the " sick are 
healed, the deaf are cured, the blind see, the poor are relieved." 
He visits the sick man, Su-ta, and heals soul as well as body. 

At Vaisali, a pest like modern cholera was depopulating the king 
dom, due to an accumulation of festering corpses. Buddha, sum 
moned, caused a strong rain which carried away the dead bodies and 
cured every one. At Gaudhara was an old mendicant afllicted with a 
disease so loathsome that none of his brother monks could go near 
him on account of his fetid humors and stinking condition. The 
" Great Physician " was, however, not to be deterred ; he washed the 
poor old man and attended to his maladies. A disciple had his feet 
hacked off by an unjust king, and Buddha cured even him. To 
convert certain skeptical villagers near Sravasti, Buddha showed 
them a man walking across the deep and rapid river without im 
mersing his feet. Puma, one of Buddha s disciples, had a brother 
in imminent danger of shipwreck in a " black storm." The " spirits 
that are favorable to Purna and Arya " apprised him of this and he 
at once performed the miracle of transporting himself to the deck 
of the ship. " Immediately the black tempest ceased, as if Sumera 
arrested it." 2 

When Buddha was told that a woman was suffering in severe 
labor, unable to bring forth, he said, Go and say : " I have never 
knowingly put any creature to death since I was born ; by the vir- 

1 Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 846, 247. det, pp. 186 aiid 192. Bournouf : Intro, p. 

3 Dhammapada, pp. 47, 50 and 90. Bigan- 156. In Lillie s Buddhism, pp. 139, 140. 


tue of tliis obedience may you be free from pain !" When these 
words were repeated in the presence of the mother, the child was 
instantly born with ease. 1 

Innumerable are the miracles ascribed to Buddhist saints, and 
to others who followed their example. Their garments, and the 
staffs with which they walked, are supposed to imbibe some myste 
rious power, and blessed are they who are allowed to touch them. 3 
A Buddhist saint who attains the power called "perfection" is 
able to rise and float along through the air. 3 Having this power, 
the bciiiit exorcises it by mere determination of his will, his body 
becoming imponderons, as when a man in the common human state 
determines to leap, and leaps. Buddhist annals relate the perform 
ance of the miraculous suspension by Gautama Buddha, himself, 
as well as by other saints* 

In the year 217 B. c., a Buddhist missionary priest, called by 
the Chinese historians Shih-le-fang, came from " the west " into 
Shan-se, accompanied by eighteen other priests, with their sacred 
books, in order to propagate the faith of Buddha. The emperor, 
disliking foreigners and exotic customs, imprisoned the missiona 
ries ; but an angel, genii, or spirit, came and opened the prison door, 
and liberated them.* 

Here is a third edition of " Peter in prison," for we have already 
seen that the Hindoo sage Vasudeva was liberated from prison in 
like manner. 

Zoroaster, the founder of the religion of the Persians, opposed 
his persecutors by performing miracles, in order to confirm his di 
vine mission. 6 

Bochia of the Persians also performed miracles ; the places 
where he performed them were consecrated, and people flocked in 
crowds to visit them. 7 

Ilorus, the Egyptian Saviour, performed great miracles, among 
which was that of raising the dead to life. 8 

Osiris of Egypt also performed great miracles ; 9 and so did the 
virgin goddess Isis. 

Pilgrimages were made to the temples of Isis, in Egypt, by the 
sick. Diodorus, the Grecian historian, says that : 

1 Hardy : Manual of Buddhism. See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, 

2 See Prog. Relig. Ideae, vol. i. p. 229. p. 240, and Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 

3 See Tylor : Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 135, 460. 

and Hardy : Buddhist Legends, pp. 98, 126, 137. 7 See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 34, 

4 See Tylor : Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 8 See Ltmdy : Monumental Christianity, pp. 
135. 303-405. 

Thornton : Hist. China, vol. i. p. 341. See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief. 


"Those who go to consult in dreams the goddess Isis recover perfect health. 
Many whose cure has been despaired of by physicians have by this means been 
saved, and others who have long been deprived of sight, or of some other jart of 
the body, by taking refuge, so to speak, in the arms of the goddess, have been 
restored to the enjoyment of their faculties." 1 

Serapis, the Egyptian Saviour, performed great miracles, prin 
cipally those of healing the sick, lie was called " The Healer of 
the World." 2 

Marduk, the Assyrian God, the " Logos," the " Eldest Son of 
Hea ;" " lie who made Heaven and Earth ;" the " Merciful One ;" 
the Life-Giver," &c., performed great miracles, among which was 
that of raisins: the dead to life. 3 


Bacchus, son of Zeus by the virgin Semele, was a great per 
former of miracles, among which may be mentioned his changing 
water into wine, 4 as it is recorded of Jesus in the Gospels. 

" In his gentler aspects he is the giver of joy, the healer of sick 
nesses, the guardian against plagues. As such he is even a law-giver 
and a promoter of peace and concord. As kindling new or strange 
thoughts in the mind, he is a giver of wisdom and the revealer of 
hidden secrets of the future." 5 

The legends related of this god state that on one occasion Pan- 
theus, King of Thebes, sent his attendants to seize Bacchus, the 
" vagabond leader of a faction " as he called him. This they 
were unable to do, as the multitude who followed him were too 
numerous. They succeeded, however, in capturing one of his dis 
ciples, Acetes, who was led away and shut up fast in prison ; but 
while they were getting ready the instruments of execution, the 
prison doors came open of their own accord, and the chains fell 
from his limbs, and when they looked for him he was nowhere to 
be found. 8 Here is still another edition of "Peter in prison." 

^Esculapius was another great performer of miracles. The 
ancient Greeks said of him that he not only cured the sick of the 
most malignant diseases, but even raised the dead. 

Quoted by Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. " On the morrow the company returned, and 

Belief, vol. i. p. 397. after every man had looked upon his own seal, 

2 See Prichard s Mythology, p. 347. and seen that it was unbroken, the doors being 

9 See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 404. opened, the vessels were found full of wine." 

4 See Dupuis : Origin of Religious Belief, The god himself is said to have appeared in 

258, and Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 102. Compare person and filled the vessels. (Bell s Pantheon.) 

John, ii. 7. Cox : Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 295. 

A Grecian festival called THTIA was ob- 8 Bulfinch : The Age of Fable, p. 225. 

served by the Eleans in honor of Bacchus. The "And they laid their hands on the apostles, 

priests conveyed three empty vessels into a and put them in the common prison ; but the 

chapel, in the presence of a large assembly, angel of the Lord by night opened the prison 

after which the doors were shut and sealed. doors, and brought them forth." (Acts, T. 

18, 19.) 



A writer in Bell s Pantheon says : 

" As the Greeks always carried the encomiums of their great men beyond the 
truth, so they feigned that ^Esculapius was so expert in medicine as not only to 
cure the sick, but even to raise the dead." 1 

Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian, speaking of ^Esculapius, 

"He sometimes appeared unto them (the Cilicians) in dreams and visions, 
and sometimes restored the sick to health." 

He claims, however, that this was the work of the DEVIL, 
"who by this means did withdraw the minds of men from the 
knowledge of the true SAVIOUR."" 

For many years after the death of .zEsculapius, miracles contin 
ued to be performed by the efficacy of faith in his name. Patients 
were conveyed to the temple of ^Esculapius, and there cured of 
their disease. A short statement of the symptoms of each case, and 
the remedy employed, were inscribed on tablets and hung up in the 
temples. 3 There were also a multitude of eyes, ears, hands, feet, 
and other members of the human body, made of wax, silver, or 
gold, and presented by those whom the god had cured of blindness, 
deafness, and other diseases." 

Marinus, a scholar of the philosopher Proclus, relates one of 
these remarkable cures, in the life of his master. He says : 

" Asclipigenia, a young maiden who had lived with her parents, was seized 
with a grievous distemper, incurable by the physicians. All help from the phy 
sicians failing, the father applied to the philosopher, earnestly entreating him to 
pray for his daughter. Proclus, full of faith, went to the temple of ^Esculapius, 
intending to pray for the sick young woman to the god for the city (Athens) 
was at that time blessed in him, and still enjoyec the undemolished temple of 
THE SAVIOUR but while he was praying, a sudden change appeared in the dam 
sel, and she immediately became convalescent, for the Saviour, ^Esculapius, as 
being God, easily healed her." 6 

Dr. Conyers Middleton says : 

" Whatever proof the primitive (Christian) Church might have among them 
selves, of the miraculous gift, yet it could have but little effect towards making 
proselytes among those who pretended to the same gift possessed more largely 
and exerted more openly, than in the private assemblies of the Christians. For 
in the temples of ^Esculapms, all kinds of diseases were believed to be publicly 
cured, by the pretended help of that deity, in proof of which there were erected 
in each temple, columns or tables of brass or marble, on which a distinct narra 
tive of each particular cure was inscribed. Pausanias 6 writes that in the temple 

i Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 28. 8 Murray : Manual of Mythology, pp. 179, 

3 Eusebius : Life of Constantine, lib. 3, ch. 180. 
hv. * See Prog. Relig, Ideas, vol. i. p. 304. 

" ^Exculapius, the son of Apollo, was en- 6 Marinus : Quoted in Taylor s Diegeeis, p. 

dowed by his father with such skill in the 151. 

healing art that he even restored the dead to 8 Pansanias was one of the most eminent 

life." (Bulflnch: The Age of Fable, p 240.) Greek geographers and historians. 


at Epidaurus there were many columns anciently of this kind, and six of them 
remaining to his time, inscribed with the names of men and women who had been 
cured by the god, with an account of their several cases, and the method of their 
cure ; and that there was an old pillar besides, which stood apart, dedicated to 
the memory of Hippolytus, who had been raised from the dead. Strabo, also, an 
other grave writer, informs us that these temples were constantly filled with the 
sick, imploring the help of the god, and that they had tables hanging around 
them, in which all the miraculous cures were described. There is a remarkable 
fragment of one of these tables still extant, and exhibited by Gruter in his collec 
tion, as it was found in the ruins of JSsculapius s temple in the Island of the 
Tiber, in Rome, which gives an account of two blind men restored to sight by 
^Esculapius, in the open view, 1 and with the loud acclamation of the people, 
acknowledging the manifest power of the god." 4 

Livy, the most illustrious of Roman historians (born B. o. 61), 
tells us that temples of heathen gods were rich in the number of 
offerings which the people used to make in return for the cures 
and benefits which they received from them* 

A writer in BeWs Pantheon says : 

" Making presents to the gods was a custom even from the earliest times, 
either to deprecate their wrath, obtain some benefit, or acknowledge some favor. 
These donations consisted of garlands, garments, cups of gold, or whatever con 
duced to the decoration or splendor of their temples. They were sometimes laid 
on the floor, sometimes hung upon the walls, doors, pillars, roof, or any other 
conspicuous place. Sometimes the occasion of the dedication was inscribed, 
either upon the thing itself, or upon a tablet hung up with it." 4 

No one custom of antiquity is so frequently mentioned by an 
cient historians, as the practice which was so common among the 
heathens, of making votive offerings to their deities, and hanging 
them up in their temples, many of which are preserved to this day, 
viz., images of metal, stone, or clay, as well as legs, arms, and other 
parts of the body, in testimony of some divine cure effected in that 
particular member* 

Horace says : 

" Me tabula sacer 

Votiva" paries indicat humida 

Suspendisse potent! 

Vestimenta maris Deo." (Lib. 1, Ode V.) 

It was the custom of offering ex-votoa of Priapic forms, at the 
church of Isernia, in the Christian kingdom of Naples, during the 
last century, which induced Mr. R. Payne Knight to compile his 
remarkable work on Phallic Worship. 

1 " And when Jesus departed thence, two and their eyes were opened." (Matt. Ix. 27- 

blind men followed him, crying and eaying : 30.) 

thou son of David, have mercy on us. . . . * Middleton s Works, vol. i. pp. 63, 64. 

And Jesus said unto them : Believe ye that I Ibid. p. 48. 

am able to do this ? They said unto him, Yea 4 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 62. 

Lord. Then touched he their eyes, saying : 8 See Middleton a Letters from Borne, p. ft 

According to your faith be it unto you, 


Juvenal, who wrote A. D. 81-96, says of the goddess his, 
whose religion was at that time in the greatest vogue at Koine, that 
the painters get their livelihood out of her. This was because " the 
most common of all offerings (made by the heathen to their deities) 
werejpwtures presenting the history of the miraculous cure or de 
liverance, vouchsafed upon the vow of the donor." 1 One of their 
prayers ran thus : 

" Now, Goddess, help, for thou canst help bestow, 
As all these pictures round thy altars s7ww."* 

In Chambers s Encyclopedia may be found the following : 

" Patients that were cured of their ailments (by ^fflsculapius, or through faith 
in him) hung up a tablet in his temple, recording the name, the disease, and the 
manner of cure. Many of these votive tablets are still extant." 3 

Alexander S. Murray, of the department of Greek and Roman 
Antiquities in the British Museum, speaking of the miracles per 
formed by jEsculapius, says : 

" A person who had recovered from a local illness would dictate a sculptured 
representation of the part that had been affected. Of such sculptures there are 
a number of examples in the British Museum." 4 

Justin Martyr, in his Apology for the Christian religion, ad 
dressed to the Emperor Hadrian, says : 

" As to our Jesus curing the lame, and the paralytic, and such as were crip 
pled from birth, this is little more than what you say of your ^EJsculapius." 6 

At a time when the Romans were infested with the plague, 
having consulted their sacred books, they learned that in order to 
be delivered from it, they were to go in quest of ^Esculapius at 
Epidaurus ; accordingly, an embassy was appointed of ten senators, 
at the head of whom was Quintus Ogulnius, and the worship of 
JEsculapius was established at Rome, A. u. c. 462, that is, B. c. 288. 
But the most remarkable coincidence is that the worship of this 
god continued with scarcely any diminished splendor, for several 
hundred years after the establishment of Christianity. 6 

Hermes or Mercury, the Lord s Messenger, was a wonder-work 
er. The staff or rod which Hermes received from Phoibos (Apol- 

1 See Middleton s Letters from Rome, p. 76. Pantheon, vol. i. p. 29. 

2 "Nunc Dea, nunc traccurre mihi, nam "There were numerous oracles of ^Escu- 

posse mederi lapius, but the most celebrated one was at Epi- 

Picta docet temptes multa tabella tuie." daurus. Here the sick sought responses and 

(Horace : Tibull. lib. 1, Eleg. iii. In the recovery of their health by sleeping in the 

temple. . . . The worship of ^Esculapius 

3 Chambers s Encyclo., art. ".^Esculapius." was introduced into Rome in a time of great 

4 Murray : Manual of Mythology, p. 180. sickness, and an embassy sent to the temple 

5 Apol. 1, ch. xxii. Epidaurus to entreat the aid of the god." 
e Deane: Serp. Wor. p. 204. See also, Bell s (Bulfinch : The Age of Fable, p. 397.) 


lo), and which connects this myth with the special emblem of Vish 
nu (the Hindoo Saviour), was regarded as denoting his heraldic 
office. It was, however, always endowed with magic properties, and 
had the power even of raising the dead. 1 

Herodotus, the Grecian historian, relates a wonderful miracle 
which happened among the Spartans, many centuries before the 
time assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus. The story is as fol 
lows : 

A Spartan couple of great wealth and influence, had a daughter born to them 
who was a cripple from birth. Her nurse, perceiving that she was misshapen, 
and knowing her to be the daughter of opulent persons, and deformed, and see 
ing, moreover, that her parents considered her form a great misfortune, consid 
ering these several circumstances, devised the following plan. She carried her 
every day to the temple of the Goddess Helen, and standing before her image, 
prayed to the goddess to free the child from its deformity. One day, as the 
nurse was going out of the temple, a woman appeared to her, and having ap 
peared, asked what she was carrying in her arms; and she answered that she 
was carrying an infant; whereupon she bid her show it to her, but the nurse re 
fused, for she had been forbidden by the parents to show the child to any one. 
The woman, however who was none other than the Goddess herself urged 
her by all means to show it to her, and the nurse, seeing that the woman was so 
very anxious to see the child, at length showed it; upon which she, stroking the 
head of the child with her hands, said that she would surpass all the women in 
Sparta in beauty. From that day her appearance began to change, her deformed 
limbs became symmetrical, and when she reached the age for marriage she was 
the most beautiful woman in all Sparta. 3 

Apollonius of Tyana, in Cappadocia, who was born in the 
latter part of the reign of Augustus, about four years before the 
time assigned for the birth of Jesus, and who was therefore con 
temporary with him, was celebrated for the wonderful miracles he 
performed. Oracles in various places declared that he was endowed 
with a portion of Apollo s power to cure diseases, and foretell 
events ; and those who were affected were commanded to apply to 
him. The priests of lona made over the diseased to his care, and 
his cures were considered so remarkable, that divine honors were 
decreed to him. 8 

He at one time went to Ephesus, but as the inhabitants did not 
hearken to his preaching, he left there and went to Smyrna, where 
he was well received by the inhabitants. While there, ambassadors 

1 Aryan Mytho. vol. ii. p. 338. he was a sage, an impostor, or a fanatic." 

2 Herodotus: bk. vi. ch. 61. (Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. p. 353, note.) What 
8 See Philostratus: Vie d Apo. this learned historian says of Apollonius applies 

Gibbon, the historian, says of him : " Apol- to Jesus of Nazareth. His disciples have re- 

louius of Tyana, born about the same time as lated his life in so fabulous a manner, that 

Jesus Christ. His life (that of the former) is some consider him to have been an impostor, 

related in so fabulous a manner by his disci- othere a fanatic, others a sage, and others 

pies, that we are at a loss to discover whether GOD. 


came from Ephesus, begging him to return to that city, where a 
terrible plague was raging, as he had prophesied. He went imme 
diately, and as soon as he arrived, he said to the Ephesians : " Be 
not dejected, I will this day put a stop to the disease." According 
to his words, the pestilence was stayed, and the people erected a 
statue to him, in token of their gratitude. 1 

In the city of Athens, there was one of the dissipated young 
citizens, who laughed and cried by turns, and talked and sang to 
himself, without apparent cause. His friends supposed these habits 
were the effects of early intemperance, but Apollonius, who hap 
pened to meet the young man, told him he was possessed of a 
demon ; and, as soon as he fixed his eyes upon him, the demon 
broke out into all those horrid, violent expressions used by people 
on the rack, and then swore he would depart out of the youth, and 
never enter another. 8 The young man had not been aware that 
he was possessed by a devil, but from that moment, his wild, dis 
turbed looks changed, he became very temperate, and assumed the 
garb of a Pythagorean philosopher. 

Apollonius went to Rome, and arrived there after the emperor 
Nero had passed very severe laws against magicians. He was met 
on the way by a person who advised him to turn back and not enter 
the city, saying that all who wore the philosopher s garb were in 
danger of being arrested as magicians. He heeded not these words 
of warning, but proceeded on his way, and entered the city. It 
was not long before he became an object of suspicion, was closely 
watched, and finally arrested, but when his accusers appeared be 
fore the tribunal and unrolled the parchment on which the charges 
against him had been written, they found that all the characters had 
disappeared. Apollonius made such an impression on the magistrates 
by the bold tone he assumed, that he was allowed to go where he 
pleased. 3 

Many miracles were performed by him while in Rome, among 
others may be mentioned his restoring a dead maiden to life. 

She belonged to a family of rank, and was just about to be 
married, when she died suddenly. Apollonius met the funeral pro 
cession that was conveying her body to the tomb. He asked them 
to set down the bier, saying to her betrothed ; " I will dry up the 
tears you are shedding for this maiden." They supposed he was 
going to pronounce a funeral oration, but he merely took her hand, 
bent over her, and uttered a few words in a low tone. She opened 

i See Philostratus, p. 146. 2 Ibid. p. 158. 3 See Ibid. p. 18 


her eyes, and began to speak, and was carried back alive and well 
to her father s house. 1 

Passing through Tarsus, in his travels, a young man was pointed 
out to him who had been bitten thirty days before by a mad dog, 
and who was then running on all fours, barking and howling. 
Apollonius took his case in hand, and it was not long before the 
young man was restored to his right mind. 8 

Domitiaii, Emperor of Rome, caused Apollonius to be arrested, 
during one of his visits to that city, on charge of allowing himself 
to be worshiped (the people having given him divine honors), 
speaking against the reigning powers, and pretending that his words 
were inspired by the gods. He was taken, loaded with irons, and 
cast into prison. " I have bound you," said the emperor, " and 
you will not escape me." 

Apollonius was one day visited in his prison by his steadfast 
disciple, Damns, who asked him when he thought he should recover 
his liberty, whereupon he answered : " This instant, if it depended 
upon myself," and drawing his legs out of the shackles, he added : 
" Keep up your spirits, you see the freedom I enjoy." He was 
brought to trial not long after, and so defended himself, that the 
emperor was induced to acquit him, but forbade him to leave 
Home. Apollonius then addressed the emperor, and ended by 
saying : " You cannot kill me, because I am not mortal ;" and 
as soon as he had said these words, he vanisJied from the tribunal.* 
Damns (the disciple who had visited him in prison) had previously 
been sent away from Rome, with the promise of his master that 
he would soon rejoin him. Apollonius vanished from the presence 
of the emperor (at Rome) at noon. On the evening of the same 
day, he suddenly appeared before Damns and some other friends 
who were at Puteoli, more than a hundred miles from Rome. 
They started, being doubtful whether or not it was his spirit, but he 
stretched out his hand, saying: " Take it, and if I escape from you 
regard me as an apparition." 4 

1 Compare Matt. ix. 18-25. "There came in, and took her by the hand, and the maid 

a certain ruler and worshiped him, saying : arose. 11 

My daughter is even now dead, but come and a See Philostratus, pp. 285-286. 

lay thy hand upon her, and she shall live, * " He could render himself invisible, evoke 

And Jesus arose and followed him, and so did departed spirits, utter predictions, and discover 

his disciples. . . . And when Jesus came into the thoughts of other men." (Hardy : Eastern 

the ruler s house, and saw the minstrels and Monachism, p. 380.) 

the people making a noise, he said unto them: * "And as they thus spoke, Jesus himself 

Give peace, for the maid is not dead, but stood in the midst of them, and said unto 

Bleepeth. And they laughed him to scorn. them : Peace be unto you. But they were 

But when the people were put forth, he went terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they 


When Apollonius had told his disciples that he had made his 
defense in Rome, only a few hours before, they marveled how he 
could have performed the journey so rapidly. He, in reply, said 
that they must ascribe it to a god. 1 

The Empress Julia, wife of Alexander Severus, was so much 
interested in the history of Apollonius, that she requested Flavius 
Philostratus, an Athenian author of reputation, to write an account 
of him. The early Christian Fathers, alluding to this life of Apol 
lonius, do not deny the miracles it recounts, but attribute to them 
the aid of evil spirits. 9 

Justin Martyr was one of the believers in the miracles per 
formed by Apollonius, and by others through him, for he says : 

" How is it that the talismans of Apollonius have power in certain members 
of creation ? for they prevent, as we see, the fury of the waves, and the violence of 
the winds, and the attacks of wild beasts, and whilst our Lord s miracles are 
preserved by tradition alone, those of Apollonius are most numerous, and actually 
manifested in present facts, so as to lead astray all beholders. " 3 

So much for Apollonius. We will now speak of another miracle 
performer, Simon Magus. 

Simon the Samaritan, generally called Simon Magus, produced 
marked effects on the times succeeding him ; being the progenitor 
of a large class of sects, which long troubled the Christian churches. 

In the time of Jesus and Simon Magus it was almost univer 
sally believed that men could foretell events, cure diseases, and ob 
tain control over the forces of nature, by the aid of spirits, if they 
knew how to invoke them. It was Simon s proficiency in this 
occult science which gained him the surname of Magus, or 

The writer of the eighth chapter of " The Acts of the Apos 
tles " informs us that when Philip went into Samaria, " to preach 
Christ unto them," he found there " a certain man called Simon, 
which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the 
people of Samaria, giving out that himself was some great one. 
To whom they all gave heed, from the least to the greatest, saying : 
This man is the great power of God." 4 

Simon traveled about preaching, and made many proselytes. He 
professed to be " The Wisdom of God," " The Word of God," 

had seen a spirit. And he said unto them : See Philostratus, p. 342. 

Why are ye troubled ? and why do thoughts 9 Ibid. p. 5. 

arise in your hearts ? Behold my hands and 8 Juetin Martyr s " Qucest," xxiv Quoted 

my feet, that it is myself ; handle me and see ; in King s Gnostics, p. 242 

for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see 4 Acts, viii. 9 10. 

me have." (Luke, xxiv. 36-39.) 


" The Paraclete, or Comforter," " The Image of the Eternal 
Father, Manifested in the Flesh" and his followers claimed that 
he was " The First Born of the Supreme" 1 All of these are titles, 
which, in after years, were applied to Christ Jesus. His followers 
had a gospel called " The Four Corners of the World" which re 
minds us of the reason given by Irenseus, for there being four 
Gospels among the Christians. He says : 

" It is impossible that there could be more or less than four. For there are 
four climates, andjftmr cardinal winds; but the Gospel is the pillar and founda 
tion of the Church, and its breath of life. The Church, therefore, was to have 
four pillars, blowing immortality from every quarter, and giving life to 
men." 5 

Simon also composed some works, of which but slight fragments 
remain, Christian authority having evidently destroyed them. That 
he made a lively impression on his contemporaries is indicated by 
the subsequent extension of his doctrines, under varied forms, by 
the wonderful stories which the Christian Fathers relate of him, 
and by the strong dislike they manifested toward him. 

Eusebius, the ecclesiastical historian, says of him : 

"The malicious power of Satan, enemy to all honesty, and foe to all human 
salvation, brought forth at that time this monster Simon, a father and worker 
of all such mischiefs, as a great adversary unto (he mighty and holy Apostles. 

" Corning into the city of Home, he was so aided by that power which prevail- 
eth in this world, that in short time he brought his purpose to such a pass, that 
his picture was there placed with others, and he honored as a god." 3 

Justin Martyr says of him : 

"After the ascension of our Savior into heaven, the DEVIL brought forth cer 
tain men which called themselves gods, who not only suffered no vexation of you 
(Romans), but attained unto honor amongst you, by name one Simon, a Samari 
tan, born in the village of Gitton, who (under Claudius Caesar) by the art of 
devils, through whom he dealt, wrought devilish enchantments, was esteemed 
and counted m your regal city of Rome for a god, and honored by you as a god, 
with a picture between two bridges upon the river Tibris, having this Roman 
inscription : Simoni deo Sancto (To Simon the Holy God). And in manner 
all the Samaritans, and certain also of other nations, do worship him, acknowl 
edging him for their chief god." 4 

According to accounts given by several other Christian Fathers, 
he could make his appearance wherever he pleased to be at any 
moment ; could poise himself on the air ; make inanimate things 

1 See Moeheim. vol. i. pp. 137, 140. that " it i- impossible that there could be more 

2 Irenseus: Against Heresies, bk. iii. ch. xi. or less than four," certainly makes it ap- 
The authorship of the fourth gospel, attrib- pear very suspicious. We shall allude to this 
nted to John, has been traced to this same again. 

Irenceus. He is the first person who speaks s Ensebius: Eccl. Hist. lib. 2, ch. xiv. 

of it ; and adding this fact to the statement 4 Apol. 1, ch. xxiv. 


move without visible assistance ; produce trees from the earth sud 
denly ; cause a stick to reap without hands ; change himself into 
the liken ess of any other person, or even into the forms of animals ; 
fling himself from high precipices unhurt, walk through the streets 
accompanied by spirits of the dead ; and many other such like per 
formances. 1 

Simon went to Rome, where he gave himself out to be an " In 
carnate Spirit of God. 2 He became a favorite with the Emperor 
Claudius, and afterwards with Nero. His Christian opponents, as 
we have seen in the cases cited above, did not deny the miracles 
attributed to him, but said they were done through the agency of 
evil spirits, which was a common opinion among the Fathers. They 
claimed that every magician had an attendant evil spirit, who came 
when summoned, obeyed his commands, and taught him ceremonies 
and forms of words, by which he was able to do supernatural 
things. In this way they were accustomed to account for all the 
miracles performed by Gentiles and heretics. 3 

Menander who was called the " Wonder-Worker" was an 
other great performer of miracles. Eusebius, speaking of him, says 
that he was skilled in magical art, and performed devilish operations ; 
and that " as yet there be divers which can testify the same of 
him." 4 

Dr. Conyers Middleton, speaking on this subject, says: 

"It was universally received and believed through all ages of the primitive 
church, that there was a number of magicians, necromancers, or conjurors, 
both among the Gentiles, and the heretical Christians, who had each their peculiar 
demon or evil spirit, for their associates, perpetually attending on their persons 
and obsequious to their commands, by whose help they could perform miracles, 
foretell future events, call up the souls of the dead, exhibit them to open view, 
and infuse into people whatever dreams or visions they saw fit, all which is 
constantly affirmed by the primitive writers and apologists, and commonly ap 
plied by them to prove the immortality of the soul." 5 

After quoting from Justin Martyr, who says that these magicians 
could convince any one " that the souls of men exist still after 
death," he continues by saying : 

" Lactantius, speaking of certain philosophers who held that the soul perished 
with the body, says : they durst not have declared such an opinion, in the 
presence of any magician, for if they had done it, he would have confuted them 

1 See Prog. Rehg. Ideas, rol. ii. pp. 241, that belong to God." (See "Son of the 
242. Man," p. 67.) 

2 According to Hieronymus (a Christian 8 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 316, and 
Father, born A. D. 346), Simon Magup applied Middleton s Free Inquiry, p. 62. 

to himself these words : " I am the Word (or 4 Eusebius : Ecc . Hist., lib. 3, ch. xiy. 

Logos) of God ; I am the Beautiful, I the Ad- Middleton 8 Works, v>l. i. p. 64. 

vocate, I the Omnipotent ; I ani all things 


upon the spot, by sensible experiments; by calling up souls from the dead, and ren 
dering them visible to human eyes, and making them speak and foretell future eventi"* 

The Christian Father Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, who was 
contemporary with Irenseus- (A. D. 177-202), went so far as to de 
clare that it was evil spirits who inspired the old poets and prophets 
of Greece and Koine. He says : 

" The truth of this is manifestly shown; because those who are possessed by 
devils, even at this day, are sometimes exorcised by us iu the name of God; and 
the seducing spirits confess themselves to be the same demons who before in 
spired the Gentile poets." 2 

Even in the second century after Christianity, foreign conjurors 
were professing to exhibit miracles among the Greeks. Lucian 
gives an account of one of these " foreign barbarians " as he calls 
them 3 and says : 

" I believed and was overcome in spite of my resistance, for what was I to 
do when I saw him carried through the air in daylight, and walking on the 
water, 4 and passing leisurely and slowly through the fire ?" 6 

lie further tells us that this " foreign barbarian " was able to 
raise the dead to life. 6 

Athenagoras, a Christian Father who flourished during the latter 
part of the second century, says on this subject : 

"We (Christians) do not deny that in several places, cities, and countries, 
there are some extraordinary works performed in the name of idols," i. e., heathen 
gods. 7 

Miracles were not uncommon things among the Jews before 
and during the time of Christ Jesus. Casting out devils was an 
every-day occurrence, 8 and miracles frequently happened to confirm 
the sayings of Rabbis. One cried out, when his opinion was dis 
puted, "May this -tree prove that I am right!" and forthwith the 
tree was torn up by the roots, and hurled a hundred ells off. But 

1 Middleton e Works, vol. i. p. 54. The Christians consider those who are not 

Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 312, and followers of Christ Jesus to be heathens and 

Middleton s Works, vol. i. p. 10. barbarians. 

3 " The Egyptians call all men barbarians The Mohammedans consider all others to be 

who do not speak the same language as them- dogs, inficldx, and barbarians. 
selves." (Herodotus, book ii. cfa. 158.) * ; And in the fourth watch of the night, 

"By barbarian* the Greeks meant all Jeeus went unto them, walking on the sea." 

who were not sprung from themselves all (Malt. xiv. 25.) 

foreigners." (Henry Gary, translator of Hero- 6 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 236. We 

dotitf.) have it on the authority of ,v/!rto that Roman 

The Chinese call the English, and all for- priests walked barefoot over burning coals, 

eigners from western countries, "western bar- without receiving the slightest injury. This 

barians ," the Japanese were called by them was done in the presence of crowds of people, 

the " eastern barbarians." (See Thornton s Pliny also relates the same story. 
History of China, vol. i.) Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. ii. p. 236. 

The Jews considered all who did not be- T Athenagoras, Apolog. p. 25. Quoted in 

long to their race to be heathens aud barba- Middleton s Works, vol. i. p. 62. 
rian*. Geikie : Life of Christ, vol. ii. p. 610. 


his opponents declared that a tree could prove nothing. " May 
this stream, then, witness for me !" cried Eliezar, and at once it 
flowed the opposite way. 1 

Josephus, the Jewish historian, tells us that King Solomon was 
expert in casting out devils who had taken possession of the body 
of mortals. This gift was also possessed by many Jews throughout 
different ages. He (Josephus) relates that he saw one of his own 
countrymen (Eleazar) casting out devils, in the presence of a vast 
multitude. 2 

Dr. Conyers Middleton says : 

"It is remarkable that all the Christian Fathers, who lay so great a stress on 
the particular gift of casting out devils, allow the same power both to the Jews 
and the Gentiles, as well before as after our Saviour s coming."* 

Vespasian^ who was born about ten years after the time as 
signed for the birth of Christ Jesus, performed wonderful miracles, 
for the good of mankind. Tacitus, the Roman historian, informs 
us that he cured a Wind man in Alexandria, by means of his spit 
tle, and a lame man by the mere touch of his foot. 

The words of Tacitus are as follows : 

" Vespasian passed some months at Alexandria, having resolved to defer his 
voyage to Italy till the return of summer, when the winds, blowing in a regular 
direction, afford a safe and pleasant navigation. During his residence in that 
city, a number of incidents, out of the ordinary course of nature, seemed to 
mark him as the peculiar favorite of the gods. A man of mean condition, born 
at Alexandria, had lost his sight by a defluxion on his eyes. He presented him 
self before Vespasian, and, falling prostrate on the ground, implored the emperor 
to administer a cure for his blindness. He came, he said, by the admonition of 
Serapis, the god whom the superstition of the Egyptians holds in the highest 
veneration. The request was, that the emperor, with his spittle, would conde 
scend to moisten the poor man s face and the balls of his eyes. 4 Another, who 
had lost the use of his hand, inspired by the same god, begged that he would 
tread on the part affected. ... In the presence of a prodigious multitude, 
all erect with expectation, he advanced with an air of serenity, and hazarded the 
experiment. The paralytic hand recovered its functions, and the blind man saw 
the light of the sun. 5 By living witnesses, who were actually on the spot, both 
events are confirmed at this hour, when deceit and flattery can hope for no 
reward." 6 

The striking resemblance between the account of these mira 
cles, and those attributed to Jesus in the Gospels "according to " 

1 Geikie : Life of Christ, vol. i. p. 75. men and trees, . . . and he was restored." 

2 Jewish Antiqiities, bk. viii. ch. ii. (Mark, viii. 22-25.) 

s Middleton s Works, vol. i. p. GS. 6 " And behold there was a man which had 

4 And he cometh to Bethsaida, and they his hand withered. . . . Then said he unto 

bring a blind man unto him, and besought him the man, Stretch forth thine hand : and he 

to touch him. And he took the blind man by stretched it forth, and it was restored whole, 

the hand . . . and when he had sjnt on his like as the other." (Matt. xii. 10-13.) 
eyes, ... lie looked up and said : I see 8 Tacitus : Hist., lib. iv. ch ixxxi. 


Matthew and Mark, would lead us to think that one had been 
copied from the other, but when we find that Tacitus wrote his 
history A. D. 98, and that the " Matthew " and Mark narrators 
works were not known until after that time, 8 the evidence certainly 
is that Tacitus was not the plagiarist, but that this charge must fall 
on the shoulders of the Christian writers, whoever they may have 

To come down to earlier times, even the religion of the Ma 
hometans is a religion of miracles and wonders. Mahomet, like 
Jesus of Nazareth, did not claim to perform miracles, but the vot 
aries of Mahomet are more assured than himself of his miraculous 
gifts ; and their confidence and credulity increase as they are farther 
removed from the time and place of his spiritual exploits. They 
believe or affirm that trees went forth to meet him ; that he was 
saluted by stones ; that water gushed from his fingers ; that he fed 
the hungry, cured the sick, and raised the dead ; that a beam 
groaned to him ; that a camel complained to him ; that a shoulder 
of mutton informed him of its being poisoned ; and that both ani 
mate and inanimate nature were equally subject to the apostle 
of God. His dream of a nocturnal journey is seriously described 
as a real and corporeal transaction. A mysterious animal, the Borak, 
conveyed him fiom the temple of Mecca to that of Jerusalem ; with 
his companion Gabriel he successively ascended the seven heavens. 
and received and repaid the salutations of the patriarchs, the 
prophets, and the angels in their respective mansions. Beyond the 
seventh heaven, Mahomet alone was permitted to proceed ; he 
passed the veil of unity, approached within two bow-shots of the 
throne, and felt a cold that pierced him to the heart, when his 
shoulder was touched by the hand of God. After a familiar, 
though important conversation, he descended to Jerusalem, re 
mounted the Borak, returned to Mecca, and performed in the 
tenth part of a night the journey of many thousand years. His 
resistless word split asunder the orb of the moon, and the obedient 
planet stooped from her station in the sky. 

These and many other wonders, similar in character to the story 
of Jesus sending the demons into the swine, are related of Mahomet 
by his followers. 

It is very certain that the same circumstances which are 
claimed to have taken place with respect to the Christian religion, 
are also claimed to have taken place in the religions of Crishna, Bud- 

1 See Chambers B Encyclo., art. " Tacitus." See The Bible of To-Day, pp. 273, 278. 

Bee Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. pp. 539-541. 


dha, Zoroaster, ^Esculapius, Bacchus, Apollonius, Simon Magus, 
&Q. Histories of these persons, with miracles, relics, circumstances 
of locality, suitable to them, were as common, as well authenticated 
(if not better), and as much believed by the devotees as were those 
relating to Jesus. 

All the Christian theologians which the world has yet produced 
have not been able to procure any evidence of the miracles recorded 
in the Gospels, half so strong as can be procured in evidence of 
miracles performed by heathens and heathen gods, both before 
and after the time of Jesus ; and, as they cannot do this, let them 
give us a reason why we should reject the one and receive the other. 
And if they cannot do this, let them candidly confess that we must 
either admit them all, or reject them all, for they all stand on the 
same footing. 

In the early times of the Roman republic, in the war with the 
Latins, the gods Castor and Pollux are said to have appeared on 
white horses in the Roman army, which by their assistance gained 
a complete victory : in memory of which, the General Posthumius 
vowed and built a temple to these deities ; and for a proof of the 
fact, there was shown, we find, in Cicero s time (106 to 43 B. o.), 
the marks of the horses hoofs on a rock at Regillum, where they 
first appeared. 1 

Now this miracle, with those which have already been men 
tioned, and many others of the same kind which could be men 
tioned, has as authentic an attestation, if not more so, as any of the 
Gospel miracles. It has, for instance : The decree of a senate to 
confirm it ; visible marks on the spot where it was transacted ; and 
all this supported by the best authors of antiquity, amongst whom 
Dionysius, of Halicarnassus, who says that there was subsisting in 
his time at Rome many evident proofs of its reality, besides a 
yearly festival, with a solemn sacrifice and procession, in memory 
of it. 8 

With all these evidences in favor of this miracle having really 
happened, it seems to us so ridiculous, that we wonder how there 
could ever have been any so simple as to believe it, yet we should 
believe that Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead, after he had been 
in the tomb four days, our only authority being that anonymous 
book known as the " Gospel according to St. John," which was not 

1 Middleton s Letters from Eome, p. 102. on the side of the Romans, who by their as- 
See also, Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 16. sistance gained a complete victory. As a per- 

2 Dionysius of Halicarnassus, one of the most petual memorial of it, a temple was erected and 
accurate historians of antiquity, says : " In the a yearly festival instituted in honor of these 
war with the Latins, Castor and Pollux ap- deities." (Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 323, and 
peared visibly on white horses, and fought Middleton e Letters fiom Rome, p. 103.) 


known until after A. D. 173. Albert Barnes, in bis " Lectures on 
the Evidences of Christianity," speaking of the authenticity of the 
Gospel miracles, makes the following damaging confession : 

" An important question is, whether there is any stronger evidence in favor of 
miracles, than there is in favor of witchcraft, or sorcery, or the re-appearance of 
the dead, of ghosts, of apparitions ? Is not the evidence in favor of these a? 
strong as any that can be adduced in favor of miracles 1 Have not these things 
been matters of universal belief ? In what respect is the evidence in favor of 
the miracles of the Bible stronger than that which can be adduced in favor of 
witchcraft and sorcery V Does it differ in nature and degrees; and if it differs, 
is it not in favor of witchcraft and sorcery ? Has not the evidence in favor of 
the latter been derived from as competent and reliable witnesses ? lias it not 
been brought to us from those who saw the facts alleged ? Has it not been sub 
jected to a close scrutiny in the courts of justice, to cross-examination, to 
tortures ? Has it not convinced those of highest legal attainments; those accus 
tomed to sift testimony; those who understood the true principles of evidence? 
Has not the evidence in favor of witchcraft and sorcery had, what the evidence 
in favor of miracles has not had, the advantage of strict judicial investigation? 
and been subjected to trial, where evidence should be, before courts of law? 
Have not the most eminent judges in the most civilized and enlightened courts 
of Europe and America admitted the force of such evidence, and on the ground 
of it committed great numbers of innocent persons to the gallow r s and to the 
stake? 1 confess that of all the questions ever asked on the subject of miracles, this is 
tJie most perplexing and the most difficult to answer. It is rather to be wondered at 
that it has not been pressed with more zeal by those who deny the reality of 
miracles, and that they have placed their objections so extensively on other 

It was a common adage among the Greeks, " Miracles for 
fools]" and the same proverb obtained among the shrewder Ro 
mans, in the saying : " TJie common people like to be deceived 
deceived let them be" 

St. Chrysostom declares that " miracles are proper only to excite 
sluggish and vulgar minds, men of sense have no occasion for them y" 
and that "they frequently carry some untoward suspicion along 
with them ;" and Saint Chrysostom, Jerome, Euthemius, and The- 
ophylact, prove by several instances, that real miracles had been 
performed by those who were not Catholic, but heretic, Christians. 1 

Celsus (an Epicurean philosopher, towards the close of the 
second century), the first writer who entered the lists against the 
claims of the Christians, in speaking of the miracles which were 
claimed to have been performed by Jesus, says : 

"His miracles, granted to be true, were nothing more than the common works 
of those enchanters, who, for a few oboli, will perform greater deeds in the midst 
of the Forum, calling up the souls of heroes, exhibiting sumptuous banquets, and 
tables covered with food, which have no reality. Such things do not prove these 
jugglers to be sons of God; nor do Christ s miracles." 2 

1 See Prefatory Discourse to vol. iii. Mid- 2 See Origen: Contra Cclus, bk. 1, ch. Ixviii 

dleton s Works, p. M. 


Census, in common with most of the Grecians, looked upon 
Christianity as a blind faith, that shunned the light of reason. In 

speaking of the Christians, he says : 

" They are forever repeating: Do not examine. Only believe, and thy faith 
will make thee blessed. Wisdom is a bad thing in life ; foolisliness is to be pre 
ferred. " 1 

He jeers at the fact that ignorant men were allowed to preach, 
and says that " weavers, tailors, fullers, and the most illiterate and 
rustic fellows," set up to teach strange paradoxes. " They openly 
declared that none but the ignorant (were) fit disciples for the God 
they worshiped," and that one of their rules was, a let no man that 
is learned come among us." a 

The miracles claimed to have been performed by the Christians, 
he attributed to magic* and considered as we have seen above 
their miracle performers to be on the same level with all Gentile 
magicians. He says that the " wonder-workers " among the Chris 
tians u rambled about to play tricks at fairs and markets," that they 
never appeared in the circles of the wiser and better sort, but al 
ways took care to intrude themselves among the ignorant and un 
cultured. 4 

"The magicians in Egypt (says he), cast out evil spirits, cure diseases by 
a breath, call up the spirits of the dead, make inanimate things move as if they 
were alive, and so influence some uncultured men, that they produce in them 
whatever sights and sounds they please. But because they do such things shall 
we consider them the sons of God? Or shall we call such things the tricks of 
pitiable and wicked men?" 5 

He believed that Jesus was like all these other wonder-workers, 
that is, simply a necromancer, and that he learned his magical arts 
in Egypt. 6 All philosophers, during the time of the Early Fathers, 
answered the claims that Jesus performed miracles, in the same 
manner. u They even ventured to call him a magician and a de 
ceiver of the people," says Justin Martyr, 7 and St. Augustine as 
serted that it was generally believed that Jesus had been initiated 
in magical art in Egypt, and that he had written books concerning 
magic, one of which was called " Magia Jesu Christi"* In the 
Clementine Recognitions, the charge is brought against Jesus that 
he did not perform his miracles as a Jewish prophet, but as a ma 
gician, an initiate of the heathen temples. 9 

See Origen: Contra Celsus, bk. 1, ch. ix. 8 See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 148. 

Ibid. bk. iii. ch. xliv. fl See Baring-Gould s Lost and Hostile Gos- 

Ibid. pels. A knowledge of magic had spread from 

Ibid. bk. 1, ch. Ixviii. Central Asia into Syria, by means of the retun 

Ibid. of the Jews from Babylon, and had afterwards 

Ibid. extended widely, through the mixing of na- 

Dial. Cum. Typho. ch. Ixix tione produced by Alexander s conquests. 


The casting out of devils was the most frequent and among the 
most striking and the of tenest appealed to of the miracles of Jesus ; 
yet, in the conversation between himself and the Pharisees (Matt. 
xii. 24-27), he speaks of it as one that was constantly and habitually 
performed by their own exorcists / and, so far from insinuating any 
difference between the two cases, expressly puts them on a level. 

One of the best proofs, and most nn questionable, that Jesus was 
accused of being a magician, or that some of the early Christians 
believed him to have been such, may be found in the representations 
of him performing miracles. On a sarcophagus to be found in the 
Museo Gregoriano, which is paneled with bas-reliefs, is to be seen 
a representation of Jesus raising Lazarus from the grave. He is 
represented as a young man, beardless, and equipped with a wand 
in the received guise of a necromancer, whilst the corpse of Laz 
arus is swathed in bandages exactly as an Egyptian mummy. 1 On 
other Christian monuments representing the miracles of Jesus, he 
is pictured in the same manner. For instance, when he is repre 
sented as turning the water into wine, and multiplying the bread in 
the wilderness, he is a necromancer with a wand in his hand.* 

Horus, the Egyptian Saviour, is represented on the ancient 
monuments of Egypt, with a wand in his hand raising the dead 
to life, "just as we see Christ doing the same thing," says J. P. 
Lundy, " in the same way, to Lazarus, in our Christian monu 
ments." 1 

Dr. Conyers Middleton, speaking of the primitive Christians, 
says : 

" In the performance of their miracles, they were always charged with fraud 
and imposture, by their adversaries. Lucian (who flourished during the second 
century), tells us that whenever any crafty juggler, expert in his trade, and who 
knew how to make a right use of things, went over to the Christians, he was 
sure to grow rich immediately, by making a prey of their simplicity. And 
Celsus represents all the Christian wonder-workers as mere vagabonds and com 
mon cheats, who rambled about to play their tricks at fairs and markets; not in 
the circles of the wiser and the better sort, for among such they never ventured to 
appear, but wherever they observed a set of raw young fellows, slaves or fools, 
there they took care to intrude themselves, and to display all their arts." 4 

The same charge was constantly urged against them by Julian, 
Porphyry and others. Similar sentiments were entertained by Poly- 
bius, the Pagan philosopher, who considered all miracles as fables, 
invented to preserve in the unlearned a due sense of respect for the 
deity. 6 

1 See King s Gnostics, p. 145. Monumental H i st. of Our Lord. vol. i. p. 16. 
Christianity, pj> 100 and 402, and Jameson s Monumental Christianity, pp. 403-405. 

Hist, of Our Lord in Art, TO!, i. p. 1G. 4 Middleton s Works, vol. i. p. 19. 

1 See Monumental Christianity, p. 402, and See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 59. 


Edward Gibbon, speaking of the miracles of the Christians, 
writes in his familiar style as follows : 

" How shall we excuse the supine inattention of the Pagan and philosophic 
world, to those evidences which were represented by the hand of Omnipotence, 
not to their reason, but to their senses? During the age of Christ, of his apostles, 
and of their first disciples, the doctrine which they preached was confirmed by 
innumerable prodigies. The lame walked, the blind saw, the sick were healed, 
the dead were raised, demons were expelled, and the laws of nature were ire- 
quently suspended for the benefit of the church. But the sages of Greece and 
Rome turned aside from the awful spectacle, and, pursuing the ordinary occupa 
tions of life and study, appeared unconscious of any alterations in the mural or 
physical government of the world." 1 

The learned Dr. Middleton, whom we have quoted on a preced 
ing page, after a searching inquiry into the miraculous powers of 
the Christians, says : 

" From these short hints and characters of the primitive wonder-workers, as 
giveii both by friends and enemies, we may fairly conclude, that the celebrated 
gifts of these ages were generally engrossed and exercised by the primitive 
Christians, chiefly of the laity, who used to travel about from city to city, to assist 
the ordinary pastors of the church, and preachers of the Gospel, in the conversion 
of Pagans, by the extraordinary gifts with which they were supposed to be 
indued by the spirit of God, and the miraculous works which they pretended 
to perform. . 

" AVe have just reason to suspect that there was some original fraud in the 
case; and that the strolling wonder-workers, by a dexterity of jugglery which 
art, not heaven, had taught them, imposed upon the credulity of the pious Fathers, 
whose strong prejudices and ardent zeal for the interest of Christianity would 
dispose them to embrace, without examination, whatever seemed to promote so 
good a cause. That this was really the case in some instances, is certain and 
notorious, and that it was so in all, will appear still more probable, when we 
have considered the particular characters of the several Fathers, on whose testi 
mony the credit of these wonderful narratives depends." 4 

Again he says : 

" The pretended miracles of the primitive church were all mere fictions, 
which the pious and zealous Fathers, partly from a weak credulity, and partly 
from reasons of policy, believing some perhaps to be true, and knowing all of 
them to be useful, were induced to espouse and propagate, for the support of a 
righteous cause." 3 

Origen, a Christian Father of the third century, uses the follow 
ing words in his answer to Celsus : 

" A vast number of persons who have left those horrid debaucheries in which 
they formerly wallowed, and have professed to embrace the Christian religion, 

1 Gibbon s Rome, vol. i. p. 588. An emi- him that satisfaction. (See Gibbon s Rome, 

aent heathen challenged his Christian friend vol. i. p. 541, and Middleton e Works, vol. i. 

Theophilus, Bishop of Antioch, a champion p. 60.) 

of the Gospel, to show him but one person 9 Middleton s Works, vol. i. pp. 20, 21. 

who had been raised from the dead, on the 3 Ibid. p. 62. The Christian Fathers are 

condition of turning Christian himself upon noted for their frauds. Their writings are full 

U. The Christian bishop was unable to give of falsehoods and deceit. 


shall receive a bright and massive crown when this frail and short life is ended, 
though they don t stajid to examine the grounds on which their faith is built, nor 
defer their conversion till they have a fair opportunity and capacity to apply 
themselves to rational and learned studies. And since our adversaries are con 
tinually making such a stir about our taking things on trust, I answer, that we, 
who see plainly and have found the vast advantage that the common people do 
manifestly and frequently reap thereby (who make up by far the greater num 
ber), I say, we (the Christian clergy), who are so well advised of these things, 
do professedly teach men to believe icitJiout examination," 1 

Origen flourished and wrote A. D. 225-235, which shows that at 
that early day there was no rational evidence for Christianity, but 
it was professedly taught, and men were supposed to believe " these 
things^ (i.e. the Christian legends) without severe examination. 

The primitive Christians were perpetually reproached for their 
gross credulity, by all their enemies. Celsus, as we have already 
seen, declares thac they cared neither to receive nor give any reason 
for their faith, and that it was a usual saying with them ; " Do not 
examine, but believe only, and thy faith will save thee ;" and Julian 
affirms that, " the sum of all their wisdom was comprised in the 
single precept, believe? " 

Arnobius, speaking of this, says : 

" The Gentiles make it their constant business to laugh at our faith, and to 
lash our credulity with their facetious jokes." 

The Christian Fathers defended themselves against these 
charges by declaring that they did nothing more than the heathens 
themselves had always done ; and reminds them that they too had 
found the same method useful with the uneducated or common 
people, who were not at leisure to examine things, and whom they 
taught therefore, to believe without reason. 1 

This " believing without reason " is illustrated in the following 
words of Tertullian, a Christian Father of the second century, who 
reasons on the evidence of Christianity as follows : 

"I find no other means to prove myself to be impudent with success, and 
happily a fool, than by my contempt of shame; as, for instance I maintain 
that the son of God was born: why am I not ashamed of maintaining such a 
thing? Why! but because it is a shameful thing. I maintain that the son of 
God died: well, that is wholly credible because it is monstrously absurd. I 
maintain that after having been buried, he rose again: and that I take to be ab 
solutely true, because it was manifestly impossible." 3 

According to the very books which record the miracles of Jesus, 
he never claimed to perform such deeds, and Paul declares that the 
great reason why Israel did not believe Jesus to be the Messiah was 

i Contra Celsu*, bk. 1, cli. ix. x. 3 Ou The Flesh of Chribt, ch. v. 

See Middleton s Works, pp. 62, 63, 64. 


that " the Jews required a sign." 1 He meant : " Signs and wonders 
are the only proofs they will admit that any one is sent by God and 
is preaching the truth. If they cannot have this palpable, external 
proof, they withhold their faith." 

A writer of the second century (John, in ch. iv. 18) makes Jesus 
aim at his fellow-countrymen and contemporaries, the reproach : 
" Unless you see signs and wonders, you do not believe." In con 
nection with Paul s declaration, given above, these words might be 
paraphrased : " The reason why the Jews never believed in Jesus 
was that they never saw him do signs and wonders." 

Listen to the reply he (Jesus) made when told that if he wanted 
people to believe in him he must first prove his claim by a miracle: 
" A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, and no sign 
shall be given it except the sign of the prophet Jonas." 3 Of 
course, this answer did not in the least degree satisfy the question 
ers ; so they presently came to him again with a more direct re 
quest : u If the kingdom of God is, as you say, close at hand, show 
us at least some one of the signs in heaven which are to precede the 
Messianic age." What could appear more reasonable than such a 
request? Every one knew that the end of the present age was to 
be heralded by fearful signs in heaven. The light of the sun was 
to be put out, the moon turned to blood, the stars robbed of their 
brightness, and many other fearful signs were to be shown ! 3 If any 
one of these could be produced, they would be content ; but if not, 
they must decline to surrender themselves to an idle joy which 
must end in a bitter disappointment ; and surely Jesus himseli 
could hardly expect them to believe in him on his bare word. 

Historians have recorded miracles said to have been performed 
by other persons, but not a word is said by them about the miracles 
claimed to have been performed by Jesus. 

Justus of Tiberias, who was born about five years after the time 
assigned for the crucifixion of Jesus, wrote a Jewish History. 
Now, if the miracles attributed to Christ Jesus, and his death and 
resurrection, had taken place in the manner described by the Gos 
pel narrators, he could not have failed to allude to them. But 
Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople, tells us that it contained " no 
mention of the coming of Christ, nor of the events concerning him, 
nor of the prodigies he wrought" As Theodore Parker has re 
marked : " The miracle is of a most fluctuating character. The 
miracle-worker of to-day is a matter-of-fact juggler to-morrow. 

1 1. Corinthians, i. 22, 23. Matt. xxiv. 29, 30 ; Acts, ii. 19, 20 ; Revela 

Matt. xii. 29. tions, vi. 12, 13 ; xvi. 18, et seq. 

See, for example, Joel, ii. 10, 31 ; iii. 15 ; 


Science each year adds new wonders to our store. The master of 
a locomotive steam-engine would have been thought greater than 
Jupiter Tonans, or the Elohim, thirty centuries ago." 

In the words of Dr. Oort : " Our increased knowledge of nature 
has gradually undermined the belief in the possibility of miracles, 
and the time is not far distant when in the mind of every man, of 
any culture, all accounts of miracles will be banished together to 
their proper region that of legend" 

What had been said to have been done in India was said by the 
" half Jew " writers of the Gospels to have been done in Palestine. 
The change of names and places, with the mixing up of various 
sketches of Egyptian, Phenician, Greek and Roman mythology, 
was all that was necessary. They had an abundance of material, 
and with it they built. A long-continued habit of imposing upon 
others would in time subdue the minds of the impostors themselves, 
and cause them to become at length the dupes of their own decep 

The writers of the Gospels were " I know not what sort of half Jews, not even agreeing 
with themselves. 11 (Bishop Faostus.) 



BELIEVING and affirming, that the mythological portion of the 
history of Jesus of Nazareth, contained in the books forming the 
Canon of the New Testament, is nothing more or less than a copy 
of the mythological histories of the Hindoo Saviour Crislma, and 
the Buddhist Saviour HuddhaJ with a mixture of mythology bor 
rowed from the Persians and other nations, we shall in this and the 
chapter following, compare the histories of these Christs, side by 
side with that of Christ Jesus, the Christian Saviour. 

In comparing the history of Crishna with that of Jesus, we have 
the following remarkable parallels : 

1. " Crishna was born of a chaste 
virgin, called Devaki, who was selected 
by the Lord for this purpose on ac 
count of her purity." 2 

2. A chorus of Devatas celebrated 
with song the praise of Devaki, ex 
claiming: " In the delivery of this 
favored woman all nature shall have 
cause to exult." 4 

3. The birth of Crishna was an 
nounced in the heavens by his star. 6 

1. Jesus was born of a chaste virgin, 
called Mary, who was selected by the 
Lord for this purpose, on account of 
her purity. 3 

2. The angel of the Lord saluted 
Mary, and said: "Hail Mary! the 
Lord is with you, you are blessed above 
all women, . . . for thou hast found 
favor with the Lord." 5 

3. The birtli of Jesus was an 
nounced in the heavens by Ms star." 1 

1 It is also very evident that the history of 
Crishna or that part of it at least which has a 
religious aspect is taken from that of Buddha. 
Crishna, in the ancient epic poems, is simply a 
great hero, and it is not until about the fourth 
century B. c., that he is deified and declared to 
be an incarnation of Vishnu, or Vishnu him 
self in human form. (See Monier Williams 
Hinduism, pp. 102, 103.) 

"If it be urged that the attribution to 
Crishna of qualities or powers belonging to the 
other deities is a mere device by which his de 
votees sought to supersede the more ancient 
gods, the answer ?nnst be that nothing is done in 
his case which has not been done in the case of 
almost every otfier member of the great company 
of the gods, and that the systematic adoption 

of this method is itself conclusive proof of the 
looseness and flexibility of the materials of 
Avhich the cumbrous mythology of the Hindu 
epic poems is composed." (Cox : Aryan My 
thology, vol. ii. p. 130.) These words apply 
very forcibly to the history of Christ Jesus. 
He being attributed with qualities and powers 
belonging to the deities of the heathen is a 
mere device by which his devotees sought to 
supersede the more ancient gods. 

2 See ch. xii. 

3 See The Gospel of Mary, Apoc., ch, vii. 

4 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 329. 

6 Mary, Apoc., vii. Luke, i. 28-30. 

6 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. pp. 317 and 33ft. 

i Matt. ii. 2. 




4. On the morn of Crishna s birth, 
" the quarters of the horizon were ir 
radiate with joy, as if moonlight was 
diffused over the whole earth;" " the 
spirits and nymphs of heaven danced 
and sang," and "the clouds emitted 
low pleasing sounds." 1 

5. Crishna, though royally descend 
ed, was actually born in a state the 
most abject and humiliating, having 
been brought into the world in a cave. 3 

6. The moment Crishna was born, 
the whole cave was splendidly illumi 
nated, and the countenances of his 
father and his mother emitted rays of 
glory." 6 

7. "Soon after Crishna s mother 
was delivered of him, and while she 
was weeping over him and lamenting 
his unhappy destiny, the compassionate 
infant assumed the power of speech, 
and soothed and comforted his afflicted 
parent," 7 

8. The divine child Crishna was 
recognized, and adored by cowherds, 
who prostrated themselves before the 
heaven-born child. 9 

9. Crishna was received with divine 
honors, and presented with gifts of 
sandal-wood and perfumes. 11 

10. " Soon after the birth of Crish 
na, the holy Indian prophet Nared, 
hearing of the fame of the infant 
Crishna, pays him a visit at Gokul, ex 
amines the stars, and declares him to 
be of celestial descent." 13 

11. Crishna was bora at a time when 
Nauda his foster-father was away 
from home, having come to the city to 
pay his tax or yearly tribute, to the 
king. 15 

4. When Jesus was born, the angels 
of heaven sang with joy, and from the 
clouds there came pleasing sounds. 8 

5. "The birth of Jesus, the King 
of Israel, took place under circumstan 
ces of extreme indigence; and the place 
of his nativity, according to the united 
voice of the ancients, and of oriental 
travelers, was in a cave."* 

6. The moment Jesus was born, 
"there was a great light in the cave, 
so that the eyes of Joseph and the mid 
wife could not bear it. 6 " 

7. " Jesus spake even when he was 
in his cradle, and said to his mother: 
Mary, I am Jesus, the Son of God, 
that Word which thou didst bring forth 
according to the declaration of the 
Angel Gabriel unto thee,aud my Father 
hath sent me for the salvation of the 
world. " 8 

8. The divine child Jesus was 
recognized, and adored by shepherds, 
who prostrated themselves before the 
heaven-born child. 10 

9. Jesus was received with divine 
honors, and presented with gifts of 
frankincense and myrrh. n 

10. " Now when Jesus was born in 
Bethlehem of Judea, behold, there came 
wise men from the East, saying : 
Where is he that is born King of the 
Jews, for we have seen his star in the 
East and have come to worship him." 14 

11. Jesus was born at a time w r hen 
Joseph his foster-father was away 
from home, having come to the city to 
pay his tax or tribute to the governor. u 

1 Vishnn Purana, p. 502. 
a Luke, ii. 13. 

3 See ch. xvi. 

4 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 311. See also, 
chap. xvi. 

6 See ch. xvi. 

Protevangelion, Apoc., chs. xii. and ziii. 
T Hist. Hiudostan, vol. ii. 811. 

Infancy, Apoc., ch. i. 2, 8. 

8 See ch. xv. 
i Luke, ii. 8-10. 

11 See Oriental Religions, p. 500, and Inman i 
Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 353. 

12 Matt. ii. 2. 

13 Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 817. 
" Matt., ii. 1, 2. 

18 Vishnu Purana, bk. v. ch. iii. 
i Luke, ii. 1-17. 



12. Crishna, although born in a state 
the most abject and humiliating, was 
of royal descent. J 

13. Crishna s father was warned by 
" heavenly voice," to " fly with the 
child to Gacool, across the river Jum 
na," as the reigning monarch sought 
his life. 3 

14. The ruler of the country in 
which Crishna was born, having been 
informed of the birth of the divine 
child, sought to destroy him. For this 
purpose, he ordered the massacre in 
all his states, of all the children of the 
male sex, born during the night of the 
birth of Crishna." 5 

15. Matlmra (pronounced Mattra), 
was the city in which Crishna was 
born, where his most extraordinary 
miracles were performed, and which 
continues at this day the place where 
his name and Avata? are held in the 
most sacred veneration of any province 
in Hindostan. " 7 

16. Crishna was preceded by Rama, 
who was born a short time before him, 
and whose life was sought by Kansa, 
the ruling monarch, at the time he at 
tempted to destroy the infant Crishna. 9 

17. Crishna, being brought up among 
shepherds, wanted the advantage of a 
preceptor to teach him the sciences. 
Afterwards, when he went to Mathura, 
a tutor, profoundly learned, was ob 
tained for him ; but, in a very short 
time, he became such a scholar as 
mtterly to astonish and perplex his 
master with a variety of the most in 
tricate questions in Sanscrit science. 11 

12. Jesus, although born in a state 
the most abject and humiliating, was 
of royal descent. 2 

13. Jesus father was warned "in 
a dream" to "take the young child 
and his mother, and flee into Egypt," 
as the reigning monarch sought his 
life. 4 

14. The ruler of the country in 
which Jesus was born, having been 
informed of the birth of the divine 
child, sought to destroy him. For this 
purpose, he ordered "all the children 
that were in Bethlehem, and in all the 
coasts thereof," to be slain. 6 

15. Matarea, near Hermopolis, in 
Egypt, is said to have been the place 
where Jesus resided during his absence 
from the land of Judea. At this place 
he is reported to have wrought many 
miracles. 8 

16. Jesus was preceded by John 
the "divine herald," who was born a 
short time before him, and whose life 
was sought by Herod, the ruling mon 
arch, at the time he attempted to 
destroy the infant Jesus. 10 

17. Jesus was sent to Zaccheus the 
schoolmaster, who wrote out an alpha 
bet for him, and bade him say Aleph. 
"Then the Lord Jesus said to him, 
Tell me first the meaning of the letter 
Aleph, and then I will pronounce Beth, 
and when the master threatened to 
whip him, the Lord Jesus explained 
to him the meaning of the letters Aleph 
and Beth ; also which where the 
straight figures of the letters, which 
the oblique, and what letters had 

1 Asiatic Researches, vol. i. p. 259. Hist. 
Hindo^tan, vol. ii. p. 310. 

8 See the Genealogies in Matt, and Luke. 
3 See ch. xviii. 
Matt. ii. 13. 
6 See ch. xviii. 

Matt. ii. 16. 

T Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 317. Asiatic 
Researches, vol. i. p. 259. 

Lntroduc. to Infancy, Apoc. Higgins : An- 
calypais, vol. i. p. 130. Savary : Travels in 

Egypt, vol. i. p. 126, in Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. 
p. 318. 

Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 316. 

10 " Elizabeth, hearing that her son John 
was about to be searched for (by Herod), took 
him and went np into the mountains, and looked 
around for a place to hide him. . . . But 
Herod made search after John, and sent servant* 
to Zacharias," &c. (Protevangelion, Apoc. 
ch. xvi.) 

11 Hist. Hindostan. vol. ii. p. 321. 



18. "At a certain time, Crisbna, 
taking a walk with the other cow 
herds, they chose him their King, and 
every one had his place assigned him 
under the new King." 2 

19. Some of Crishua s play-fellows 
were stung by a serpent, and he, filled 
with compassion at their untimely fate, 
"and casting upon them an eye of 
divine mercy, they immediately rose," 
and were restored. 4 

20. Crishna s companions, with 
some calves, were stolen, and hid in a 
cave, whereupon Crishna, "by his 
power, created other calves and boys, 
in all things, perfect resemblances of 
the others." 6 

21. " One of the first miracles per 
formed by Crishna, when mature, was 
the curing of a leper." 8 

22. A poor cripple, or lame woman, 
came, with " a vessel filled with spices, 
sweet-scented oils, sandal- wood, saffron, 
civet, and other perfumes, and made a 
certain sign on his (Crishna s) forehead, 
casting the rest upon his Jiead." l() 

23. Crishna was crucified, and he 
is represented with arms extended, 
hanging on a cross. 12 

24. At the time of the death of 
Crishna, there came calamities and bad 
omens of every kind. A black circle 
surrounded the moon, and the sun was 
darkened at noon-duy ; the sky rained 
fire and ashes ; flames burned dusky 
and livid; demons committed depreda- 

double figures; which had points, and 
which had none ; why one letter went 
before another; and many other things 
he began to tell him and explain, of 
which the master himself had never 
heard, nor read in any book." 1 

18. "In the month Adar, Jesus 
gathered together the boys, and ranked 
them as though he had been a KING. 
. . . And if any one happened to 
pass by, they took him by force, and 
said, Come hither, and worship the 
King. "3 

19. When Jesus was at play, a boy 
was stung by a serpent, " and he (Jesus) 
touched the boy with his hand," and 
he was restored to his former health. 5 

20. Jesus companions, who had hid 
themselves in a furnace, were turned in 
to kids, whereupon Jesus said: " Come 
hither, O boys, that we may go and play ; 
and immediately the kids were changed 
into the shape of boys." 7 

21. One of the first miracles per 
formed by Jesus, when mature, was 
the curing of a leper. 9 

22. " Now, when Jesus was in 
Bethany, in the house of Simon the 
leper, there came unto him a woman 
having an alabaster box of very preci 
ous ointment, and poured it on his ktad, 
as he sat at meat." 11 

23. Jesus was crucified, and he is 
represented with arms extended, hang 
ing on a cross. 

24. At the time of the death of 
Jesus, there came calamities of many 
kinds. The veil of the temple was 
rent in twain from the top to the bot 
tom, the .sun was darkened from the 
sixth to the ninth hour, and the graves 
were opened, and many bodies of the 

1 Infancy, Apoc., ch. xx. 1-8. 
Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 321. 

3 Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii. 1-3. 

* Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 343. 

4 Infancy, Apoc., ch. xviii. 

Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 840. ^.ryan 
Mytho., vol. ii. p. 136. 

7 Infancy. Apoc., ch. xvii. 

8 Hist. Hindustan, vol. ii. p. 319, and ch. 
xxvii. this work. 

Matthew, viii. 2. 
Hist. Hindo?tan, /ol. ii. p. 320. 
14 Matt. xxvi. 6 7. 
Se ch. xx. 



tions on earth ; at sunrise and sunset, 
thousands of figures were seen skir 
mishing in the air; spirits were to be 
seen on all sides. : 

25. Crishna was pierced with an 
arrow. 3 

26. Crishna said to the hunter who 
shot him: "Go, hunter, through my 
favor, to heaven, the abode of the 
gods." 5 

27. Crishna descended into hell. 7 

28. Crishna, after being put to 
death, rose again from the dead. 9 

29. Crishna ascended bodily into 
heaven, and many persons witnessed 
his ascent. 11 

30. Crislma is to come again on 
earth in the latter days. He will appear 
among mortals as an armed warrior, 
riding a white horse. At his approach 
the sun and moon will be darkened, 
the earth will tremble, and the stars 
fall from the firmament. 13 

31. Crishna is to be judge of the 
dead at the last day. 15 

32. Crishna is the creator of all 
things visible and invisible; "all this 
universe came into being through him, 
the eternal maker." 17 

33. Crishna is Alpha and Omega, 
"the beginning, the middle, and the 
end of all things. " la 

34. Crislma, when on earth, was in 
constant strife against the evil spirit. 21 
He surmounts extraordinary dangers, 
strews his way with miracles, raising 
the dead, healing the sick, restoring the 
maimed, the deaf and the blind, every- 

saints which slept ar sse and came out 
of their graves. 2 

25. Jesus was pierced with a spear 

26. Jesus said to one of the male 
factors who was crucified with him : 
Verily I say unto thee, this day shalt 
thou be with me in paradise." 6 

27. Jesus descended into hell. 8 

28. Jesus, after being put to death, 
rose again from the dead. 10 

29. Jesus ascended bodily into 
heaven, and many persons witnessed 
his ascent, 12 

30. Jesus is to come again on earth 
in the latter days. He will appear 
among mortals as an armed warrior, 
riding a white horse. At his approach, 
the sun and moon will be darkened, 
the earth will tremble, and the stars 
fall from the firmament. 14 

31. Jesus is to be judge of the dead 
at the last day. 16 

32. Jesus is the creator of all things 
visible and invisible; "all this universe 
came into being through him, the 
eternal maker. 18 

33. Jesus is Alpha and Omega, the 
beginning, the middle, and the end of 
all things. 20 

34. Jesus, when on earth, was in 
constant strife against the evil spirit. 22 
He surmounts extraordinary dangers, 
strews his way with miracles, raising 
the dead, healing the sick, restoring 
the maimed, the deaf and the blind, 

1 Prog. Eelig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 71. 
3 Matt. xxii. Luke, xxviii. 

3 See ch. xx. 

4 John, xix. 34. 

5 See Vishnu Purana, p. 012. 
8 Luke, xxiii. 43. 

7 See ch. xxii, 

8 See Ibid. 

9 See ch. xxiii. 

10 Matt, xxviii. 

11 See ch. xxiii. 

12 See Acts, i. 9-11. 

13 See ch. xxiv. 

14 See passages quoted in ch. xxiv. 
18 See Oriental Religions, p. 504. 

" Malt. xxiv. 81. Rom. xiv. 10. 
1T 8ee ch. xxvi. 

is John, i. 3. I. Cor. viii. 0. Eph. iii. 9. 

See Geeta, lee. x. p. 85. 

80 Rev. i. 8, 11 ; xxii. 13 ; xxi. 6. 

21 He is described as a superhuman organ 
of light, to whom the superhuman organ of 
darkness, the evil serpent, was opposed. He 
is represented " bruising the head of the ser 
pent, 1 and standing upon him. (See illustra 
tions in vol. i. Asiatic Researches : vol. ii. 
Higgius" Anacalypsis ; Calmet s Fragments, 
and other works illustrating Hindoo Mythology.) 

22 Jesus, " the Sun of Righteousness," is 
also described as a superhuman organ of light, 
opposed by Satan, "the old serpent." He is 
claimed to have been the seed of the woman 
who should " bruise the head of the serpent." 
(Genesis, iii. 15.) 


where supporting the weak against the 
strong, the oppressed against the pow 
erful. The people crowded his way, 
and adored him as a God. l 

35. Crishna had a beloved disciple 
Arjuna. 3 

36. Crishna was transfigured before 
his disciple Arjuna. "All in an instant, 
with a thousand suns, blazing with 
dazzling luster, so beheld he the glories 
of the universe collected in the one 
person of the God of Gods." 5 

Arjuna bows his head at this vision, 
and folding his hands in reverence, 
says : 

Now that I see thee as thou really 
art, I thrill with terror ! Mercy ! Lord 
of Lords, once more display to me thy 
human form, thou habitation of the 
universe." 6 

37. Crishna was "the meekest and 
best tempered of beings." " He preach 
ed very nobly indeed, and sublimely." 
"He was pure and chaste in reality," 8 
and, as a lesson of humility, " he even 
condescended to wash the feet of the 
Brahmins." 9 

38. "Crishna is {he very Supreme 
Brahma, though it be a mystery how 
the Supreme should assume the form 
of a man." 11 

39. Crishna is the second person in 
the Hindoo Trinity. 13 

everywhere supporting the weak against 
the strong, the oppressed against the 
powerful. The people crowded his 
way and adored him as a God* 

35. Jesus had a beloved disciple 

06. And after six days, Jesus taketh 
Peter, James, and John his brother, and 
briugeth them up into a high mountain 
apart, and was transfigured before 
them. And his face did shine as the 
sun, and his raiment was while a.> the 
light. . . While he yet spake, 

behold, a bright cloud overshadowed 
them, and behold, a voice out of the 
cloud, which said: etc." "And when 
the disciples heard it, they fell on their 
faces, and were sore afraid." 1 

37. Jesus was the meekest and best 
tempered of beings. He preached very 
nobly indeed, and sublimely. lie was 
pure and chaste, and he even conde 
scended to wash the feet of his disciples, 
towhom he taught a lesson of humility. 10 

38. Jesus is the very Supreme Je 
hovah, though it be a mystery how the 
Supreme should assume the form of a 
man, for " Great is the mystery of 
Godliness." 14 

39. Jesus is the second person in 
the Christian Trinity. u 

I See eh. xxvii. 

3 According to the New Testament. 
8 See Bhagavat Geeta. 

4 John, xiii. 23. 

Williams Hinduism, p. 215. 

8 Ibid. p. 21(3. 7 Matt. xvii. 1-6. 

" He was pure and chaste in reality" al 
though represented as sporting amorously, 
when a youth, with cowherdesses. According 
to the pure Vaishnava faith, however, Crishna s 
love for the Gopis, and especially for his favorite 
KildluT, is to be explained allegoncally, as 
symbolizing the longing of the human soul for 
the Supreme. (Prof. Monier Williams : Uin- 
duism, p. 144.) Just as the amorous Song of 
tiolonwn" is said to be allegorical, and to 
mean Christ s love for his church." 

See Indian Antiquities, Hi. 46, and Asiatic 
Researches, vol. i. p. 273. 

! John, xiii. 

II Vishnu Purana, p. 492, note 3. 
i I. Timothy, iii. 10. 

i Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. Crishna is 
Vishnu inhuman form. "A more personal, 

and, so to speak, human god than Siva was 
needed for the mass of the people a god who 
could satisfy the yearnings of the human 
heart for religion of faith (bhakti) a god 
who could sympathize with, and condescend 
to human wants and necessities. Such a god 
was found in the second member of the Tri- 
mfltri. It was as Via/inn that the Supreme Being 
was supposed to exhibit his sympathy with 
human trials, and his love for the human race. 

"If Sic a is the great god of the Hindu 
Pantheon, to whom adoration is due from all 
indiscriminately. Vishnu is certainly its most 
popular deity. He is the god selected by far 
the greater number of individuals as their 
Saviour, protector and friend, who rescues 
them from the power of evil, interests him 
self in their welfare, and finally admits theu 
to his heaven. But it is not so much Vishnu 
in his own person as Vishnu in his incarnations, 
that effects all this for his votaries." (Prof. 
Mouier Williams : Hinduism, p. 100.) 

i* Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. Jesus \B 
the SOR in human form. 



40. Crishna said : "Let him if seek 
ing God by deep abstraction, abandon 
his possessions and his hopes, betake 
himse f to some secluded spot, and fix 
his heart and thoughts on God alone. 1 

41. Crishna said : " Whatc er thou 
dost perform, whate er thou eatest, 
whate er thou givest to the poor, 
whate er thou offerest in sacrifice, 
whate er thou doest as an act of holy 
presence, do all as if to me, O Arjuna. 
I am the great Snge, without begin 
ning ; I am the lluler and the All- 
sustainer. " 3 

42. Crishna said : "I am the cause 
of the whole universe; through me it is 
created and dissolved, on me all things 
within it hang and suspend, like pearls 
upon a string." 5 

43. Crishna said: " I am the light 
in the Sun and Moon, far, far beyond 
the darkness. I am the brilliancy in 
llame, the radiance in all that s radiant, 
and the light of lights." 7 

44. Crishna said : I am the sustain- 
er of the world, its friend and Lord. I 
am its way and refuge. " 9 

45. Crishna said 
ness of the good; 

"I am the Good- 
1 am Beginning, 
Middle, End, Eternal Time, the Birth, 
the Death of all." 11 

40. Crishna said: "Then be not 
sorrowful, from all thy sins I will 
deliver thee. Think thou on me, have 
faith in me, adore and worship me, 
and join thyself in meditation to me ; 
thus shalt thou come to me, O Arjuna ; 
thus shalt thou rise to my supreme 
abode, where neither sun nor moon 
hath need to shine, for know that all 
the lustre they possess is mine." 13 

40. Jesus said: "But tbou, when 
thou prayest, enter into thy closet, and 
when then hast shut thy door, pray to 
thy Father, which is in secret." 2 

41. Jesus said: " Whether therefore 
ye eat, or drink, or whatsoever ye do, 
do all to the glory of God " 4 who is the 
great Sage, without beginning; the 
Ruler and the All-sustainer. 

42. " Of him, and through him, and 
unto him, are all things." "All things 
were made by him ; and without him 
was not anything made that was made. " 6 

43. "Then spoke Jesus again unto 
them, saying : I am the light of the 
world; he that followeth me shall not 
walk in darkness, but shall have the 
light of life." 8 

44. "Jesus said unto them, I am 
the way, the truth, and the life. No 
man cometh unto the Father, but by 
me." 10 

45. "I am the first and the last; 
and have the keys of hell and of 
death." 12 

46. Jesus said: " Be of good cheer; 
thy sins be forgiven thee." 14 "My 
son, give me thine heart." 15 " The 
city had no need of the sun, neither of 
the moon, to shine in it ; for the glory 
of God did lighten it." 16 

Many other remarkable passages might be adduced from the 
Bhagavad-gita, the following of which may be noted :" 

Williams Hinduism, p. 211. 

Matt. vi. 6. 

Williams Hinduism, p. 212. 

I. Cor. x. 31. 

Williams Hinduism, p. 213. 

John, i. 3. 

Williams Hinduism, p. 213. 

John. viii. 12. 

Williams Hinduism, p. 213. 

10 John, xiv. 6. 

11 Williams Hinduism, p. 213. 
i Rev. i. 17, 18. 

18 Williams Hinduism, p. 214. 
i* Matt. ix. 2. 
18 Prov. xxiii. 26. 
i Rev. xxi. 23. 

17 Quoted from Williams 1 Hinduism pp. 


"He who has brought his members under subjection, but sits with foolish 
minds thinking in his heart of sensual things, is called a hypocrite." (Compare 
Matt. v. 28.) 

" Many are my births that are past ; many are thine too, O Arjuna. I know 
them all, but thou knowest them not." (Comp. John, viii. 14.) 

"For the establishment of righteousness am I born from time to time." 
(Comp. John, xviii. 37 ; I. John, iii. 3.) 

"I am dearer to the wise than all possessions, and he is dearer to me." 
(Comp. Luke, xiv. 33 ; John, xiv. 21.) 

"The ignorant, the unbeliever, and he of a doubting mind perish utterly." 
(Comp. Mark, xvi. 10.) 

"Deluded men despise me when I take human form/ (Comp. John, i. 10.) 

Crisbna had the titles of " Saviour," " Redeemer," " Preserver," 
"Comforter," "Mediator," &c. He was called "The Resurrec 
tion and the Life," " The Lord of Lords," The Great God," " The 
Holy One," " The Good Shepherd," &c. All of which are titles 
applied to Christ Jesus. 

Justice, humanity, good faith, compassion, disinterestedness, in 
fact, all the virtues, are said 1 to have been taught by Crisbna, both 
by precept and example. 

The Christian missionary Georgius, who found the worship of 
the crucified God in India, consoles himself by saying : " That which 
P. Cassianus Maceratentis had told me before, I find to have been 
observed more fully in French by the living De Guignes, a most 
learned man ; i. e., that Crishna is the very name corrupted of 
Christ the Saviour." 2 Many others have since made a similar state 
ment, but unfortunately for them, the name Crishna has nothing 
whatever to do with " Christ the Saviour." It is a purely Sanscrit 
word, and means " the dark god " or " the black god." 3 The word 
Christ (which is not a name, but a title), as we have already seen, is 
a Greek word, and means " the Anointed," or " the Messiah." The 
fact is, the history of Christ Crishna is older than that of Christ 

Statues of Crishna are to be found in the very oldest cave tem 
ples throughout India, and it has been satisfactorily proved, on the 
authority of a passage of Arrian, that the worship of Crishna was 
practiced in the time of Alexander the Great at what still remains 
one of the most famous temples of India, the temple of Matlmra, 
on the Jumna river, 4 which shows that he was considered a god at 

1 It is said in the Hindoo sacred books that cavcrat P. Cassianus Maceratentis, sic nunc 

Crishra was a religious teacher, but, as we have nberius in GalHis observatum intelligo avivo 

previously remarked, this is a later addition litteratissimo De Guignes) nomen ipsum cor- 

to his legendary history. In the ancient epic ruptum Christi Servatoris." 
poems he is pimply a great hero and warrior. * See Williams Hinduism, and Maurice : 

The portion pertaining to his religious career, Hist. Hindostan, vol. ii. p. 2G9. 
is evidently a copy of the history of Buddha. < See Celtic Druids, pp. 256, 257. 

1 " Est Crishna (quod ut naihi pridem indi- 


that time. 1 We have already seen that, according to Prof. Moniei 
Williams, he was deified about the fourth century B. c. 
Rev. J. P. Lundy says : 

" If we may believe so good an authority as Edward Moor (author of Moor s 
" Hindu Pantheon, "and " Oriental Fragments "), both the name of Crishna, and 
the general outline of his history, were long anterior to the birth of our Saviour, 
as very certain things, and probably extended to the time of Homer, nearly nine 
hundred years before Christ, or more than a hundred years before Isaiah lived 
and prophesied." 3 

In the Sanscrit Dictionary, compiled more than two thousand 
years ago, we have the whole story of Crishna, the incarnate deity, 
born of a virgin, and miraculously escaping in his infancy from 
Kansa, the reigning monarch of the country. * 

The Rev. J. B. S. Carwithen, known as one of the " Brampton 
Lecturers," says : 

" Both the name of Crishna and the general outline of his story are long an 
terior to the birth of our Saviour; and this we know, not on the presumed anti 
quity of the Hindoo records alone. Both Arrian and Strabo assert that the god 
Crishna was anciently worshiped at Mathura, on the river Jumna, where he is 
worshiped at this day. But the emblems and attributes essential to this deity are 
also transplanted into the mythology of the West." 4 

On the walls of the most ancient Hindoo temples, are sculptured 
representations of the flight of Vasudeva and the infant Saviour 
Crishna, from King Kansa, who sought to destroy him. The story 
of the slaughtered infants is also the subject of an immense sculp 
ture in the cave temple of Elephanta. A person with a drawn 
sword is represented surrounded by slaughtered infant boys, while 
men and women are supplicating for their children. The date of 
this sculpture is lost in the most remote antiquity. 5 

Thejte roof of this cavern-temple, and that of Ellora, and every 
other circumstance connected with them, prove that their origin 
must be referred to a very remote epoch. The ancient temples can 
easily be distinguished from the more modern ones such as those 
of Solsette by the shape of the roof. The ancient are flat, while 
the more modern are arched." 

1 " Alexander the Great made his expedition (Patna), during a long sojourn in that city col- 

to the banks of the Indus about 327s. c., and lected further information, of which Strabo, 

to this invasion is due the first trustworthy Pliny, Arrian, and others availed themselves." 

information obtained by Europeans concern- (Williams Hinduism, p. 4.) 

ing the north-westerly portion of India and the 2 Monumental Christianity, p, 151. See also, 

region of the five rivers, down which the Asiatic Researches, i. 273. 

Grecian troops were conducted in ships by 8 See Asiatic Researches, vol. i. pp. 259-273, 

Nearchus. Megasthenes, who was the embas- 4 Quoted in Monumental Christianity, pp. 

sador of Seleukos Nikator (Alexander s succes- 151, 152. 

sor, and ruler over the whole region between 8 See chapter xviii. 

the Euphrates and Indus, B. c. 319), at the court See Prichard s Egyptian Mythology, p. 112. 
of Candra-gupa (Sandrokottus), in Pataliputra 


The Bhagavad gita, which contains so mary sentiments akin 
to Christianity, and which was not written unti/ about the first or 
second century, 1 has led many Christian scholars to believe, and at 
tempt to prove, that they have been borrowed from the New Tes 
tament, but unfortunately for them, their premises are untenable. 
Prof. Monier Williams, the accepted authority on Hindooism, and a 
thorough Christian, writing for the * Society for Promoting Chris 
tian Knowledge," knowing that he could not very well overlook 
this subject in speaking of the Bhagavad-gita, says : 

" To any one who has followed me in tracing the outline of this remarkable 
philosophical dialogue, and has noted the numerous parallels it offers to passages 
in our Sacred Scriptures, it may seem strange that I hesitate to concur to any 
theory which explains these coincidences by supposing that the author had ac 
cess to the New Testament, or that he derived some of his ideas from the first 
propagaters of Christianity. Surely it will be conceded that the probability of 
contact and interaction between Gentile systems and the Christian religion of the 
first two centuries of our era must have been greater in Italy than in India. Yet, 
if we take the writings and sayings of those great Roman philosophers, Seneca, 
Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, we shall find them full of resemblances to pass 
ages in our Scriptures, while their appears to be no ground whatever for sup 
posing that these eminent Pagan writers and thinkers derived any of their ideas 
from either Jewish or Christian sources. In fact, the Rev. F. W. Farrar, in his 
interesting and valuable work Seekers after God, has clearly shown that to 
say that Pagan morality kindled its faded taper at the Gospel light, whether 
furtively or unconsciously, that it dissembled the obligation and made a boast of 
the splendor, as if it were originally her own, is to make an assertion wholly 
untenable. He points out that the attempts of the Christian Fathers to make out 
Pythagoras a debtor to Hebraic wisdom, Plato an Atticizing Moses, Aristote a 
picker-up of ethics from a Jew, Seneca a correspondent of St. Paul, were due in 
some cases to ignorance, in some to a want of perfect homsty in controversial 
dealing. 4 

"His arguments would be even more conclusive if applied to the Bhagavad-gita, the 
author of whicM. was probably contemporaneous with Seneca. 3 It must, indeed, 
be admitted that the flames of true light which emerge from the mists of pan 
theism in the writings of Indian philosophers, must spring from the same source 
of light as the Gospel itself ; but it may reasonably be questioned whether there 
could have been any actual contact of the Hindoo systems with Christianity with- 

1 In speaking of the antiquity of the reader to "Seekers after God." by the Rev. 

Bhagarad-gita, Prof. Monier Williams says : F. W. Farrar, and Dr. Ramage s "Beautiful 

" The author was probably a Brahman and Thoughts." The same sentiments are to bs 

nominally a Vishnava, bnt really a philosopher found in Manu, which, says Prof. Williams. 

whose mind was cast in a broad and compre- "few will place later than the fifth century 

beusive mould. He is supposed to have lived B.C." The Mahabhrata, written many centuries 

in India during the first and second century B. c., contains numerous parallels to New Tes- 

of our era. Some consider that he lived as late tamcnt sayings. (See our chapter on " Pagan- 

as the third century, and some place him even ism in Christianity.") 

later, but with these I cannot agree." (Indian 8 Seneca, the celebrated Roman philosopher, 

Wisdom, p. 137.) was born at Corduba, in Spain, a few years 

3 In order that the resemblances to Christian B.C. When a child, he was brought by his father 

Scripture in the writings of Roman philosophers to Rome, where he was initiated in the study 

siay be compared, Prof. Williams refers the of eloquence. 


out a more satisfactory result in tiie modification of pantheistic and anti-Chris 
tian ideas." 1 

Again lie says : 

" It should not be forgotten that although the nations of Europe have changed 
their religions during the past eighteen centuries, the Hindu has not done so, ex 
cept very partially. Islam converted a certain number by force of arms in the 
eighth and following centuries, and Christian truth is at last slowly creeping 
onwards and winning its way by its own inherent energy in the nineteenth; but 
the religious creeds, rites, customs, and habits of thought of the Hindus generally, haw 
altered little since the days of Nairn, five hundred years B. c. " 2 

These words are conclusive ; comments, therefore, are unneces 

Geo. W. Cox, in his " Aryan Mythology," speaking on this sub 
ject says : 

"It is true that these myths have been crystallized around the name of Crishna 
in ages subsequent to the period during which the earliest vedic literature came 
into existence; but the myths themselves are found in this older literature associated 
with other gods, and not always only in germ. There is no more room for infer 
ring foreign influence in the growth of any of these myths than, as Bunsen rightly 
insists, there is room for tracing Christian influence in the earlier epical literature of 
the Teutonic tribes. Practically the myths of Crishna seems to have been fully 
developed in the days of Megasthenes (fourth century B. c.) who identities him 
with the Greek Hercules." 3 

It should be remembered, in connection with this, that Dr. 
Parkhurst and others have considered Hercules a type of Christ 

In the ancient epics Crishna is made to say : 

"I am Vishnu, Brahma, Indra, and the source as well as the destruction of 
things, the creator and the annihilator of the whole aggregate of existences. 
While all men live in unrighteousness, I, the unfailing, build up the bulwark of 
righteousness, as the ages pass away." 4 

These words are almost identical with what we find in the 
Bhagavad-gita. In the JHfaha-bharata, Vishnu is associated or 
identified with Crishna, just as he is in the Bhagavad-gita and 
Vishnu Purana, showing, in the words of Prof. Williams, that : the 
Puranas, although of a comparatively modern date, are neverthe 
less composed of matter to be found in the two great epic poems 
the Ramayana and the Maha-bharata* 

1 Indian Wisdom, pp. 153, 154. Similar Williams Hinduism, pp. 119-110. It was 
sentiments are expressed in his Hinduism, pp. from these sources that the doctrine of incar- 
212-220. nation was first evolved by the Brahman. 

2 Indian Wisdom, p. iv. They were written many centuries B. c. (Sea 
Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. II. pp. 137, 138. Ibid.) 

Ibid. p. 131. 



" The more I learn to know Buddha the more I adinirc him, and the sooner 
all mankind shall have been made acquainted with his doctrines the better it will 
be, for he is certainly one of the heroes of humanity." Famboll. 

THE mythological portions of the histories of Buddha and Jesus 
are, without doubt, nearer in resemblance than that of any two char 
acters of antiquity. The cause of this we shall speak of in our 
chapter on " Why Christianity Prospered, and shall content our 
selves for the present by comparing the following analogies : 

1. Buddha was born of the Virgin 
Mary. 1 who conceived him without car 
nal intercourse. 2 

2. The incarnation of Buddha is 
recorded to have been brought about 
by the descent of the divine power 
called the Holy Ghost," upon the 
Virgin Maya. 4 

3. When Buddha descended from 

1. Jesus was born of the Virgin 
Mary, who conceived him without car 
nal intercourse. 3 

2. The incarnation of Jesus is re 
corded to have been brought about by 
the descent of the divine power called 
the "Holy Ghost," upon the Virgin 
Mary. 3 

3. When Jesus descended from his 

1 Maya, and Mary, as we have already seen, 
are one and the same name. 

3 See chap. xii. Buddha is considered to be 
an incarnation of Vishnu, although he preached 
against the doctrines of the Brahmans. The 
adoption of Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu 
was really owning to the desire of the Brahmans 
to effect a compromise with Buddhism. (See 
Williams Hinduism, pp. 82 and 108.) 

" Buddha was brought forth not from the 
matrix, but from the right side, of a virgin." 
(De Guignes : Hist, des Huus. torn. i. p. 2-24.) 

" Some of the (Christian) heretics main 
tained that Christ was born from the side of 
hie mother. 11 (Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 157.) 

" In the eyes of the Buddhists, this personage 
is sometimes a man and sometimes a god, or 
rather both one and the other, a divine incar 
nation, a man-god ; who came into the world 
to enlighten men, to redeem them, and to indi 
cate to them the way of safety. This idea of 
redemption by a divine incarnation is so gen- 


eral and popular among the Buddhists, that 
during our travels in Upper Asia, we every 
where found it expressed in a neat formula. 
If we addressed to a Mongol or Thibetan the 
question, Who is Buddha? he would imme 
diately reply, The Saviour of Men. " (M. 
L Abbe Hue : Travels, vol. i. p. 32U.) 

" The miraculous birth of Buddha, his life 
and instructions, contain a great number of the 
moral and dogmatic truths professed in Chris 
tianity." (Ibid. p. 327.) 

" He in mercy left paradise, and came down 
to earth because he was filled with compassion 
for the sins and misery of mankind. He 
sought to lead them into better paths, and took 
their sufferings upon himself, that he might 
expiate their crimes, and mitigate the punish 
ment they must otherwise inevitably undergo." 
(L. Maria Child.) 

" Matt. ch. i. 

4 See Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 10, 25 an& 
44. Also, ch. xiii. this work. 




the regions of the souls, l and entered 
the body of the Virgin Maya, her womb 
assumed the appearance of clear trans 
parent crystal, in which Buddha ap 
peared, beautiful as a flower. 2 

4. The birth of Buddha was an 
nounced in the heavens by an asterim 
which was seen rising 011 the horizon. 
It is called the Messianic Star. " 4 

5. "The son of the Virgin Maya, 
on whom, according to the tradition, 
the Holy Ghost had descended, was 
said to have been born on Christmas 

G. Demonstrations of celestial de 
light were manifest at the birth of Bud 
dha. The J)evas s in heaven and earth 
sang praises to the "Blessed One, 
and said: " To day, Bodliisatwa is born 
on earth, to give joy and peace to men 
and Devas, to shed light in the dark 
places, and to give sight to the blind." 9 

7. " Buddha was visited by wise 
men who recognized in this marvelous 
infant all the characters of the divinity, 
and he had scarcely soon the day before 
he was hailed God of Gods." 11 

8. The infant Buddha was presented 
with " costly jewels and precious sub 
stances." 13 

9. When Buddha was an infant, 
just born, he spoke to his mother, and 
said: " I am the greatest among men." 15 

heavenly seat, and entered the body of 
the Virgin Mary, her womb assumed 
the appearance of clear transparent 
crystal, in which Jesus appeared beau 
tiful as a flower. 3 

4. The birth of Jesus was announced 
in the heavens by "his star," which was 
seen rising on the horizon. 5 It might 
properly be called the "Messianic 

5. The Son of the Virgin Mary, on 
whom, according to the tradition, the 
Holy Ghost had descended, was said 
to have been born on Christinas day. 7 

6. Demonstrations of celestial de 
light were manifest at the birth of Jesus. 
The angels in heaven and earth sang 
praises to the " Blessed One," saying : 
"Glory to God in the highest, and on 
earth peace, good will toward men. " 10 

7. Jesus was visited by wise men 
who recognized in this marvelous in 
fant all the characters of the divinity, 
and he had scarcely seen the day before 
he was hailed God of Gods. 12 

8. The infant Jesus was presented 
with gifts of gold, frankincense, and 
myrrh. 14 

0. When Jesus was an infant in hii 
cradle, he spoke to his mother, and 
said : " I am Jesus, the Son of God." 18 

1 "As a spirit in the fourth heaven he 
resolves to give up all that glory in order to 
be born in the world for tlu- purpose of res 
cuing all men from their misery and every 
future consequence of it : he vows to deliver 
all men who are left as it were without a Sa- 
viot/r." (Bunsen : The Augel -Messiah, p. 20.) 

3 See King s Gnostics, p. 168, and Hardy s 
Manual of Buddhism, p. 144. 

3 See chap. xii. note 2, page 117. 

" On a painted glass of the sixteenth cen 
tury, found in the church of Jouy, a little 
village in France, the Virgin is represented 
standing, her hands clasped in prayer, and the 
naked body of the child in the same attitude 
appears upon her stomach, apparently sup 
posed to be seen through the garments and 
body of the mother. M. Drydon saw at Lyons 
a Salutation painted on shutters, in which the 
two infants (Jesus and John) likewise depicted 
on their mothers stomachs, were also salut 
ing each other. This precisely corresponds to 

Buddhist accounts of the Boddhisattvas ante 
natal proceedings." (Viscount Amberly : 
Analysis of Relig. Belief, p. 224, note.) 

* See chap. xiii. 
Matt. ii. 1, 2. 

Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. x. 

7 We show, in our chapter on " The 
Birth-Day of Christ Jesus," that this was not 
the case. This day was adopted by his fol 
lowers long after his death. 

8 "Devas," i. e., angels. 

9 See chap. xiv. 

10 Luke, ii. 13, 14. 

11 See chap. xv. 

12 Matt. ii. 1-11. 

13 See chap. xi. 
i* Matt. ii. 11. 

J8 See Hardy s Manual of Buddhism, pp. 145, 

16 Gospel of Infancy, Apoc., i. 3. No sooner 
was Apollo born than he spoke to his virgin- 
mother, declaring that he should teach to men 



10. Buddha was a " dangerous 
child." His life was threatened by 
King Bimbasara, who was advised to 
destroy the child, as he was liable to 
overthrow him. l 

11. When sent to school, the young 
Buddha surprised his masters. With 
out having ever studied, he completely 
worsted all his competitors, not only in 
writing, but in arithmetic, mathema 
tics, metaphysics, astrology, geome 
try, &c. 4 

12. When twelve years old the 
child Buddha is presented in the tem 
ple. He explains and asks learned 
questions ; he excels all those who enter 
into competition with him." 6 

13. Buddha entered a temple, on 
which occasion forthwith all the statues 
rose and threw themselves at his feet, 
in act of worship. 8 

14. "The ancestry of Gotama Bud 
dha is traced from his father, Sodhd- 
dana, through various individuals and 
races, all of royal dignity, to Malia 
Sammata, the first monarch of the 
world. Several of the names and some 
of the events are met with in the Pur- 
anas of the Brahmans, but it is not 
possible to reconcile one order of state 
ment with the other ; and it would 
appear that the Buddhist historians 

10. Jesus was a " dangerous child." 
His life was threatened by King Her 
od, 9 who attempted to destroy the 
child, as he was liable to overthrow 
him. 8 

11. When sent to school, Jesus sur 
prised his master Zaccheus, who, turn 
ing to Joseph, said : Thou hast brought 
a boy to me to be taught, who is more 
learned than any master." 6 

12. "And when he was twelve years 
old,they brought him to (the temple at) 
Jerusalem .... While in the temple 
among the doctors and elders, and 
learned men of Israel, he proposed 
several questions of learning, and also 
gave them answers." 7 

13. "And as Jesus was going in by 
the ensigns, who carried the standards, 
the tops of them bowed down and wor 
shiped Jesus." 9 

14. The ancestry of Jesus is traced 
from his father, Joseph, through vari 
ous individuals, nearly all of whom 
were of royal dignity, to Adam, the 
first monarch of the world. Several of 
the names, and some of the events, are 
met with in the sacred Scriptures of 
the Hebrews, but it is not possible to 
reconcile one order of statement with 
the other; and it would appear that 
the Christian historians have invented 

the councils of hie heavenly father Zeus. (See 
Cox : Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. p. 22.) Ilermes 
epoke to his mother as soon as he was born, 
and, according to Jewish tradition, so did 
Moses. (See Hardy s Manual of Buddhism, p. 

See Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 103, 104. 

* See Matt. ii. 1. 

That is, provided he was the expected 
Messiah, who was to be a mighty prince and 

warrior, and who was to rule his people Israel. 

See Hardy s Manual of Buddhism ; Bun- 
een s Angel-Messiah ; Beal s Hist. Buddha, 
and other works on Buddhism. 

This was a common myth. For instance : 
A Brahman called Dashthaka, a "heaven de 
scended mortal," after his birth, without any 
human instruction whatever, was able thor 
oughly to explain the four Vedas, the collective 
body of the sacred writings of the Hindoos, 
which were considered as directly revealed by 
Brahma. (See Beal s Hist. Buddha, p. 48.) 

Confucius, the miraculous-born Chinese 
sage, was a wonderful child. At the age of 
seven he went to a public school, the superior 
of which was a person of eminent wisdom and 
piety. The faculty with which Confucius im 
bibed the lessons of his master, the ascendency 
which he acquired amongst his fellow pupils, 
and the superiority of his genius and capacity, 
raised universal admiration. He appeared to 
acquire knowledge intuitively, and his mother 
found it superfluous to teach him what " heaven 
had already engraven upon his heart." (See 
Thornton s Hist. China, vol. i. p. 153.) 

6 See Infancy, Apoc., xx. 11, and Luke, ii. 
46, 47, 

8 See Buneen s Angel-Messiah, p. 37, and 
Beal : Hist. Buddha, pp. 67-69. 

T See Infancy, Apoc., xxi. 1, 2, and Luke, ii. 

8 See Bunsen e Angel-Meeeiah, p. 87, and 
Beal : Hist. Bud. 67-69. 

9 Nicodemus, Apoc., ch. i. 20. 



have introduced races, and invented 
names, that they may invest their ven 
erated Sage with all the honors of 
heraldry, in addition to the attributes of 
divinity." 1 

15. When Buddha was about to go 
forth " to adopt a religious life," Mara? 
appeared before him, to tempt him. 4 

1C. Mara said unto Buddha: "Go 
not forth to adopt a religious life, and 
in seven days thou shalt become an 
emperor of the world." 6 

17. Buddha would not heed the 
words of the Evil One, and said to him : 
"Get thee away I rom me." 8 

18. After Mara had left Buddha, 
the skies rained flowers, and delici 
ous odors pervaded the air." 10 

19. Buddha fasted for a long 
period. 1-2 

20. Buddha, the Saviour, was bap 
tized, and at this recorded water- 
baptism the Spirit of God was present; 
that is, not only the highest God, but 
also the " Holy Ghost," through whom 
the incarnation of Gautama Bud 
dha is recorded to have been brought 
about by the descent of that Divine 
power upon the Virgin Maya. 14 

21. "On one occasion toward the 
end of his life on earth, Gautama Bud 
dha is reported to have been trans 
figured. When on a mountain in Cey 
lon, suddenly a flame of light de 
scended upon him and encircled the 
crown of his head with a circle of 
light. The mount is called Pandava, 
or yellow- white color. It is said that 
the glory of his person shone forth 
with double power, that his body was 
glorious as a bright golden image, 
that he shone as the brightness of the 
sun and moon, that bystanders ex 
pressed their opinion, that he could 
not be an e very-day person, or a 

and introduced names, that they may 
invest their venerated Sage with all the 
honors of heraldry, in addition to the 
attributes of divinity. 2 

15. When Jesus was about " begin 
ning to preach," the devil appeared be 
fore him, to tempt him. 5 

16. The devil said to Jesus: If thou 
wilt fall down and worship me, I will 
give thee all the kingdoms of the 
world. 7 

17. Jesus would not heed the words 
of the Evil One, and said to him: "Get 
thee behind me, Satan." 9 

18. After the devil had left Jesus, 
"angels cauie and ministered unto 
him." 11 

19. Jesus fasted forty da} r s and 
nights. 13 

20. Jesus was baptized by John in 
the river Jordan, at which time the 
Spirit of God was present; that is, not 
only the highest God. but also the 
"Holy Ghost," through whom the in 
carnation of Jesus is recorded to have 
been brought about, by the descent of 
that Divine power upon the Virgin 
Mary. 15 

21. On one occasion during his 
career on earth, Jesus is reported to 
have been transfigured: "Jesus taketh 
Peter, James, and John his brother, 
and bringeth them up into a high 
mountain apart. And was transfigured 
before them: and his face did shine as 
the sun, and his raiment as white as 
the light." 16 

1 R. Spence Hardy, in Manual of Buddhism. 

2 See chap. xvii. 

3 "J/ara" is the "Author of Evil," the 
" King of Death," the " God of the World of 
Pleasure," &c., i. e., the Devil. (See Beal : 
Hist. Buddha, p. 36.) 

4 See ch. xix. 

* Matt. iv. 1-18. 

See ch. xix. 

Matt. iv. 8-19. 
See ch. xix. 
Luke, iv. 8. 

10 See ch. xix. 

11 Matt. iv. 11. 
* See ch. xix. 
i Matt. iv. 2. 

i* Bunsen : The Angel-Meeeiah, p. 45. 
is Matt. iii. 13-17. 16 Matt. xvii. 1 



mortal man, and that his body was 
divided into three 1 parts, from each of 
which a ray of light issued forth." 2 

22. "Buddha performed great mir 
acles for the good of mankind, and the 
legends concerning him are full of the 
greatest prodigies and wonders." 3 

2;}. By prayers in the name of Bud 
dha, his followers expect to receive the 
rewards of paradise. 5 

24. When Buddha died and was 
buried, " the coverings of the body un 
rolled themselves, and the lid of his 
coffin was opened by supernatural 
powers. " ti 

25. Buddha ascended bodily to the 
celestial regions, when his mission on 
earth was fultilled. 8 

20. Buddha is to come upon the 
earth again in the latter days, his mis 
sion being to restore the world to order 
and happiness. 10 

27. Buddha is to be judge of the 
dead. u 

28. Buddha is Alpha and Omega, 
without beginning or end, "the Su 
preme Being, the Eternal One." 14 

2 J. Buddha is represented as say 
ing: "Let all the sins that were com 
mitted in this world fall on me, that 
the world maybe delivered." 17 

30. Buddha said: "Hide your good 
deeds, and confess before the world 
the sins you have committed." 19 

22. Jesus performed great miracles 
for the good of mankind, and the le 
gends coaceruing him are full of the 
greatest prodigies and wonders. 4 

2;). By prayers in the name of Jesus, 
his followers expect to receive the re 
wards of paradise. 

24. When Jesus died and was 
buried, the coverings of his body were 
unrolled from off him, and his tomb 
was opened by supernatural powers. 7 

25. Jesus ascended bodily to the 
celestial regions, when his mission on 
earth was fulfilled. 9 

20. Jesus is to come upon the earth 
again in the latter days, his mission be 
ing to restore the world to order and 
happiness. 11 

27. Jesus is to be the judge of the 
dead. 13 

28. Jesus is Alpha and Omega, 
without beginning or end, 15 the Su 
preme Being, the Eternal One. 16 

29. Jesus is represented as the Sav 
iour of mankind, and all sins that are 
committed in this world may fall on 
him, that the world may be delivered. 18 

30. Jesus taught men to hide their 
good deeds, * and to confess before the 
world the sins they had committed. 21 

1 This has evidently au allusion to the Trin 
ity. Buddha, as an incarnation of Vishnu, 
won Id be one god and yet three, three gods 
and yet one. (See the ciiapter on the Trinity.) 

2 See Buns*!! 1 * Angel-Messiah, p. 45, and 
Beal : llist. Buddha, p. 177. 

lamblichits, the great Neo-Platonic mystic, 
was at one time tramjigvred. According to 
the report of his servants, while in prayer to 
the gods, his body and clothes were changed 
to a beautiful gold color, but after he ceased 
from prayer, his body became as before. He 
then returned to the society of his followers. 
(Primitive Culture, i. 136, 137.) 

3 See ch. xxvii. 

See that recorded in Matt. viii. 28-34. 

6 See ch. xxiii. 

Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 49. 

7 See Matt, xxviii. John, xx. 

See chap, xxiii. See Acts, i. 9-12. 
* See ch. xxiv. " See Ibid. 

a See ch. xxv. " Matt, xvi.27; John, v. 22. 

14 Buddha, the Angel-Messiah, was re 
garded as the divinely chosen and incarnate 
messenger, the vicar of God. aud God himself 
ou earth." (Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. 
33. See also, our diup. xxvi.) 

15 Rev. i. 8 ; xxii. 13. 

i John, i. 1. Titus, ii. 13. Romans, tx. 5. 
Acts, vii. 59, CO. 

17 MQller : Hist, Sanscrit Literature, p. 80. 

18 This is according to Christian dogma : 

" Jesus paid it all, 

All to him is due, 
Nothing, either great or small, 
Remains for me to do." 

19 MUller : Science of Religion, p. 28. 

20 " Take heed that ye do not your alms 
before men, to be seen of them : otherwise ye 
have no reward of your father which is In 
heaven. 1 (Matt. vi. 1.) 

12 " Confess your faults one to another, and 
pray one for another, that ye may be healed." 
(James, v. 16.) 



31. "Buddha was described as a 
superhuman organ of light, to whom 
a superhuman organ of darkness, Mara 
or Naga, the Evil Serpent, was op 
posed." 1 

32. Buddha came, not to destroy, 
but to fulfill, the law. He delighted in 
" representing himself as a mere link in 
a long chain of enlightened teachers." 4 

83. One day Ananda, the disciple 
of Buddha, after a long walk in the 
country, meets with Matangi, a woman 
of the low caste of the Kandalas, near a 
well, and asks her for some water. She 
tells him what she is, and that she 
must not come near him. But he re 
plies, My sister, I ask not for thy 
caste or thy family, I ask only for a 
draught of water. She afterwards be 
came a disciple of Buddha." 6 

34. "According to Buddha, the mo 
tive of all our actions should be pity or 
low for our neighbor." 8 

35. During the early part of his ca 
reer as a teacher, "Buddha went to 
the city of Benares, and there delivered 
a discourse, by which Kondanya, and 
afterwards four others, were induced 
to become his disciples. From that 
period, whenever he preached, multi 
tudes of men and women embraced his 
doctrines." 10 

36. Those who became disciples of 
Buddha were told that they must "re 
nounce the world," give up all their 
riches, and avow poverty. 13 

81. Jesus was described as a super 
human organ of light "the Sun of 
Righteousness " 2 opposed by the 
old Serpent," the Satan, hinderer, or 
adversary. 3 

32. Jesus said: "Think not that I 
am come to destroy the law, or the 
prophets: I am not come to destroy, 
but to fulfill." 5 

33. One day Jesus, after a long 
walk, cometh to the city of Samaria, 
and being wearied with his journey, 
sat on a well. While there, a woman 
of Samaria came to draw water, and 
Jesus said unto her : give me to drink. r 
" Then said the woman unto him: How 
is it that thou, being a Jew, asketh drink 
of me, which am a woman of Samaria? 
For the Jews have no deaKngs with the 
Samaritans." 7 

34. " Love your enemies, bless them 
that curse you, do good to them that 
hate you." 9 

35. During the early part of his 
career as a teacher, Jesus went to the 
city of Capernaum, and there delivered 
a discourse. It was at this time that 
four fishermen were induced to become 
his disciples. 1 1 From that period, when 
ever he preached, multitudes of men 
and women embraced his doctrines. 12 

36. Those who became disciples of 
Jesus were told that they must renounce 
the world, give up all their riches, and 
avow poverty. u 

1 Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, pp. x. and 39. 

3 " That was the true light, which lighteth 
every man that cometh into the world." 
(John, i. 9.) 

Matt. iv. 1 ; Mark, i. 13 ; Luke, iv. 2. 

* Miiller : Science of Religion, p. 140. 

6 Matt. v. 17. 

8 Miiller : Science of Religion, p. 243. See 
also, Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, pp. 47, 48, and 
Amberly s Analysis, p. 285. 

7 John, iv. 1-11. 

Just as the Samaritan woman wondered that 
Jesus, a Jew, should ask drink of her, one of 
a nation with whom the Jews had no dealings, 
so this young Matangi warned Ananda of her 
caste, which rendered it unlawful for her to 
approach a monk. And as Jesus continued, 
nevertheless, to converse with the woman, so 
Anauda did not shrink from this outcast damsel. 
And as the disciples " marvelled " that Jesus 
should have conversed with this member of a 
despised race, so the respectable Brahmans and 

householders who adhered to Brahmanism were 
scandalized to learn that the young Matangi 
had been admitted to the order of mendicants. 

8 Miiller : Religion of Science, p, 249. 

9 Matt. v. 44. 

10 Hardy : Eastern Monachiem, p. 6. 

11 See Matt. iv. 13-25. 

13 "And there followed him great multitudes 
of people. 11 (Matt. iv. 25.) 

13 Hardy : Eastern Monachism, pp. 6 and 62 
et seq. 

While at Rajageiha Buddha called together 
his followers and addressed them at some 
length on the means requisite for Buddhist 
salvation. This eermon was summed up in the 
celebrated verse : 

" To cease from all sin, 
To get virtue. 

To cleanse one s own heart 
This is the religion of the Buddhas." 
(Rhys David s Buddha, p. 62.) 

i* See Matt. viii. 19, 20 ; xvi. 25-28. 



37. It is recorded in the "Sacred 
Canon " of the Buddhists that the mul 
titudes " required a sign" from Buddha 
"that they might believe." 1 

38. When Buddha s time on earth 
was about coming to a close, he, "fore 
seeing the things that would happen in 
future times," said to his disciple An- 
anda: " Anauda, when 1 am gone, you 
must not think there is no Buddha; the 
discourses I have* delivered, and the pre 
cepts I have enjoined, must be my suc 
cessors, or representatives, and be to you 
as Buddha." 3 

39. In the Buddhist /So?7iadeva, is to 
be found the following: "To give 
away our riches is considered the most 
difficult virtue in the world; he who 
gives away his riches is like a man who 
gives away his life: for our very life 
seems to cling to our riches. But Bud 
dha, when his mind was moved by 
pity, gave his life like grass, for the sake 
of others; why should we think of 
miserable riches! By this exalted vir 
tue, Buddha, when he was freed from 
all desires, and had obtained divine 
knowledge, attained unto Buddhahood. 
Therefore let a wise man, after he has 
turned away his desires from all pleas 
ures, do good to all beings, even unto 
sacrificing his own life, that thus lie 
may attain to true knowledge." 6 

40. Buddha s aim was to establish 

37. It is recorded in the "Sacred 
Canon " of the Christians that the mul 
titudes required a sign from Jesus that 
they might believe. 2 

38. AVhen Jesus time on earth was 
about coming to a close, he told of the 
things that would happen in future 
times, 4 and said unto his disciples: 
" Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, 
teaching them to observe all things 
whatsoever I have commanded you; 
and, lo, I am with you alway, even un 
to the nd of the world." 6 

39. "And behold, one came and 
said unto him, Good Master, what 
good thing shall I do, that 1 may have 
eternal life? . . . Jesus said unto him, 
If thou wilt be perfect, go and sell that 
thou hast, and give to the poor, and 
thou shalt have tre i lire in heaven: and 
come and follow me." 7 " Lay not up 
for yourselves treasures upon earth, 
where moth and rust doth corrupt, and 
where thieves break through and steal: 
But lay up for yourselves treasures in 
heaven, where neither moth nor rust 
doth corrupt, and where thieves do not 
break through nor steal." 8 

40. ( From that time Jesus began 

1 Miiller : Science of Religion, p. 27. 

Hardy : Eastern Monachism, p. 230. 

" Gautama Buddha is said to have an 
nounced to his disciples that the time of his 
departure had come : Arise, let us go hence, 
my time is come. Turned toward the East 
and with folded arms he prayed to the highest 
bpirit who inhabits the region of purest light, 
to Maha-Brahma, to the king in heaven, to 
Devaraja, who from his throne looked down on 
Gautama, and appeared to him in a self-chosen 
personality/ 1 (Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah. 
Compare with Matt. xxvi. 30-47.) 

3 "Then certain of the scribes and Phar 
isees answered, saying. Master, we would see 
a sign from thee. 1 (Matt. xii. 38.) 

4 See Malt, xxiv ; Mark, viii. 31 ; Luke, ix. 

Mark, xxviii. 18-20. 

Buddha at one time said to his disciples : 
"Go ye now, and preach the most excellent 
law, expounding every point thereof, and un 

folding it with care and attention in all its 
bearings and particulars. Explain the begin 
ning, the middle, and the end of the law, to 
all men without exception ; let everything 
respecting it be made publicly known and 
brought to the broad daylight." (Rhys David s 
Buddhism, p. 55, 56.) 

When Buddha, just before his death, took 
his last formal farewell of his assembled fol 
lower?, he said unto them : " Oh mendicants, 
thoroughly learn, and practice, and perfect, 
and spread abroad the law thought out and 
revealed by me, in order that this religion of 
mine may last long, and be perpetuated for 
the good and happiness of the great multi 
tudes, out of pity for the world, to the advan 
tage and prosperity of gods and men. 1 (Ibid, 
p. 172.) 

Miiller : Science of Religion, p. 244. 

Matt. xix. 16-21. 

Matt. vi. 19, 20. 



a "Religious Kingdom," a " Kingdom 
of Heaven." 1 

41. Buddha said: "I now desire to 
turn the wheel of the excellent law. 3 
For this purpose am I going to the city 
of Benares, 4 to give light to those en 
shrouded in darkness, and to open the 
gate of Immortality to man." 5 

42. Buddha said: "Though the 
heavens were to fall to earth, and the 
great world be swallowed up and pass 
away : Though Mount Sumera were to 
crack to pieces, and the great ocean be 
dried up, yet, Ananda, be assured, the 
words of Buddha are true." 7 

43. Buddha said: " There is no pas 
sion more violent than voluptuous 
ness. Happily there is but one such 
passion. If there were two, not a man 
in the whole universe could follow the 
truth." " Beware of fixing your eyes 
upon women. If you find yourself in 
their company, let it be as though you 
were not present. If you speak with 
them, guard well your hearts." 10 

44. Buddha said: "A wise man 
should avoid married life as if it were 

to preach, and to say, Repent : for the 
Kingdom of Heaven is at hand." 2 

41. Jesus, after his temptation by 
the devil, began to establish the domin 
ion of his religion, and he went for 
this purpose to the city of Capernaum. 
" The people which sat in darkness saw 
great light, and to them which sat in 
the region and shadow of death, light 
is sprung up." 6 

42. " The law was given by Moses, 
but grace and truth came by Jesus 
Christ." 8 

Verily I say unto you . . . heaven 
and earth shall pass away, but my words 
shall not pass away." 9 

43. Jesus said : Ye have heard 
that it was said by them of old time. 
Thou shalt not commit adultery: But 
I say unto you, that whosoever looketh 
on a woman to lust after her, hath com 
mitted adultery with her already in his 
heart." 11 

44. "It is good for a man not to 
touch a woman," " but if they cannot 

1 Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. x. note. 

2 Matt. iv. 17. 

3 i. e., to establish the dominion of relig 
ion. (See Beal : p. 244, note.) 

* The Jerusalem, the Rome, or the Mecca 
of India. 

This celebrated city of Benares, which has 
a population of 200,000, out of which at least 
25,000 are Brahmans, was probably one of the 
first to acquire a fame for sanctity, and it has 
always maintained its reputation as the most 
eacred spot in all India. Here, in this fortress 
of Hindooism, Brahrnanism displays itself in all 
its plentitude and power. Here the degrding 
effect of idolatry is visibly demonstrated as it is 
nowhere else except in the extreme south of In 
dia. Here, temples, idols, and symbols, sacred 
wells, springs, and pools, are multiplied beyond 
all calculation. Here every particle of ground is 
believed to be hallowed, and the very air holy. 
The number of temples is at least two thou 
sand, not counting innumerable smaller shrines. 
In the principal temple of Siva, called Visves- 
vara, are collected in one spot several thousand 
idols and symbols, the whole number scattered 
throughout the city, being, it is thought, at 
jeast half a million. 

Benares, indeed, must always be regarded 

as the Hindoo s Jerusalem. The desire of a 
pious man s life is to accomplish at least one 
pilgrimage to what he regards as a portion of 
heaven let down upon earth ; and if he can 
die within the holy circuit of the Pancakosi 
stretching with a radius of ten miles around 
the city nay, if any human being die there, 
be he Asiatic or European no previously incur 
red guilt, however heinous, can prevent his 
attainment of celestial bliss. 

6 Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 245. 

6 Matt. iv. 13-17. 

* Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. 11. 

8 John, i. 17. 

9 Luke, xxi. 32, 33. 

i Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 228. 

11 Matt. v. 27, 28. 

On one occasion Buddha preached a sermon 
on the five senses and the heart (which he 
regarded as a sixth organ of sense), which 
pertained to guarding against the passion of 
lust. Rhys Davids, who, in speaking of this 
sermon, says: "One may pause and wonder 
at finding such a sermon preached so early in 
the history of the world more than 400 years 
before the rise of Christianity and among a 
people who have long been thought peculiarly 
idolatrous and sensual. (.Buddhism, p. GO.) 



a burning pit of live coals. One who 
is not able to live in a state of celibacy 
should not commit adultery." 1 

45. "Buddhism is convinced that if 
a man reaps sorrow, disappointment, 
pain, he himself, and no other, must at 
some time have sown folly, error, sin ; 
and if not in this life then in some 
former birth." 3 

46. Buddha knew the thoughts of 
others: " By directing his mind to the 
thoughts of others, he can know the 
thoughts of all beings." 5 

47. In the Somadeva a story is re 
lated of a Buddhist ascetic whose eye 
offended him, he therefore plucked it 
out, and cast it away. 7 

48. When Buddha was about to be 
come an ascetic, and when riding on 
the horse "Kautako," his path was 
strewn with flowers, thrown there by 
Devas. 9 

Never were devotees of any creed or faith as fast bound in its 
thraldom as are the disciples of Gautama Buddha. For nearly two 
thousand four hundred years it has been the established religion of 
Burmah, Siani, Laos, Pega, Cambodia, Thibet, Japan, Tartary, Cey 
lon and Loo-Choo, and many neighboring islands, beside about 
two- thirds of China and a large portion of Siberia ; and at the pres 
ent day no inconsiderable number of the simple peasantry of 
Swedish Lapland are found among its firm adherents. 11 

contain let them marry, for it is better 
to marry than to burn." "To avoid 
fornication, let every man have his 
own wife and let every woman have 
her own husband. " 2 

45. "And as Jesus passed by, he 
saw a man which was blind from his 
birth. And his disciples asked him, 
saying, Master, who did sin, this man, 
or his parents, that he was born 
blind." 4 

46. Jesus knew the thoughts of 
others. By directing his mind to 
the thoughts of others, he knew the 
thoughts of ull beings. 6 

47. It is related in the New Testa 
ment that Jesus said: "If thy right eye 
offend thee, pluck it out, and cast it 
from thee." 8 

48. When Jesus was entering Jeru 
salem, riding on an ass, his path was 
strewn with palm branches, thrown 
there by the multitude. 10 

1 Rhys Davids Buddhism, p. 138. 

2 I. Corinth, vii. 1-7. 

3 Rhys Davids Buddhism, p. 103. 
John, ix. 1, 2. 

This is the doctrine of transmigration clearly 
taught. If this man was born blind, as pun 
ishment for some sin committed by him, this 
pin must have been committed in some former 

6 Hardy : Buddhist Legends, p. 181. 

See the story of his conversation with the 
woman of Samaria. (John, iv. 1.) And with 
the woman who was cured of the " bloody 
issue." (Matt. ix. 20.) 

7 MQller : Science of Religion, p. 245. 
s Matt. v. 29. 

8 Hardy : Buddhist Legends, p. 134. 
1 Matt. xxi. 1-9. 

Bacchus rode in a triumphal procession, 
on approaching the city of Thebes. "Pan- 
theus, the king, who had no respect for the 
new worship (instituted by Bacchus) forbade 

its rites to be performed. But when it was 
known that Bacchus was advancing, men and 
women, but chiefly the latter, young and old, 
poured forth to meet him and to join his tri 
umphal march. ... It was in vain Pan- 
theus remonstrated, commanded and threat 
ened. Go, said he to his attendants, seize 
this vagabond leader of the rout and bring 
him to me. I will soon make him confess 
his false claim of heavenly parentage and re 
nounce his counterfeit worship. " (Bultinch : 
Age of Fable, p. !. Compare with Matt. 
xxvi.; Luke, xxii. ; John xviii.) 

11 " There are few names among the men of 
the West, that stand forth as salicntly as 
Gotama Buddha, in the annals of the East. 
In little more than two centuries from his de 
cease the system he established had spread 
throughout the whole of India, overcoming 
opposition the most formidable, and binding 
together the most discordant elements ; and 
at the present moment Buddhism is the pre- 


"Well authenticated records establish indisputably t Ae facts, 
that together with a noble physique, superior mental endowments, 
and high moral excellence, there were found in Buddha a purity of 
life, sanctity of character, and simple integrity of purpose, that com 
mended themselves to all brought under his influence. Even 
at tliis distant day, one cannot listen with, tearless eyes to the touch 
ing details of his pure, earnest life, and patient endurance under 
contradiction, often fierce persecution for those he sought to 
benefit. Altogether he seems to have been one of those remarkable 
examples, of genius and virtue occasionally met with, unaccountably 
superior to the age and nation that produced them. 

There is no reason to believe that he ever arrogated to himself 
any higher authority than that of a teacher of religion, but, as in 
modern factions, there were readily found among his followers 
those who carried his peculiar tenets much further than their 
founder. These, not content with lauding duriiii; his life-time the 

O 5 

noble deeds of their teacher, exalted him, within a quarter of a 
century after his death, to a place among their deities worshiping 
as a God one they had known only as a simple-hearted, earnest, 
truth-seeking philanthropist. 1 

This worship w r as at tirst but the natural upgushing of the ven 
eration and love Gautama had inspired during his noble life, and 
his sorrowing disciples, mourning over the desolation his death had 
occasioned, turned for consolation to the theory that he still lived. 

Those who had known him in life cherished his name as the 
very synonym of all that was generous and good, and it required 
but a step to exalt him to divine honors ; and so it was that Gauta 
ma Buddha became a God, and continues to be worshiped as such. 

For more than forty years Gautama thus dwelt among his fol 
lowers, instructing them daily in the sacred law, and laying down 

vailing religion, under various modifications, of every Pali text ; and at the present day, 

of Tibet. Nepal, Siam, Burma, Japan, and in Ceylon, the usual way in which Gautama 

South Ceylon ; and in China it has a position is styled is Sarwajnan-icahanse, the Venerable 

of at least equal prominence with its two Omniscient One. 1 From his perfect wisdom, 

great rivals, Confucianism and Taouism. A according to Buddhist belief, his sinlessness 

long time its influence extended throughout would follow as a matter of course. He was 

nearly three-fourths of Asia ; from the steppes the first and the greatest of the Arahats. As 

of Tartary to the palm groves of Ceylon, and a consequence of this doctrine the belief soon 

from the vale of Cashmere to the isles of sprang up that he could not have been, that 

Japan." (R. Spence Hardy : Buddhist Leg. he was not, born as ordinary men are ; that 

p. xi.) he had no earthly father ; that he descended 

1U Gautama was very early regarded as of his own accord into his mother s womb 

omniscient, and absolutely sinless. His per- from his throne in heaven ; and that he gave 

feet wisdom is declared by the ancient epithet unmistakable signs, immediately after his birth^ 

of Samma-sambuddha, " the Completely En- of his high character and of his future greatl 

lightened One ; found at the commencement ness." (Rhys Davids Buddhism, p. 162.) 


many rules for their guidance when he should be no longer with 
them. 1 

He lived in a style the most simple and unostentatious, bore un 
complainingly the weariness and privations incident to the many 
long journeys made for the propagation of the new faith ; and per 
formed countless deeds of love and mercy. 

When the time came for him to be perfected, he directed his 
followers no longer to remain together, but to go out in companies, 
and proclaim the doctrines he had taught them, found schools and 
monasteries, build temples, and perform acts of charity, that they 
might obtain merit, and gain access to the blessed shade of .Nigban, 
which he told them he was about to enter, and where they believe 
he has now reposed more than two thousand years." 

To the pious Buddhist it seems irreverent to speak of Gautama 
by his mere ordinary and human name, and he makes use therefore, 
of one of those numerous epithets which are used only of the Bud- 
dha, " the Enlightened One." Such are Sakya-sinJia, " the Lion of 
the Tribe of Sakya ;" Sakya-muni, " the Sakya Sage ;" Suyata, " the 
Happy One ;" Sattha, " the Teacher ;" Jina, " the Conqueror ;" 
Jfhagavad) u the Blessed One ;" Loka-natlia, " the Lord of the 
AV 7 orld ;" Sarvajna, " the Omniscient One ;" Dharma-raja, " the 
King of Righteousness ; he is also called u the Author of Happi 
ness," " the Possessor of All," " the Supreme Being," " the Eternal 
One," " the Dispeller of Pain and Trouble," " the Guardian of the 
Universe," " the Emblem of Mercy," " the Saviour of the World," 
" the Great Physician," " the God among Gods," " the Anointed " 
or " the Christ," u the Messiah," " the Only-Begotten," " the 
Heaven-Descended Mortal," " the Way of Life, and of Immortal- 

At no time did Buddha receive his knowledge from a human 

1 Gautama Buddha left behind him no writ- days by heart. (See Rhys Davids Buddhism, 

ten works, but the Buddhists believe that he pp. 9, 10.) 

composed works which his immediate disciples a Compare this with the names, titles, and 

learned by heart in his life-time, and which characters given to Jesus. He is called the 

were handed down by memory in their original "Deliverer," (Acts, vii. 35) ; the " First Be- 

Ptate until they were committed to writing. gotten" (Rev. i. 5); "God blessed forever" 

This is not impossible : it is known that the (Rom. ix. 5); the "Holy One" (Luke, iv. 84; 

Vedas were handed down in this manner for Acts. iii. 14); the "King Everlasting" (Luk, 

many hundreds of years, and none would now i. 33); "King of Kings" (Rev. xvii. 14); 

dispute the enormous powers of memory to "Lamb of God" (John, i. 29,30); "Lord of 

which Indian priests and monks attained, Glory " (I. Cor. ii. 8) ;" Lord of Lords " (Rev. 

when written books were not invented, or only xvii. 14); "Lion of the tribe of Judah" (Rev. 

used as helps to memory. Even though they v. 5); "Maker and Preserver of all things" 

are well acquainted with writing, the monks (John, i. 3, 10; I. Cor. viii. 6; Col. i. 16); 

in Ceylon do not use books in their religious lv Prince of Peace " (Isai. ix. 6j; "Redeemer," 

cervices, but, repeat, for instance, the whole "Saviour," "Mediator," "Word," &c., &c. 
of the fatimokkha on Uposatha (Sabbath) 


source, that is, from flesh and blood. His source was the power of 
his divine wisdom, the spiritual power of Maya, which ha already 
possessed before his incarnation. It was by this divine power, 
which is also called the " Holy Ghost," that he became the Saviour, 
the Kimg-teng, the Anointed or Messiah, to whom prophecies had 
pointed. Buddha was regarded as the supernatural light of the 
world ; and this world to which he came was his own, his posses 
sion, for he is styled : " The Lord of the World." 1 

" Gautama Buddha taught that all men are brothers 8 that 
charity ought to be extended to all, even to enemies ; that men 
ought to love truth and hate the lie ; that good works ought not be 
done openly, but rather in secret ; that the dangers of riches are to 
be avoided ; that man s highest aim ought to be purity in thought, 
word and deed, since the higher beings are pure, whose nature is 
akin to that of man." 3 

" Sakya-Huni healed the sick, performed miracles and taught 
his doctrines to the poor. He selected his first disciples among lay 
men, and even two women, the mother and wife of his first convert, 
the sick Yasa, became his followers. He subjected himself to the 
religious obligations imposed by the recognized authorities, avoided 
strife, and illustrated his doctrines by his life." 4 

It is said that eighty thousand followers of Buddha went forth 
from Hindostan, as missionaries to other lands ; and the traditions 
of various countries are full of legends concerning their benevo 
lence, holiness, and miraculous power. His religion has never been 
propagated by the sword. It has been effected entirely by the in 
fluence of peaceable and persevering devotees. 5 The era of the 
Siamese is the death of Buddha. In Ceylon, they date from the in 
troduction of his religion into their island. It is supposed to be 
more extensively adopted than any religion that ever existed. Its 
votaries are computed at four hundred millions ; more than one- 
third of the whole human race. 8 

There is much contradiction among writers concerning the date 

1 Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. 41. He was sincere, energetic, earnest, eelf-sacri- 

3 "He joined to his gifts as a thinker a pro- ficing, and devont. Adherents gathered in 
phetic ardor and missionary zeal which thousands around the person of the consistent 
prompted him to popularise his doctrine, and preacher, and the Buddha himself became the 
to preach to all without exception, men and real centre of Buddhism." (Williams Hindu- 
women, high and low, ignorant and learned ism, p. 102.) 

alike." (Rhys Davids Buddhism, p. 53.) "It may be said to be the prevailing re- 

1 Bunsen : The Angel-Messiah, p. 45. ligion of the world. Its adherents are estimat 3d 

4 Ibid. p. 46. at four hundred million*, more than a third of 
* " The success of Buddhism was in great the human race." (Chambers e Encyclo., art. 

part due to the reverence the Buddha inspired "Buddhism." See also, Buneen s Angel-Mes- 
l>y his own personal character. He practiced eiah, p. 251.) 
honestly what he preached enthusiastically. 


of the Buddhist religion. This confusion arises from the fact that 
there are several Bnddhas, 1 objects of worship ; because the word 
is not a name, bufc a title, signifying an extraordinary degree of holi 
ness. Those who have examined the subject most deeply have 
generally agreed that Buddha Sakai, from whom the religion takes 
its name, must have been a real, historical personage, who appeared 
many centuries before the time assigned for the birth of Christ 
Jesus. 2 There are many things to confirm this supposition. In 
some portions of India, his religion appears to have flourished for a 
long time side by side with that of the Brahmans. This is shown by 
the existence of many ancient temples, some of them cut in subter 
ranean rock, with an immensity of labor, which it must have re 
quired a long period to accomplish. In those old temples, his stat 
ues represent him with hair knotted all over his head, which was a 
very ancient custom with the anchorites of Hindostan, before the 
practice of shaving the dead was introduced among their devotees.* 
His religion is also mentioned in one of the very ancient epic 
poems of India. The severity of the persecution indicates that their 
numbers and influence had became formidable to the Brahmans, 
who had everything to fear from a sect which abolished hereditary 
priesthood, and allowed the holy of all castes to become teachers.* 

It may be observed that in speaking of the pre-existence of Bud 
dha in heaven his birth of a virgin the songs of the angels at 
his birth his recognition as a divine child his disputation with 
the doctors his temptation in the wilderness his transfiguration 
on the Mount his life of preaching and working miracles and 
finally, his ascension into heaven, we referred to Prof. Samuel Beal s 
" History of Buddha," as one of our authorities. This work is 
simply a translation of the " Fo-pen-hing" made by Professor Beal 
from a Chinese copy, in the " Indian Office Library." 

1 It should be understood that the Buddha of hism arose in Behar and Eastern Hindustan 

this chapter, and in fact, the Buddha of this about five centuries B. c.; and that it spread 

work, is Gautama Buddha, the Sakya Prince. with great rapidity, not by force of arms, or 

According to Buddhist belief there have been coerclonof any kind, like Muharamedanism, but 

many different Buddhas on earth. The names by the eheer persuasiveness of its doctrines." 

of twenty-four of the Buddhas who appeared (Monler Williams Hinduism, p. 7.) 
previous to Gautama have been handed down " Of the high antiquity of Buddhism there 

to ue. The Buddhavansa or " History of the is ranch collateral as well as direct evidence 

Buddhas," gives the lives of all the previous evidence that neither iiiternecinc nor foreign 

Buddhas before commencing the account of strife, not even reiigious persecution, has been 

Gautama himself. (See Rhys Davids Budd- able to destroy. . . . Witness the gigantic 

hism, pp. 179, 180.) images in the caves of Elephanta, near Bombay 

a "1 he date usually fixed for Buddha s and those of Lingi Sara, in tho interior of 

death is 543 B. o. Whether this precise year Java, all of which are known to have been in 

for one of the fjreotest epochs in the religious existence at least four centuries prior to our 

history of the human race can be accepted is Lord s advent." (The Mammoth Religion.) 
doubtful, but it is tolerably certain that Bodd- * Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 250. 


Now, in regard to the antiquity of this work, we will quote tho 
words of the translator in speaking on this subject. 
First, he says : 

We know that the Fo-pen-hing was translated into Chinese from Sanscrit (the 
ancient language of Hindostan) so early as the eleventh year of the reign of 
Wing-ping (Ming-ti), of the Han dynasty, i. e., 69 or 70 A. D. We may, there 
fore, safely suppose that tlie original work was in circulation in India for some time 
previous to this date." 1 

Again, he says : 

" There can be no doubt that the present work (. e. the Fo-pen-hing, or Hist, 
of Buddha) contains as a woof (so to speak) some of the earliest verses (Gathas) 
in which the History of Buddha was sung, long before the work itself was penned. 

These Gathas were evidently composed in different Prakrit forms (during a 
period of disintegration) before the more modern type of Sanscrit was fixed by the 
rules of Panini, and the popular epics of the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. " 3 

Again, in speaking of the points of resemblance in the history 
of Buddha and Jesus, he says : 

"These points of agreement with the Gospel narrative naturally arouse 
curiosity and require explanation. If we could prove that they (the legends 
related of Buddha) were unknown in the East for some centuries after Christ, 
the explanation would be easy. But all the evidence we have goes to prove tJie 

It would be a natural inference that many of the events in the legend of 
Buddha were borrowed from the Apocryphal Gospels, if we were quite certain 
that these Apocryphal Gospels had not borrowed from it. How then may we 
explain llio matter ? It would be better at once to say that in our present state 
Of knowledge there is no complete explanation to offer." 8 

There certainly is no " complete explanation " to be offered by 
one who attempts to uphold the historical accuracy of the New 
Testament. The " Devil " and " Type " theories having vanished, 
like all theories built on sand, nothing now remains for the honest 
man to do but acknowledge the truth, which is, that the history of 
Jesus of Nazareth as related in the books of the New Testament, 
is simply a copy of that of Buddha, -with a mixture of mythology 
"borrowed from other nations. Ernest de Bunsen almost acknowl 
edges this when he says : 

"With the remarkable exception of the death of Jesus on the cross, and of 
the doctrine of atonement by vicarious suffering, which is absolutely excluded 
by Buddhism, the most ancient of the Buddhistic records known to us contain 
statements about the life and the doctrines of Gautama Buddha which cor 
respond in a remarkable manner, and impossibly by mere chance, with the tra 
ditions recorded in the Gospels about the life and doctrines of Jesus Christ. 
It is still more strange that these Buddhistic legends about Gautama as the Angel 
Messiah refer to a doctrine which we find only in the Epistles of Paul and in the 

1 Beal : Hist. Buddha, p. vi. * Ibid. pp. x. and 3d. Ibid. pp. viii., ix. and note. 


fourth Gospel. This can be explained by the assumption of a common source 
of rev/elation ; but then the serious question must be considered, why the 
doctrine of the Angel-Messiah, supposing it to have been revealed, and which we 
find in the East and in the West, is not contained in any of the Scriptures of the 
Old Testament which can possibly have been written before the Babylonian 
Captivity, nor in the first three Gospels. Can the systematic keeping-back of 
essential truth be attributed to God or to man f " l 

Beside the worK referred to above as being translated by Prof. 
Beal, there is another copy originally composed in verse. This 
was translated by the learned Fonceau, who gives it an antiquity of 
two thousand years, " although the original treatise must be attrib 
uted to an earlier date." 3 

In regard to the teachings of Buddha, which correspond so strik 
ingly with those of Jesus, Prof. Rhys Davids, says : 

" With regard to Gautama s teachirfg we have more reliable authority than 
we have with regard to his life. It is true that none of the books of the Three 
Pitakas can at present be satisfactorily traced back before the Council of Asoka, 
held at Patna, about 250 B. c. , that is to say, at least one hundred and thirty 
years after the death of the teacher ; but they undoubtedly contain a great 
deal of much older matter. " 3 

Prof. Max Miiller says : 

"Between the language of Buddha and his disciples, and the language 
of Christ and bis apostles, there are strange coincidences. Even some of the 
Buddhist legends and parables sound as if taken from the New Testament ; 
though we know tfiat many of them existed before the beginning of the Christian 

Just as many of the myths related of the Hindoo Saviour 
Crishna were previously current regarding some of the Vedic gods, 
so likewise, many of the myths previously current regarding the 
god Sumana, worshiped both on Adam s peak, and at the cave of 
Dambulla, were added to the Buddha myth." Much of the legend 
which was transferred to the Buddha, had previously existed, and 
had clustered around the idea of a Chakrawarti.* Thus we see 
that the legend of Christ Buddha, as with the legend of Christ 
Jesus, existed before his time. 

1 Bunsen s Angel-Messiah, p. 60. an ideal of their Chakravarti, and transferred to 

a Quoted by Prof. Beal : Hast. Buddha, p. this new ideal many of the dimly sacred and 

viii. half understood traits of the Vedic heroes ? Is 

Rhys Davids Buddhism, p. 88. it surprising that the Buddhists should have 

* Science of Religion, p. 243. found it edifying to recognize in their hero the 

Rhys Davids Buddhism. Chakravarti of Righteousness, and that the 
Ibid. p. 184. story of the Buddha should be tinged with the 
" It is surprising," eays Rhys Davids, "that, coloring of these Chakravarti myths?" (Jbid. 

like Romans worshiping Augustus, or Greeks Buddhism, p. 220.) 

adding the glow of the sun-myth to the glory T In Chapter xzxLs., we shall explain tte 

at Alexander, the Indians should have formed origin of these myths. 


"We have established the fact then and no man can produce 
better authorities that Buddha and Buddhism, which correspond 
in such a remarkable manner with Jesus and Christianity, were 
long anterior to the Christian era. Now, as Ernest de Bunsen says, 
this remarkable similarity in the histories of the founders and their 
religion, could not possibly happen by chance. 

Whenever two religious or legendary histories of mythological 
personages resemble each other so completely as do the histories 
and teachings of Buddha and Jesus, the older must be the parent, 
and the younger the child. "We must therefore conclude that, 
since the history of Buddha and Buddhism is- very much older than 
that of Jesus and Christianity, the Christians are incontestably 
either sectarians or plagiarists of the religion of the Buddhists. 



WE are informed by the Mattliew narrator that when Jesus was 
eating his last supper with the disciples, 

" He took bread and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to the disciples, and 
said, Take, eat, thin is my body. And be took the cup, and gave thanks, and 
gave it to them, saying, drink ye all of it, far this is my blood of the New Testa 
ment, which is shed for many for the remission of sins." 1 

According to Christian belief, Jesus instituted this " Sacra 
ment " : as it is called and it was observed by the primitive 
Christians, as he had enjoined them ; but we shall find that this 
breaking of bread, and drinking of wine, supposed to be the body 
and blood of a god 3 is simply another piece of Paganism imbibed 
by the Christians. 

The Eucharist was instituted many hundreds of years before 
the time assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus. Cicero, the great 
est orator of Rome, and one of the most illustrious of her states 
men, born in the year 106 B. c., mentions it in his works, and 
wonders at the strangeness of the rite. " How can a man be so stu 
pid," says he, " as to imagine that which he eats to be a God ?" 
There had been an esoteric meaning attached to it from the first 
establishment of the mysteries among the Pagans, and the Euchar- 
istia is one of the oldest rites of antiquity. 

The adherents of the Grand Lama in Thibet and Tartary offer 
to their god a sacrament of bread and wine.* 

1 Matt. xxvi. 26. See also, Mark, xiv. 22. of the altar," says the Protestant divine, " is 

8 At the heading of the chapters named in the natural body and blood of Christ vert et 

the above note may be seen the words : " Jesus realiter, verily and indeed, if you take these 

keepeth the Passover(and) in^i/wfcM the Lord s terms f or spiritually by grace and efficacy; but 

Supper." if you mean really and indeed, so that thereby 

3 According to the Roman Christians, the you would include a lively and movable body 

Eucharist is the natural body and blood of under the form of bread and wine, then in 

Christ Jesus vert et realiter, but the Protestant that sense it is not Christ s body in the sacra- 

eophistically explains away these two plain ment really and indeed." 
words verily and indeed, and by the grossest See Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 203, 

abuse of language, makes them to mean sjnrit. and Anacalypsis, i. 232. 
itally by grace and efficacy. " In the sacrament 

20 305 


P. Andrada La Crozius, a French missionary, and one of the 

first Christians who went to Nepaul and Thibet, says in his " His 
tory of India :" 

" Their Grand Lama celebrates a species of sacrifice with bread and wine, in 
which, after taking a small quantity himself, he distributes the rest among the 
Lamas present at this ceremony." 1 

Iii certain rites both in the Indian and the Parsee religions, the 
devotees drink the juice of the Soina, or Ilaoma plant. They con 
sider it a god as well as a plant, just as the wine of the Christian 
sacrament is considered both the juice of the grape, and the blood 
of the Redeemer. 2 Says Mr. Baring-Gould : 

"Among the ancient Hindoos, Soma was a chief deity; he is called the 
Giver of Life and of health, the Protector, he who is the Guide to Immortality. 
He became incarnate among men, was taken by them and slain, and brayed in 
a mortar. But he rose in flame to heaven, to be the Benefactor of the World, 
and the Mediator between God and Man. Through communion with him in his 
S icriiice, man, (who partook of this god), has an assurance of immortality, for by 
that sacrament he obtains union with his divinity." 3 

The ancient Egyptians as we have seen annually celebrated 
the Resurrection of their God and Saviour Osiris, at which time 
they commemorated his death by the Eucltarist, eating the sacred 
cake, or wafer, after it had been consecrated ~by the priest, and be- 
vine veritable flesh of his flesh? The bread, after sacerdotal rites, 
became mystically the body of Osiris, and, in such a manner, they 
ate their yod. b Bread and wine were brought to the temples by the 
worshipers, as offerings. 

The Therapeutes or Essenes, whom we believe to be of Bud 
dhist origin, and who lived in large numbers in Egypt, also had the 
ceremony of the sacrament among them. 7 Most of them, however, 
being temperate, substituted water for wine, while others drank a 
mixture of water and wine. 

Pythagoras, the celebrated Grecian philosopher, who was born 
about the year 570 B. c., performed this ceremony of the sacrament* 
He is supposed to have visited Egypt, and there availed himself of 
all such mysterious lore as the priests could be induced to impart. 
He and his followers practiced asceticism, and peculiarities of diet 
and clothing, similar to the Essenes, which has led some scholars to 

1 " Leur grand Lama celebre une espece de 4 See Berwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 163. 
sacrifice avec du pain et du vin dont il prend une 8 See Ibid. p. 417. 

petite quantite, et distribue le reste aux Lamas 8 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 179. 

presens a cetteeeremonie." (Quoted in Anac- 7 See Bunsen s Keys of St. Peter, p. 199; 

alypsis, vol. ii. p. 118.) Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 60, and Lillie s Budd- 

2 Viscount Amberiy s Analysis, p. 46. hism, p. 136. 

3 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. 8 Sec Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 60. 
p. 401. 


believe that he instituted the order, but this is evidently not the 

The Kenite " King of Righteousness," Melchizedek, " a priest 
of the Most High God," brought out BREAD and WINE as a sign or 
symbol of worship ; as the mystic elements of Divine presence. In 
the visible symbol of bread ami wine they worshiped the invisible 
presence of the Creator of heaven and earth. 1 

To account for this, Christian divines have been much puzzled. 
The Rev. Dr. Milner says, in speaking of this passage : 

" It was in offering tip a sacrifice of bread and wine, instead of slaughtered 
animals, that Melchizedek s sacrifice differed from the generality of those in the 
old law, and that he prefigured the sacrifice which Christ was to i/txtifttfc in the 
new law from the same elements. No other sense than this can be elicited from 
the Scripture as to this matter ; and accordingly the holy fathers unanimously 
adhere to this meaning." 2 

This style of reasoning is in accord with the TYPE theory concern 
ing the Virgin-born, Crucified and Resurrected Saviours, but it is 
not altogether satisfactory. If it had been said that the religion of 
Melchizedek, and the religion of the Persians, were the same, there 
would be no difficulty in explaining the passage. 

Not only were bread and wine brought forth by Melchizedek 
when he blessed Abraham, but it was offered to God and eaten be 
fore him by Jethro and the elders of Israel, and some, at least, of 
the mourning Israelites broke bread and drank " the cup of conso 
lation," in remembrance of the departed, " to comfort them for the 
dead." 3 

It is in the ancient religion of Persia the religion of Mithra, 
the Mediator, the Redeemer and Saviour that we find the nearest 
resemblance to the sacrament of the Christians, and from which it 
was evidently borrowed. Those who were initiated into the mys 
teries of Mithra, or became members, took the sacrament of bread 
and wine. 4 

M. Kenan, speaking of Mithraicism, says : 

" It had its mysterious meetings: its chapels, which bore a strong resemblance 
to little churches. It forged a very lasting bond of brotherhood between its 
initiates: it had a Eucharist, a Supper so like the Christian Mysteries, that good 
Justin Martyr, the Apologist, can find only one explanation of the apparent 
identity, namely, that Satan, in order to deceive the human race, determined to 
imitate the Christian ceremonies, and so stole them." 5 

1 See Bunsen s Keys of St. Peter, p. 55, and See Bunsen e Angel-Mcesiah, p. 227. 

Genesis, xiv. 18, 19. * See King s Gnostics and their Remains, 

* St. Jerome says : " Melchizedek in typo p. xxv., and Higgins Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 

Chrieti pauein et vinum obtulit : et mysterium 58, 59. 

Chrietianuin in Salvatoris sanguine et corpore * Kenan s Hibbert Lectures, p. 85, 


The words of St. Justin, wherein he alludes to this ceremony, 
are as follows : 

"The apostles, in the commentaries written by themselves, which we call 
Gospels, have delivered down to us how that Jesus thus commanded them : He 
having taken bread, after lie had given thanks, 1 said, Do this in commemoration 
of me; this is my body. And having taken a cup, and returned thanks, he said: 
This is my blood, and delivered it to them alone. Which thing indeed the evil 
spirits have taught to be done out of mimicry in the Mysteries and Initiatory 
rites of Mitlmi. 

For you either know, or can know, that bread and a cup of water (or wine) 
are given out, with certain incantations, in the consecration of the person who 
is being initiated in the Mysteries of Mithra." 2 

This food they called the Eucharist, of which no one was allowed 
to partake but the persons who believed that the things they taught 
were true, and who had been washed with the washing that is for 
the remission of sin. 3 Tertullian, who nourished from 193 to 220 A. D., 
also speaks of the Mithraic devotees celebrating the Eucharist. 4 

The Eucharist of the Lord and Saviour, as the Magi called 
Mithra, the second person in their Trinity, or their Eucharistic sac 
rifice, was always made exactly and in every respect the same as 
that of the orthodox Christians, for both sometimes used water in 
stead of wine, or a mixture of the two. 6 

The Christian Fathers often liken their rites to those of the 
Therapeuts (Essenes) and worshipers of Mithra. Here is Justin 
Martyr s account of Christian initiation : 

"But we, after we have thus washed him who has been -convinced and 
assented to our teachings, bring him to the place where those who are called 
brethren are assembled, in order that we may offer hearty prayers in common for 
ourselves and the illuminated person. Having ended our prayers, we salute one 
another \vith a kiss. There is then brought to the president of the brethren 
bread and a cup of wine mixed with water. When the president has given thanks, 
and all the people have expressed their assent, those that are called by us 
deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed 
with water." 6 

1 In the words of Mr. King: "This expres- Christianis convenire, qua? fecerunt ex indus- 
eicm shows that the notion of blessing or con- tria ad imitationem Chriftianismi : unde 
Derating the elements was as yet unknown to Tertulliani et Patres aiunt eos talia fecisse, 
the Christian s." duce diabolo. quo vult esse eirnia Christi, &c. 

2 Apol. 1. ch. Ixvi. Vohmt itaque eos res suas ita comparasse, ut 

3 Ibid. Mithrce mysteria essent eucharisfice C/irixtiance 

4 De Prescriptions Hsereticorum, ch. xl. imago. Sic Just, Martyr (p. 98), et TertulJianus 
Tertullian explains this conformity between et Chrysostonms. In &uis etiam sacris habe- 
Christianity and Paganism, by asserting that bant Mithriaci lavacra (quasi regeneration!?) in 
the devil copied the Christian mysteries. quibus tingit et ipse (sc. sacerdos) quosdam 

6 De Tiuetione, tie oblatione panis, et de utique credentes et fideles suos, et expiatoria 

imagine resurrectiouis, videatur doctiss, de la delictorum de lavacro repromittit et sic adhuc 

Cerda ad ea Tertulliani loca ubi de hiscerebus ini iat Mithne. 1 (Hyde: Be Relig. Vet. Per 

agitur. Gentiles eitra Christum, talia cele- sian. p. ll. i) 
bnulant Mithriaca quie videbantur cum doc- 6 Justin : 1st Apol., ch. Ivi. 

triua -ucharistiv et resurrectiouis et aliis ritibua 


In the service of Edward the Sixth of England, water is directed 
to be mixed with the wine. 1 This is a union of the two ; not a 
half measure, but a double one. If it be correct to take it with 
wine, then they were right ; if with water, they still were right ; as 
they took both, they could not be wrong. 

The Iread, used in these Pagan Mysteries, was carried in Tjaskets, 
which practice was also adopted by the Christians. St. Jerome, 
speaking of it, says : 

"Nothing can be richer than one who carries the body of Christ (viz.: the 
bread) in a basket made of twigs." 2 

The Persian Magi introduced the worship of Mithra into Home, 
and his mysteries were solemnized in a cave. In the process of 
initiation there, candidates were also administered the sacrament of 
bread and wine, and were marked on the forehead with the sign of 
the cross. 3 

The ancient Greeks also had their " Mysteries" wherein they 
celebrated the sacrament of the Lord s Supper. The Rev. Robert 
Taylor, speaking of this, says : 

" The Eleusinian Mysteries, or, Sacrament of the Lord s Supper, was the most 
august of all the Pagan ceremonies celebrated, more especially by the Athenians, 
every fifth year, 4 in honor of Ceres, the goddess of com, who, in allegorical 
language, had yivcn us her flesh to eat ; as Bacchus, the god of wine, in like sense, 
had given us his Mood to drink. 

" From these ceremonies is derived the very name attached to our Christian 
sacrament of the Lord s Supper, those holy Mysteries ; and not one or two, 
but absolutely all and every one of the observances used in our Christian 
solemnity. Very many of our forms of expression in that solemnity are 
precisely the same as those that appertained to the Pagan rite," 5 

Prodicus (a Greek sophist of the 5th century B. c.) says that, the 
ancients worshiped Iread as Demeter (Ceres) and wine as Dionysos 
(Bacchus) ; therefore, when they ate the bread, and drank the wine, 
after it had been consecrated, they were doing as the Romanists 
claim to do at the present day, i. e., eating tlie flesh and drinking 
the Hood of their god." 1 

Mosheim, the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, acknowledges 
that : 

1 Dr. Grabes Notes on Ircnseus, lib. v. c. 2, The Angel-Messiah, p. 305. 

in Anac., vol. i. p. GO. * They were celebrated every fifth year at 

2 Quoted in Monumental Christianity, p. 370. Eleusis, a town of Attica, from whence their 
8 See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 3C9. name. 

" The Divine Presence called his angel of 6 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 212. 

mercy and paid unto him : Go through the Miiller: Origin of Religion, p. 181. 

midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusa- 7 "In the Bacchic Mysteries a consecrated 

lem, and set the mark of Tan (T, the headless cup (of wine) was handed around after supper, 

cross) upon the foreheads of the men that called the cup of the, {qathodaeiiion. " (Cousin: 

sigh and that cry for all the abominations Lee. on Modn. Phil. Quoted in I .-is Unveiled, 

that are done in the midst thereof/ " (Bimseu : "ii. 513. See also, Dunlap a Spirit Hist., p. 217.) 


"The profound respect that was paid to the Greek and Roman Mysteries, and 
the extraordinary sanctity that was attributed to them, induced the Christians of 
the second century, to give their religion a mystic air, in order to put it upon an 
equal footing in point of dignity, with that of the Pagans. For this purpose 
they gave the name of Mysteries to the institutions of the Gospels, and decorated 
particularly the Holy Sacrament with that title ; they used the very terms 
employed in the Heathen Mysteries, and adopted some of the rites aivl ceremonies 
of which those renowned mysteries consisted. This imitation began in the 
eastern provinces ; but, after the time of Adrian, who iirut introduced the 
mysteries among the Latins, it was followed by the Christians who dwelt in the 
western part of the empire. A great part, therefore, of the service of the Church 
in this the second century, had a certain air of the Heathen Mysteries, and 
resembled them considerably in many particulars." 1 

Eleusinian Mysteries and Christian Sacraments Compared. 

1. " I>ut as the benefit of Initiation 1. "For as the benefit is great, if, 
was great, such as were convicted of with a true penitent heart and lively 
witchcraft, murder, even though unin- faith, we receive that holy sacrament, 
tentional, or any other heinous crimes, &c., if any be an open and notorious 
were debarred from those mysteries." 2 evil-liver, or hath done wrong to his 

neighbor, &c., tha he presume not to 
come to the Lord s table." 3 

2. "At their entrance, purifying o. See the fonts of holy water at the 
themselves, by washing their hands in entrance of every Catholic chapel in 
holy water, they were at the same time Christendom for the same purpose, 
admonished to present themselves with "Let us draw near with a true 
pure minds, without which the external heart in full assurance of faith, having 
clej-nness of the body would by no our hearts sprinkled from an evil con- 
means be accepted." 4 science, and our bodies washed with 

pure water." 5 

3. "The priests who officiated in 3. The priests who officiate at these 
these sacred solemnities, were called Christian solemnities are supposed to 
Hierophants, or re Dealers of holy be re vealers of holy things. 

things. " 6 

4. The Pagan Priest dismissed their 4. The Christian priests dismiss 
congregation with these words: their congregation with these words: 

" The Lord be with you." 1 " The Lord be with you" 

These Eleusinian Mysteries were accompanied with various rites, 
expressive of the purity and self-denial of the worshiper, and were 
therefore considered to be an expiation of past sins, and to place 
the initiated under the special protection of the awful and potent 
goddess who presided over them. 8 

These mysteries were, as we have said, also celebrated in honor 
of Bacchus as well as Ceres. A consecrated cup of wine was 
handed around after supper, called the " Cup of the Agathodae- 

1 Eccl. Hist. cent. ii. pt. 2, sec. v. * Hebrews, x. 22. 

2 Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282. * See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 213. 

3 Episcopal Communion Service. 7 See Ibid. 

* Bell s Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282. 8 Kenrick s Egypt, vol. i. p. 471. 


m0 n" the Good Divinity. 1 Throughout the whole ceremony, the 
name of the Lord was many times repeated, and his brightness or 
glory not only exhibited to the eye by the rays which surrounded 
his name (or his monogram, i. n. s.), but was made the peculiar 
theme or subject of their triumphant exultation. 9 

The mystical wine and bread were used during tho Mysteries of 
Adonis, the Lord and Saviour. 3 In fact, the communion of bread 
and wine was used in the worship of nearly every important deity. 4 

The rites of Bacchus were celebrated in the British Islands in 
heathen times, 5 and so were those of Mithra, which were spread 
over Gaul and Great Britain. 6 We therefore find that the ancient 
Druids offered the sacrament of bread and wine, during which 
ceremony they were dressed in white robes, 7 just as the Egyptian 
priests of Isis were in the habit of dressing, and as the priests of 
many Christian sects dress at the present day. 

Among some negro tribes in Africa there is a belief that " on 
eating and drinking consecrated food they eat and drink the god 
himself." 8 

The ancient Mexicans celebrated the mysterious sacrament of 
the Eucharist, called the " most holy supper," during which they 
ate the flesh of their god. The bread used at their Eucharist was 
made of corn meal, which they mixed with blood, instead of wine. 
This was consecrated by the priest, and given to the people, who 
ate it with humility and penitence, as the flesh of their god. 9 

Lord Kingsborough, in his "Mexican Antiquities" speaks of the 
ancient Mexicans as performing this sacrament ; when they made 
a cake, which they called Tzoalia. The high priest blessed it in 
his manner, after which he broke it into pieces, and put it into cer 
tain very clean vessels. lie then took a thorn of maguery, which 
resembles a thick needle, with which he took up with the utmost 
reverence single morsels, which he put into the mouth of each in 
dividual, after the manner of a communion. 10 

The writer of the "Explanation of Plates of the Codex Vati- 
canus" which are copies of Mexican hieroglyphics says : 

" I am disposed to believe that these poor people have had the knowledge of 
our mode of communion, or of the annunciation of the gospel; or perhaps the 

See Dunlap s Spirit Hist., p. 217, and Isis 7 See Myths of the British Druids, p. 280, 

Unveiled, rol. ii. p. 513. and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 376. 

a See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 214. 8 Herbert Spencer : Principles of Sociol- 

See Isis Unveiled, vol. 11. p. 139. ogy, vol. i. p. 299. 

4 See Ibid. p. 513. 9 See Monumental Christianity, pp. 390 and 

See Myths of the British Druids, p. 89. 893. 

See Dupuis : Origin of Relig. Belief, p. Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 220. 


devil, most envious of the honor of God, may have led them into this supersti 
tion, in order that by this ceremony he might be adored and served as Christ our 
Lord." 1 

The Rev. Father Acosta says : 

"That which is most admirable in the hatred and presumption of Satan is, 
that he hath not only counterfeited in idolatry and sacrifice, but also in certain 
ceremonies, our Sacraments, which Jesus Christ our Lord hath instituted and the 
holy Church doth use, having especially pretended to imitate in some sort the 
Sacrament of the Communion, which is the most high and divine of all others." 

He then relates how the Mexicans and Peruvians,, in certain 
ceremonies, ate the flesh of their god, and called certain morsels of 
paste, " the flesh and bones of Vitzilipuzlti." 

" Alter putting themselves in order about these morsels and pieces of paste, 
they used certain ceremonies with singing, by means whereof they (the pieces of 
paste) were blessed and consecrated for the flesh and bones of this idol." 2 

These facts show that the Eucharist is another piece of Pagan 
ism adopted by the Christians. The story of Jesus and his disciples 
being at supper, where the Master did break bread, may be true, but 
the statement that he said, " Do this in remembrance of me," 
" this is my body," and " this is my blood," was undoubtedly in 
vented to give authority to the mystic ceremony, which had been 
borrowed from Paganism. 

Why should they do this in remembrance of Jesus ? Provided 
he took this supper with his disciples which the John narrator 
denies* he did not do anything on that occasion new or unusual 
among Jews. To pronounce the benediction, break the bread, and 
distribute pieces thereof to the persons at table, was, and is now, a 
common usage of the Hebrews. Jesus could not have commanded 
born Jews to do in remembrance of him what they already prac 
ticed, and what every religious Jew does to this day. The whole 
story is evidently a myth, as a perusal of it with the eye of a critic 
clearly demonstrates. 

The Marie narrator informs us that Jesus sent two of his dis 
ciples to the city, and told them this : 

"Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a pitcher of 
water; follow him. And wheresoever he shall go in, say ye to the goodman of 
the house, The Master saith, Where is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the 

1 Quoted in Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. before the feast opened. According to the 
221. Synoptics, Jesus partook of the Paschal sup- 

2 Acosta : Hist. Indies, vol. ii. chs. xiii. and per, was captured the first night of the feast, 
xiv. and executed on the first day thereof, which 

3 According to the " John " narrator, Jesus was on a Friday. If the John narrator s 
ate no Paschal meal, but was captured the account is true, that of the Synoptics is not, or 
evening before Passover, and was crucified vice versa. 


passover with my disciples ? And be will show you a large upper room fur 
nished and prepared : there make ready for us. And his disciples went forth, 
and came into the city, and found as he had said unto them : and they made 
ready the passover." 1 

The story of the passover or the last supper, seems to be intro 
duced in this unusual manner to make it manifest that a divine 
power is interested in, and conducting the whole allair, parallels of 
which we find in the story of Elieser and Rebecca, where Rebecca 
is to identify herself in a manner pre-arranged by Elieser with 
God ; 2 and also in the story of Elijah and the widow of Zarephath, 
where by God s directions a journey is made, and the widow is 
found. 3 

It suggests itself to our mind that that this style of connecting 
a supernatural interest with human affairs was not entirely original 
with the Mark narrator. In this connection it is interesting to 
note that a man in Jerusalem should have had an unoccupied and 
properly furnished room just at that time, when two millions of 
pilgrims sojourned in and around the city. Th man, it appears, 
wns not distinguished either for wealth or piety, for his name is 
not mentioned; he was not present at the supper, and no further 
reference is made to him. It appears rather that the Mark nar 
rator imagined an ordinary man who had a furnished room to let 
for such purposes, and would imply that Jesus knew it pro 
phetically. He had only to pass in his mind from Elijah to his 
disciple Elisha, for whom the great woman of Slmnem had so 
richly furnished an upper chamber, to find a like instance. 4 Why 
should not somebody have furnished also an upper chamber for the 
Messiah f 

The Matthew narrator s account is free from these embellish 
ments, and simply runs thus : Jesus said to some of his disciples 
the number is not given 

"Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master saith, My 
time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy house with my disciples. And 
the disciples did as Jesus had appointed them; and they made ready the pass- 
over." 5 

In this account, no pitcher, no water, no prophecy is men 
tioned. 8 

It was many centuries before the genuine heathen doctrine of 
Tr an substantiation a change of the elements of the Eucharist into 

Mark, xiv. 13-16. For further observations on this subject. 

Gen. xxiv. see Dr. Isaac M. Wise s " Martyrdom of Jesua 

I. Kings, xvii. 8. of Nazareth," a valuable little work published 

II. Kings, iv. 8. at the office of the American Israelite, Cincin- 
Matt. xxvi. 18, 19. nati, Ohio. 


the real body and blood of Christ Jesus became a tenet of the 
Christian faith. This greatest of mysteries was developed gradu 
ally. As early as the second century, however, the seeds were 
planted, when we find Ignatius, Justin Martyr, and Irenseus ad 
vancing the opinion, that the mere bread and wine became, in the 
Eucharist, something higher the earthly, something heavenly 
without, however, ceasing to be bread and wine. Though these 
views were opposed by some eminent individual Christian teachers, 
yet both among the people and in the ritual of the Church, the 
miraculous or supernatural view of the Lord s Supper gained 
ground. After the third century the office of presenting the bread 
and wine came to be confined to the ministers or priests. This 
practice arose from, and in turn strengthened, the notion which was 
gaining ground, that in this act of presentation by the priest, a sac 
rifice, similar to that once offered up in the death of Christ Jesus, 
though bloodless, was ever anew presented to God. This still 
deepened the feeling of mysterious significance and importance 
with which the rite of the Lord s Supper was viewed, and led to 
that gradually increasing splendor of celebration which took the 
form of the Mass. As in Christ Jesus two distinct natures, the 
divine and the human, were wonderfully combined, so in the 
Eucharist there was a corresponding union of the earthly and the 

For a long time there was no formal declaration of the mind of 
the Church on the real presence of Christ Jesus in the Eucharist. 
At length a discussion on the point was raised, and the most dis 
tinguished men of the time took part in it. One party maintained 
that the bread and wine are, in the act of consecration, trans 
formed by the omnipotence of God into the very ~body of Christ 
which was once born of Mary, nailed to the cross, and raised from 
the dead." According to this conception, nothing remains of the 
bread and wine but the outward form, the taste and the smell ; 
while the other party would only allow that there is some change in 
the bread and wine themselves, but granted that an actual transfor 
mation of their power and efficacy takes place. 

The greater accordance of the first view with the credulity of 
the age, its love for the wonderful and magical, the interest of the 
priesthood to add lustre, in accordance with the heathens, to a rite 
which enhanced their own office, resulted in the doctrine of Traii- 
substantiation being declared an article of faith of the Christian 

Transubstantiation, the invisible change of the bread and wine 


into the body and blood of Christ, is a tenet that may defy the 
powers of argument and pleasantry ; but instead of consulting the 
evidence of their senses, of their sight, their feeling, and their taste, 
the lirst Protestants were entangled in their own scruples, and awed 
by the reputed words of Jesus in the institution of the sacrament. 
Luther maintained a corporeal, and Calvin a real presence of Christ 
in the Eucharist ; and the opinion of Zuinglius, that it is no more 
than a spiritual communion, a simple memorial, has slowly prevailed 
in the reformed churches. 1 

Under Edward VI. the reformation was more bold and perfect, 
but in the fundamental articles of the Church of England, a strong 
and explicit declaration against the real presence was obliterated in 
the original copy, to please the people, or the Lutherans, or Queen 
Elizabeth. At the present day, the Greek and lioman Catholics 
alone hold to the original doctrine of the real presence. 

Of all the religious observances among heathens, Jews, or Turks, 
none has been the cause of more hatred, persecution, outrage, and 
bloodshed, than the Eucharist. Christians persecuted one anothei 
like relentless foes, and thousands of Jews were slaughtered on ac 
count of the Eucharist and the Host. 

1 See Gibbon s Home. vol. v. pp. 399, 400. and charges Christ himself with foolishness. 1 

Calvin, after quoting Matt. xxvi. 20, 27, pays: (Calvin s Tracts, p. 214. Translated by Henry 

w There is no doubt that as soon as these Beveridge. Edinburgh. 1S51.) In other parts 

words are added to the bread and the wine, the of his writings, Calvin seems to contradict 

bread and the wine become the true body and thin statement, and speaks of the bread and 

tin- true blood of Christ, so that the substance wine in the Eucharist as being symbol mil. 

of bread and wine is transmuted into the (me Gibbon evidently refers to the passage quoted 

!>:>1y mid blood of Christ. He who denies above. 
this calls the omnipotence of Christ in question, 



BAPTISM, or purification from sin by water, is supposed by many 
to be an exclusive Christian ceremony. The idea is that circum 
cision was given up, but baptism took its place as a compulsory form 
indispensable to salvation, and was declared to have been instituted 
by Jesus himself or by his predecessor John. 1 That Jesus was 
baptized by John may be true, or it may not, but that he never 
directly enjoined his followers to call the heathen to a share in the 
privileges of the Golden Age is gospel doctrine ; 2 and this say 
ing : 

" Go out into all the world to preach the gospel to every creature. And who 
ever believes and is baptized shall be saved, but whoever believes not shall be 

must therefore be of comparatively late origin, dating from a period 
at which the mission to the heathen was not only fully recog 
nized, but even declared to have originated with the followers of 
Jesus. 3 When the early Christians received members among them 
they were not initiated by baptism, but with prayer and laying on of 
hands. This, says Eusebius, was the " aneient custom" which was 
followed until the time of Stephen. During his bishopric contro 
versies arose as to whether members should be received " after the 
ancient Christian custom " or by baptism, 4 after the heathen cus 
tom. Rev. J. P. Lundy, who has made ancient religions a special 
study, and who, being a thorough Christian writer, endeavors to get 
over the difficulty by saying that : 

" John the Baptist simply adopted and practiced the universal custom of sacred 
bathing for the remission of sins. Christ sanctioned it; the church inherited it 
from his example." 5 

1 The Rev. Dr. Geikie makes the assertion i. p. 394.) 

that : " With the call to repent, John united a 2 See Galatians, ii. 7-9. Acts, x. and 3d. 

-significant rite for all who were willing to own 3 See The Bible for Learners, vol. iii. pp. 658 

their sins, and promise amendment of life. It and 472. 

was the new and striking requirement of bap- 4 See Eusebius : Eccl. Hist., lib. 7, ch. ii. 

tism, which John had been sent by divine ap- * Monumental Christianity, p. 385. 

point ment to INTRODUCE. (Life of Christ, vol. 



When we say that baptism is a heathen rite adopted by the 
Christians, we come near the truth. Mr. Lundy is a strong advo 
cate of the type theory of which we shall speak anon therefore 
the above mode of reasoning is not to be wondered at. 

The facts in the case are that baptism by immersion, or sprink 
ling in infancy, for the remission of sin, was a common rite, to be 
found in countries the most widely separated on the face of the 
earth, and the most unconnected in religious genealogy. 1 

If we turn to India we shall find that in the vast domain of the 
Buddhist faith the birth of children is regularly the occasion of a 
ceremony, at which the priest is present. In Mongolia and Thibet 
this ceremony assumes the special form of baptism. Candles 
burn and incense is offered on the domestic altar, the priest reads 
the prescribed prayers, dips the child three times in water, and im 
poses on it a name." 1 

Brahmanism, from the very earliest times, had its initiatory 
rites, similar to what we shall find among the ancient Persians, 
Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. Mr. Mackenzie, in his " Royal 
Masonic Cyclopaedia," (sub voce "Mysteries of Hindustan,") gives 
a capital digest of these mysteries from the " Indische Alterthum- 
Skunde " of Lassen. After an invocation to the SUN, an oath was 
demanded of the aspirant, to the effect of implicit obedience to 
superiors, purity of body, and inviolable secrecy. Water was then 
sprinkled over him, suitable addresses were made to him, &c. 
This was supposed to constitute the regeneration of the candidate, 
and he was now invested with the white robe and the tiara. A 
peculiar cross was marked on his forehead, and the Tau cross on his 
breast. Finally, he was given the sacred word, A. U. M. 3 

The Brah mans had also a mode of baptism similar to the Chris 
tian sect of Baptists, the ceremony being performed in a river. 

1 " Among all nations, and from the very ceremony common to all religions of antiquity, 
earliest period, WATER has been used as a It consists in being made clean from some sup- 
epecv^s of religious sacrament. . . . Water posed pollution or defilement." (Bell s Pan- 
was the agent by means of which everything tfeeon, vol. ii. p. 201.) 

was regenerated or born again. Hence, in all " L usage de ce Bapteme par immersion, qui 

nations, \ve find the Dove, or Divine Love, subsieta dans TOccident jusqu au 8e ciecle, se 

operating by means of its agent, water, and all maintient encore dans TEglise Greque : c est 

nations using the ceremony of plunging, or, celui quo Jean le Pi tcurseur administra, dans 

as we call it, baptizing, for the remission of le Jourdain, a Jesus Christ meme. II fut pra- 

sins, to introduce the candidate to a regen- tique chez les Juifs, chez les Grecs, et chez 

eration, to a new birth unto righteousness. 1 presque tous les peoples, bien des siecles avant 

(Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 529.) 1 existence de la religion Chrt tienuc." (D An- 

" Baptism is a very ancient rite pertaining carville : Res., vol. i. p. 292.) 
to heathen religions, whether of Asia, Africa, a See Amberly s Analysis, p. 01. Bunsen a 

Europe or America." (Bonwick : Egyptian Angel-Messiah, p. 42. Higgins 1 Anacalypsis, 

Belief, p. 416.) vol. ii. p. 09, and Lillie s Buddhism, pp. 55 and 

"Baptism, or purification by water, was a 134. 3 Lillie s Buddhism, p. 134. 


The officiating Brahman priest, who was called Gooroo, or Pastor, 1 
rubbed mud on the candidate, and then plunged him three times 
into the water. During the process the priest said : 

" Supreme Lord, this man is impure, like the mud of this stream; but as 
water cleanses him from this dirt, do thoufree Mm from his sin. " 1 

Rivers, as sources of fertility and purification, were at an early 
date invested with a sacred character. Every great river was sup 
posed to be permeated with the divine essence, and its waters held 
to cleanse from all moral guilt and contamination. And as the 
Ganges was the most majestic, so it soon became the holiest and 
most revered of all rivers. No sin too heinous to be removed, no 
character too black to be washed clean by its waters. Hence the 
countless temples, with flights of steps, lining its banks ; hence the 
array of priests, called " Sons of the Ganges," sitting on the edge 
of its streams, ready to aid the ablutions of conscience-stricken 
bathers, and stamp them as white- washed when they emerge from 
its waters. Hence also the constant traffic carried on in transport 
ing Ganges water in small bottles to all parts of the country. 8 

The ceremony of baptism was a practice of the followers of 
Zoroaster, both for infants and adults. 

M. Beausobre tells us that : 

The ancient Persians carried their infants to the temple a few days after 
they were born, and presented them to the priest before the sun, and before the 
fire, which was his symbol. Then the priest took t?ie child and baptized it for the 
purification of the soul. Sometimes he plunged it into a great vase full of water: 
it was in the same ceremony that the father gave a name to the child." 4 

The learned Dr. Hyde also tells us that infants were brought 
to the temples and baptized by the priests, sometimes by sprinkling 
and sometimes by immersion, plunging the child into a large vase 
tilled with water. This was to them a regeneration, or a purifica 
tion of their souls. A name was at the same time imposed upon 
the child, as indicated by the parents. B 

1 Life and Religion of the Hindus, p. 94. ners, says : 

3 Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 125. " They (the Persians) neither make water, 

"Every orthodox Hindu is perfectly per- nor spit, nor wash their hands in a river, nor 

euaded that the dirtiest water, if taken from a defile the stream with urine, nor do they allow 

sacred stream and applied to his body, either any one else to do so, but they pay extreme 

externally or internally, will purify his zoul." 1 veneration to all rivers." (Hist. lib. i. ch. 138.) 

(Prof. Monier Williams : Hinduism, p. 157.) 8 Williams Hinduism, p. 176. 

The Egyptians bathed in the water of the Nile ; * Hist. Manichee, lib. ix. ch. vi. sect. xvi. in 

the Chaldeans and Persians in the Euphrates, Anac., vol. ii. p. 65. See also, Dupuis : Orig. 

and the Hindus, as we have seen, in the Gan- Relig. Belief, p. 249, and Baring-Gould : Orig. 

ges, all of which were considered as " sacred Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 392. 

waters 1 by the different nations. The Jews 6 "Pro infantibus non utuntur circumcis- 

looked upon the Jordan in the same manner. ione, sed tantum baptismo sea lot one ad 

Herodotus, speaking of the Persians man- animae purificationem internam. Infantem ad 


The rite of baptism was also administered to adults in the 
Mithraic mysteries during initiation. The foreheads of the ini 
tiated being marked at the same time with the "sacred sign" which 
was none other than the sign of the CROSS. The Christian 
Father Tertullian, who believed it to be the work of the devil, 

"He BAPTIZES his believers and followers; be promises tbe remission of sins 
at tbe sacred fount, and tbus initiates tbem into tbe religion of Mithra ; he marks 
on tJie forehead his own soldiers," &e. 8 

<; He marks on the forehead," i. e., he marks the sign of tJie 
cross on their foreheads, just as priests of Christ Jesus do at the 
present day to those who are initiated into the Christian mysteries. 

Again, he says : 

" Tbe nations wbo are strangers to all spiritual powers (tbe beatbeus), ascribe 
to tbeir idols (gods) the power of impregnating the waters witb tbe same efficacy 
as in Christian baptism." For, " in certain sacred rites of theirs, the mode of 
initiation is by baptism," and "whoever had defiled himself witb murder, ex 
piation was sought in purifying water." 3 

He also says that : 

"The devil signed his soldiers in the forehead, in imitation of the Chris 
tians." 4 

And St. Augustin says : 
" The cross and baptism were never parted." 6 

The ancient Egyptians performed their rite of baptism, and 
those who were initiated into the mysteries of Isis were baptized. 8 

Apuleius of Madura, in Africa, who was initiated into these 
mysteries, shows that baptism was used ; that the ceremony was 
performed by the attending priest, and that purification and for 
giveness of sin was the result. 7 

sacerdotem in ecclesiam adductum eitjtunt 1 See Knight : Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 

coram sole et igne, qua facta ceremonia, eun- xiv. Higgius : Anac., vol. i. pp. 218 and 222. 

dera sanctiorem existiinant. D. Lord dicit Dunlap : Mysteries of Adoni, p. 139. King : 

quod aquara ad hoc afferuut in cortice arboris The Gnostics and their Remains, p. 51. 

Holm : ea autem arbor revera est Haum Ma- 2 De Praescrip. ch. xi. 

gorum, cujus mentionem alia occasione supra 3 Ibid. 

fecimus. Alias, aliquando fit immergendo in 4 "Mithra signal illic in frontibus milites 

magnum vas aquae, ut dicit Tavernier. Post euos. 1 

talem lotionem sen baptismum, sacerdos im- 6 " Semper enim cruci baptismus jungitur. 11 

ponit nomen a parentibus iuditum. 1 " (Hyde (Aug, Temp. Ser. ci.) 

de Rel. Vet. Pers., p. 414.) After this Hyde 8 See Auacalypsis, vol. ii. p. G9, and Mouu- 

goes on to say, that when he comes to mental Christianity, p. 385. 

be fifteen years of age he is confirmed by 7 "Sacerdos, stipatum me religiosa cohorte. 

receiving the girdle, and the eudra or cas- 



The custom of baptism in Egypt is known by the hieroglyphic 
term of " water of purification" The water so used in immer 
sion absolutely cleansed the soul, and the person was said to be re 
generated. 1 

They also believed in baptism after death, for it was held 
that the dead were washed from their sins by Osiris, the benefi 
cent saviour, in the land of shades, and the departed are often 
represented (on the sarcophagi) kneeling before Osiris, who pours 
over them water from a pitcher. 2 

The ancient Etruscans performed the rite of baptism. In 
Tab. clxxii. Gorius gives two pictures of ancient Etruscan 
baptism by water. In the first, the youth is held in the arms 
of one priest, and another is pouring water upon his head. In 
the second, the young person is going through the same ceremony, 
kneeling on a kind of altar. At the time of its baptism the child 
was named, blessed and marked on the forehead with the sign of 
the cross. 3 

Baptism, or the application of water, was a rite well known 
to the Jews before the time of Christ Jesus, and was practiced 
by them when they admitted proselytes to their religion from 
heathenism. When children were baptized they received the 
sign of the cross, were anointed, and fed with milk and honey. 4 
" It was not customary, however, among them, to baptize those 
who were converted to the Jewish religion, until after the Baby 
lonish captivity"* This clearly shows that they learned the rite 
from their heathen oppressors. 

Baptism was practiced by the ascetics of Buddhist origin, known 
as the Essenes* John the Baptist was, evidently, nothing more 
than a member of this order, with which the deserts of Syria and 
the Thebais of Egypt abounded. 

The idea that man is restrained from perfect union with God 
by his imperfection, uncleanness and sin, was implicitly believed 
by the ancient Greeks and Romans. In Thessaly was yearly 
celebrated a great festival of cleansing. A work bearing the 
name of Museus " was a complete ritual of purifications. The 
usual mode of purification was dipping in water (immersion), or 

Ueducit ad proximas balucas ; et prius sueto p. 392. 

lavraco traditum, prcefatus deum veniam, 3 See Higgins : Anac., vol. ii. pp. 67-69. 

purissimG circumrorans abluit." (Apuleius : 4 Barnes : Notes, vol. i. p. 38. Higgins: 

Milvsi, ii. citat. a Higgins : Anac.. vol. ii. p. Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. Go. 

69.) Barnes : Notes, vol. i. p. 41. 

1 Bomvick : Egyptian Belief, p. 416. Dun- See Bnn?en s Angel-Messiah, p. 121, 

lap : Mysteries Adorn, p. 139. Gainsburgh s Essenes, and Higgins Anacalyp- 

7 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. sis, vol. ii. pp. 66, 67. 


it was performed by aspersion. These sacraments were held to have 
virtue independent of the dispositions of the candidates, an opin 
ion which called forth the sneer of Diogenes, the Grecian his 
torian, when he saw some one undergoing baptism by aspersion. : 

" Poor wretch I do you not see that since these sprinklings cannot repair your 
grammatical errors, they cannot repair either, the faults of your life." 1 

And the belief that water could wash out the stains of original 
sin, led the poet Ovid (43 B. c.) to say : 

" Ah, easy fools, to think that a whole flood 
Of water e er can purge the stain of blood." 

These ancient Pagans had especial gods and goddesses who pre 
sided over the birth of children. The goddess Nundina took her 
name from the ninth day, on which all male children were 
sprinkled with holy water? as females were on the eighth, at 
the same time receiving their name, of which addition to the cere 
monial of Christian baptism we find no mention in the Christian 
Scriptures. When all the forms of the Pagan nundination were 
duly complied with, the priest gave a certificate to the parents of 
the regenerated infant ; it was, therefore, duly recognized as a 
legitimate member of the family and of society, and the day was 
spent in feasting and hilarity. 3 

Adults were also baptized ; and those who were initiated in the 
sacred rites of the Bacchic mysteries were regenerated and ad 
mitted by baptism, just as they were admitted into the mysteries 
of Mithra. 4 Justin Martyr, like his brother Tertullian, claimed 
that this ablution w r as invented by demons, in imitation of the 
true baptism, that their votaries might also have their pretended 
purification by water. 5 

Infant Baptism was practiced among the ancient inhabitants 
of northern Europe the Danes, Swedes, Norwegians and Icelanders 
long before the first dawn of Christianity had reached those 
parts. Water was poured on the head of the new-born child, and 

1 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. dans ces metnes mysteres, il fallut so faire 

p. 391. reyenerer par r initiation. Cette ceremonie, 

3 Holy Water" water wherein the person par laqnelle, on appreuolt le-s vrais princi- 

is baptized, in the name of the Father, and pes de la vie, s operoit par le moyen de 

the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. (Church of Veau qui voit ete celui de la regeneration 

England Catechism.) du monde. Ou conduisoit stir k-s bords 

3 See Taylor s Diegesis. pp. 333, 334, and de missus le candidat qui devoit etre initie ; 
Higtrins Anacalypsie, ii. p. Go. apres 1 avoir purifie avec le i*el et 1 eau de 

4 See Taylor s Diegeeis, pp. 80 and 232, and lar mer. on repandoit de I ur^e sur lui. ou 
Baring-Gould s Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. le couronoit de fleur*, et VHydranos ou le 
391. liaptiseur le pougeoit dans le fleure." (D An- 

" De la-vim, que pour devcnir capable carville : Res., vol. i. p. 292. Auac., ii. p. 65.) 
d entendre les secrets de la creation, reveles 5 Taylor s Diegesis, p. 232. 



a name was given it at the same time. Baptism is expressly 
mentioned in the Hava-mal and Rigs-mal, and alluded to in other 
epic poems. 1 

The ancient Livonians (inhabitants of the three modern Baltic 
provinces of Coin-land, Livonia, and Esthonia), observed the same 
ceremony ; which also prevailed among the ancient Germans. 
This is expressly stated in a letter which the famous Pope Gregory 
III. sent to their apostle Boniface, directing him how to act in res 
pect to it. 2 

The same ceremony was performed by the ancient Druids of 
Britain. 3 

Among the New Zealanders young children were baptized. 
After the ceremony of baptism had taken place, prayers were of 
fered to make the child sacred, and clean from all impurities. 4 

The ancient Mexicans baptized their children shortly after 
birth. After the relatives had assembled in the court of the parents 
house, the midwife placed the child s head to the east, and prayed 
for a blessing from the Saviour Quetzacoatle, and the goddess of 
the water. The breast of the child was then touched with the 
fingers dipped in water, and the following prayer said : 

" May it (the water) destroy and separate from thee all the evil that was be 
ginning in thee before the beginning of the world." 

After this the child s body was washed with water, and all 
things that might injure him were requested to depart from him, 
" that now he may live again and be born again." 5 

Mr. Prescott alludes to it as follows, in his " Conquest of 
Mexico :" 6 

"The lips and bosom of the infant were sprinkled with water, and the 
Lord was implored to permit the holy drops to wash away that sin that was given 
to it before the foundation of the world, so that the child might be born anew." 
"This interesting rite, usually solemnized with great formality, in the presence 
of assembled friends and relations, is detailed with minuteness by Sahagun and 
by Zuazo, both of them eyewitnesses." 

Rev. J. P. Luncly says : 

"Now, as baptism of some kind has been the universal custom of all religious 
nations and peoples for purification and regeneration, it is not to be wondered at 
that it had found its way from high Asia, the centre of the Old World s religion 
and civilization, into the American continent. . . . 

1 See Mallet s Northern Antiquities, pp. 306, 4 Sir George Grey: Polynesian Mytho., p. 
313, 320, 36G. Baring-Gould s Orig. Relig. 32, in Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. 
Belief, vol. i. pp. 392, 393, and Dupuis, p. 242. p. 392. 

2 Mallet : Northern Antiquities, p. 206. s See Viscount Amberly s Analysis Relig 

3 Baring-Gould : Orig. Relig, Belief, vol. i. Belief, p. 59. 

p. 393. Higgins: Anac., vol. ii. p. 67, and Vol. i. p. 64. 

Davies : Myths of the British Druids. 


" American priests were found in Mexico, beyond Darien, baptizing boys and 
girls a year old in the temples at the cross, pouring the water upon them from a 
small pitcher." 1 

The water which they used was called the " WATER OF REGEN 

The Kev. Father Acosta alludes to this baptism by saying : 

" The Indians had an infinite number of other ceremonies and customs which 
resembled to the ancient law of Moses, and some to those which the Moores use, 
and some approaching near to the Law of the Gospel, as the baths or Opacuna, 
as they called them; they did wash tfiemselves in water to cleanse themselves 
from sin." 3 

After speaking of " confession which the Indians used" he 

says : 

"When the Inca had been confessed, he made a certain bath to cleanse him 
self, in a running river, saying these words: 1 have told my sins to the Sun (his 
god); receive tJiem, thou River, and carry them to the Sea, where they may never 
appear more. " 4 

He tells us that the Mexicans also had a baptism for infants, 
which they performed with great ceremony.* 

Baptism was also practiced in Yucatan. They administered it 
to children three years old ; and called it REGENERATION. 

The ancient Peruvians also baptized their children. 7 

History, then, records the fact that all the principal nations of 
antiquity administered the rite of baptism to their children, and to 
adults who were initiated into the sacred mysteries. The words 
" regenerationem et impunitatem perjuriorum suorum " used by 
the heathen in this ceremony prove that the doctrines as well as 
the outward forms were the same. The giving of a name to the 
child, the marking of him with the cross as a sign of his being a 
soldier of Christ, followed at fifteen years of age by his admission 
into the mysteries of the ceremony of confirmation, also prove that 
the two institutions are identical. But the most striking feature 
of all is the regeneration and consequent forgiveness of sins 
the being " born again" This shows that the Christian baptism 
in doctrine as well as in ovtiward ceremony, was precisely that of the 
heathen. We have seen that it was supposed to destroy all the 
evil in him, and all things that might injure him were requested 
to depart from him. So likewise among the Christians ; the priest, 
looking upon the child, and baptizing him, was formerly accus 
tomed to say : 

i Monumental Christianity, pp. 389, 390. Ibid. p. 361. 

Kingsborongh : Mex. Antiq., vol. vi. p. Ibid. p. 869. 

114. Monumental Christianity, p. 390. 

Hist. Indies, vol. ii. p. 369. T Bomvick : Egyptian Belief, p. 416. 


" I command thee, unclean spirit, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and 
of the Holy Ghost, that thou come out and depart from this infant, whom our 
Lord Jesus Christ has vouchsafed to call to this holy baptism, to be made mem 
ber of his body and of his holy congregation. And presume not hereafter to 
exercise any tyranny towards this infant, whom Christ hath bought with his 
precious blood, and by this holy baptism called to be of his flock." 

The ancients also baptized wlihjire us well as water. This is 
what is alluded to many times in the gospels ; for instance, Matt, 
(iii. 11) makes John say, "I, indeed, baptize you with water; he 
shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with FIRE." 

The baptism by fire was in use by the Romans ; it was per 
formed by jumping three times through the flames of a sacred fire. 
This is still practiced in India. Even at the present day, in some 
parts of Scotland, it is a custom at the baptism of children to swing 
them in their clothes over a fire three times, saying, " Now, fire, 
burn this child, or never" Here is evidently a relic of the heathen 
baptism by fire. 

Christian baptism was not originally intended to be adminis 
tered to unconscious infants, but to persons in full possession of their 
faculties, and responsible for their actions. Moreover, it was per 
formed, as is well known, not merely by sprinkling the forehead, 
but by causing the candidate to descend naked into the water, the 
priest joining him there, and pouring the water over his head. 
The catechumen could not receive baptism until after he under 
stood something of the nature of the faith he w r as embracing, and 
was prepared to assume its obligations. A rite more totally unfit 
ted for administration to infants could hardly have been found. 
Yet such was the need that was felt for a solemn recognition by 
religion of the entrance of a child into the world, that this rite, in 
course of time, completely lost its original nature, and, as with the 
heathen, infancy took the place of maturity : sprinkling of immer 
sion. But while the age and manner of baptism were altered, the 
ritual remained under the influence of the primitive idea with 
which it had been instituted. The obligations were no longer 
confined to the persons baptized, hence they must be undertaken 
for them. Thus was the Christian Church landed in the absurdity 
unparalleled, we believe, in any other natal ceremony of requir 
ing the most solemn promises to be made, not by those who w ere 
thereafter to fulfill them, but by others in their name ; these others 
having no power to enforce their fulfillment, and neither those actu 
ally assuming the engagement, nor those on whose behalf it was as 
sumed, being morally responsible in case it should be broken. Yet 
this strange incongruity was forced upon the church by an imperious 


want of human nature itself, and the insignificant sects who have 
adopted the baptism of adults only, have failed, in their zeal for 
historical consistency, to recognize a sentiment whose roots lie far 
deeper than the chronological foundation of Christian rites, and 
stretch far wider than the geographical boundaries of the Christian 

The intention of all these forms of baptism is identical. Water, 
as the natural means of physical cleansing, is the universal symbol 
of spiritual purification. Hence immersion, or washing, or sprink 
ling, implies the deliverance of the infant from the stain of original 
sin. 1 The Pagan and Christian rituals, as we have seen, are per 
fectly clear on this head. In both, the avowed intention is to wash 
away the sinful nature common to humanity ; in both, the infant is 
declared to be born again by the agency of water. Among the 
early Christians, as with the Pagans, the sacrament of baptism was 
supposed to contain a full and absolute expiation of sin ; and the 
soul was instantly restored to its original purity, and entitled to the 
promise of eternal salvation. Among the proselytes of Christi 
anity, there were many who judged it imprudent to precipitate a 
salutary rite, which could not be repeated ; to throw away an in 
estimable privilege, which could never be recovered. By the delay 
of their baptism, they could venture freely to indulge their pas 
sions in the enjoyments of this world, w r hile they still retained in 
their own hands the means of a sure and easy absolution. St. Con 
stantino was one of these. 

1 That man i8 born in original sin seems to " I am sinful, I commit sin, my nature is 

have been the belief of all nations of antiquity, einful, 1 am conceived in tin. Save me, O thou 

especially the Hindus. This sense of original lotus-eyed Heri, the remover of Sin." (Wil- 

corruption is expressed in the following prayer, liams 1 Hinduism, p. 214.) 
used by them : 



THE worship of the " Virgin, " the " Queen of Heaven," the 
" Great Goddess," the " Mother of God," &c., which has become 
one of the grand features of the Christian religion the Council of 
Ephesus (A. D. 431) having declared Mary " Mother of God," her 

assumption being declared in 813, 
and her Immaculate Conception 
by the Pope and Council in 
1851 1 was almost universal, for 
ages before the birth of Jesus, 
and "the pure virginity of the 
celestial mother was a tenet of 
faith for two thousand years be- 

fore the virgin now adored was 
born." 3 

In India, they have wor 
shiped, for ages, Devi, Maha- 
Ztew "The One Great God 
dess" 3 and have temples erected 
in honor of her. 4 Gonzales states 
that among the Indians lie found 

a temple " Pariiuraa Virginia " of the Virgin about to bring 
forth. 5 

Maya, the mother of Buddha, and Devaki the mother of Crishna, 
were worshiped as virgins* and represented with the infant Saviours 
in their arms, just as the virgin of the Christians is represented at 
the present day. Maya was so pure that it was impossible for God, 
man, or Asura to view her with carnal desire. Fig. No. 16 is 

1 See Bonwick s Egyptian Belief , p. 115, and 
Monumental Christianity, pp. 206 and 226. 
a Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 159. 
See Williams Hinduism. 


4 See Higgins : Anacalypeis, vol. i. p. 540. 
8 See Taylor s Diegesis, p. 185. 
6 St. Jerome says : "It is. handed down as 
a tradition among the Gymnosophists of India, 


a representation of the Virgin Devaki, with the infant Saviour 
Crislma, taken from Moor s "Hindu Pantheon." 1 "No person 
could bear to gaze upon Devaki, because of the light that in 
vested her." "The gods, invisible to mortals, celebrated her praise 
continually from the time that Vishnu was contained in her per 
son." 2 

" Crislma and his mother are almost always represented black"* 
and the word "Crishna " means " the black" 

The Chinese, who have had several avatars, or virgin-born gods, 
among them, have also worshiped a Virgin Mother from time im 
memorial. Sir Charles Francis Davis, in his " History of China," 
tells us that the Chinese at Canton worshiped an idol, to which 
they gave the name of " The Virgin." 4 

The Rev. Joseph B. Gross, in his " Heathen Religion," tells us 
that : 

"Upon the altars of the Chinese temples were placed, behind a screen, an 
image of Shin-moo, or the Holy Mollier, sitting with a child in Jier arms, in an 
alcove, with rays of glory around her head, and tapers constantly burning before 
her." 5 

Shin-moo is called the " Mother Goddess," and the " Virgin." 
Her child, who was exposed in his infancy, was brought up by- 
poor fishermen. He became a great man, and performed wonder 
ful miracles. In wealthy houses the sacred image of the " Mother 
Goddess " is carefully kept in a recess behind an altar, veiled with 
a silken screen. 9 

The Rev. Mr. Gutzlaff, in his " Travels," speaking of the Chinese 
people, says: 

"Though otherwise very reasonable men, they have always showed them 
selves bigoted heathens. . . . They have everywhere built splendid temples, 
chiefly in honor of Ma-tsoo-po, the Queen of Heaven. " 7 

Isis, mother of the Egyptian Saviour, Horus, was worshiped as 
a virgin. Nothing is more common on the religious monuments of 
Egypt than the infant Horus seated in the lap of his virgin mother. 
She is styled " Our Lady," the " Queen of Heaven," " Star of the 
Sea," " Governess," " Mother of God," " Intercessor," " Immacu- 

that Buddha, the founder of their system was hardly be borne. Her conversation was with 

brought forth by a virgin from her side." the angels, &c." (Nativity of Mary, Apoc.) 

(Contra Jovian, bk. i. Quoted in Rhys Davids s See Ancient Faiths, i. 401. 

Buddhism, p. 183.) * Davis China, vol. ii. p. 95. 

i Plate 59. The Heathen Relig., p. 60. 

a Monumental Christianity, p. 218. 8 Barrows: Travels in China, p. 467. 

Of the Virgin Mary we read : " Her face * Gutzlaff s Voyages, p. 154. 
was shining as snow, and its brightness could 


late Virgin," &C.; 1 all of wliich epithets were in after years applied 
to the Virgin Mother worshiped by the Christians. 8 

" The most common representation of Horns is being nursed on 
the knee of Isis, or suckled at her breast." 3 In Monumental 
Christianity (Fig. 92), is to be seen a representation of " Isis and 
Horus." The infant Saviour is sitting on his mother s knee, while 
she gazes into his face. A cross is on the back of the seat. The 
author, Rev. J. P. Lundy, says, in speaking of it : 

Is this Egyptian mother, too, meditating her son s conflict, suffering, and 
triumph, as she holds him before her and gazes into his face? And is this CROSS 
meant to convey the idea of life through suffering, and conflict with Typho or 

In some statues and basso-relievos, when Isis appears alone, she 
is entirely veiled from head to foot, in common with nearly every 
other goddess, as a symbol of a mother s chastity. No mortal man 
hath ever lifted her veil. 

Isis was also represented standing on the crescent moon, with 
wel/oe stars surrounding her head. 4 In almost every Roman 
Oatholic Church on the continent of Europe may be seen pictures 
and statues of Mary, the " Queen of Heaven," standing on the 
crescent moon, and her head surrounded with twelve stars. 

Dr. Inman, in his " Pagan and Christian Symbolism," gives a 
figure of the Virgin Mary, with her infant, standing on the crescent 
moon. In speaking of this figure, he says : 

" In it the Virgin is seen as the Queen of Heaven, nursing her infant, and 
identified with the crescent moon. . . . Than this, nothing could more com 
pletely identify the Christian mother and child, with Isis and Horus." 5 

This crescent moon is the symbol of Isis and Juno, and is the 
Yoni of the Hindoos. 6 

The priests of Isis yearly dedicated to her a new ship (emble 
matic of the YONI), laden with the first fruits of spring. Strange 
as it may seem, the carrying in procession of ships, in which the 
Virgin Mary takes the place of the heathen goddesses, has not yet 
wholly gone out of use. 7 

Isis is also represented, with the infant Saviour in her arms, 
enclosed in a framework of the flowers of the Egyptian bean, or 
lotus* The Virgin Mary is very often represented in this 
manner, as those who have studied mediaeval art well know. 

1 Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 141. 6 See Monumental Christianity, p. 307, and 

2 See The Lily of Israel, p. 14. Dr. Inman s Ancient Faiths. 

Kenrick e Egypt, vol. i. p. 425. 7 See Cox s Aryan Mytho., vol. ii. p. 119, 

4 See Draper s Science and Religion, pp. 47, note. 

48 and Higgins 1 Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 304. 8 See Pagan and Christian Symbolism, pp. 

Pagan and Christian Symbolism, p. 50. 13, 14. 



Dr. Inman, describing a painting of the Virgin Mary, which is 
to be seen in the South Kensington Museum, and which is en 
closed in a framework of flowers, says : 

"It represents the Virgin and Child precisely as she used to be represented in 
Egypt, in India, in Assyria, Babylonia, Phoenicia, and Etruria." 1 

The lotus and poppy were sacred among all Eastern nations, 
and were consecrated to the various virgins worshiped by them. 
These virgins are represented holding this plant in their hands, just 
as the Virgin, adored by the Christians, is represented at the present 
day. 3 Mr. Squire, speaking of this plant, says : 

"It is well known that the NympJie 
lotus or water-lily is held sacred 
throughout the East, and the various sects 
of that quarter of the globe represented 
their deities either decorated with its 
ilovvers, holding it as a sceptre, or seated 
on a lotus throne or pedestal. Ldcahnu, 
the beautiful Hindoo goddess, is associ 
ated with the lotus. The Egyptian Inis is 
often called the Lotus-crow tied, in the 
ancient invocations. The Mexican god 
dess Corieotl, is ofteu represented with a 
water-plant resembling the lotus in her 
hand." 3 

In Egyptian and Hindoo my 
thology, the offspring of the virgin 
is made to bruise the head of the 
serpent, but the Komanists have given this office to the mother. Mary 
is often sen represented standing on the serpent. Fig. 17 alludes 
to this, and to her immaculate conception, which, as \vc have seen, 
was declared by the Pope and council in 1851. The notion of the 
divinity of Mary was broached by some at the Council of Xice, 
and they were thence named Marianites. 

The Christian Father Epiphanius accounts for the fact of the 
Egyptians worshiping a virgin and child, by declaring that the 
prophecy u Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bring forth a son" 
must have been revealed to them.* 

In an ancient Christian work, called the "Chronicle of Alex 
andria," occurs the following : 

F/G. 17 

1 Pagan and Christian Symbolism, pp. 4, 5. 

2 See Knight : Ancient Art and Mythology, 
pp. 45, 104, 105. 

"We see, in pictures, that the Virgin and 
Child are associated in modern times with the 

eplit apricot, the pomegranate, rimmon, and 
the Vine, just as was the ancient Venus." (Dr. 
Inman : Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 528.) 

* Serpent Symbol, p. 39. 

Taylor s Diegesie, p. 185. 


"Watch how Egypt has constructed the childbirth of a virgin, and the birth 
of her son, who was exposed in a crib to the adoration of the people." 1 

We have another Egyptian Virgin Mother in Keith or Nout, 
mother of " Osiris the Saviour." She was known as the " Great 
Motherland yet " Immaculate Virgin." 2 M. Beauregard speaka 

" The Immaculate Conception of the Virgin (Mary), who can henceforth, as 
well as the Egyptian Minerva, the mysterious Neith, boast of having come from, 
herself, and of having given birth to god." 3 

What is known in Christian countries as " Candlemas day," or 
the Purification of the Virgin Mary, is of Egyptian origin. The 
feast of Candlemas was kept by the ancient Egyptians in honor of 
the goddess Keith, and on the very day that is marked on our 
Christian almanacs as " Candlemas day." 4 

The ancient Chaldees believed in a celestial virgin, who had 
purity of body, loveliness of person, and tenderness of affection ; 
and who was one to whom the erring sinner could appeal with 
more chance of success than to a stern father. She was portrayed 
as a mother, although a virgin, with a child in her arms. 5 

The ancient Babylonians and Assyrians worshiped a goddess 
mother, and son, who was represented in pictures and in images as 
an infant in his mother s arms (see Fig. Ko. 18). Her name was 
Mylitta,) the divine son was Tammuz, the Saviour, whom we have 
seen rose from the dead. He was invested with all his father s 
attributes and glory, and identified with him. He was worshiped 
as mediator? 

There was a temple at Paphos, in Cyprus, dedicated to the 
Virgin Mylitta, and was the most celebrated one in Grecian 
times. 7 

The ancient Etruscans worshiped a Virgin Mother and Son. 
who was represented in pictures and images in the arms of his 
mother. This was the goddess Nutria, to be seen in Fig. Ko. 
19. On the arm of the mother is an inscription in Etruscan 
letters. This goddess was also worshiped in Italy. Long before 
the Christian era temples and statues were erected in memory 
of her. " To the Great Goddess Nutria," is an inscription which 
has been found among the ruins of a temple dedicated to her. 
No doubt the Roman Church would have claimed her for a 

1 Bonwick s Egyptian Belief, p. 143. 6 Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 59. 

2 Ibid. p. 115. See Monumental Christianity, p. 211, an4 
Quoted in Ibid. p. 115. Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 350. 

Ibid., and Kenrick s Egypt. 7 Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 218. 


Madonna, but most unluckily for them, she has the name 
"Nutria? in Etruscan letters on her arm, after the Etruscan 

The Egyptian Ms was also worshiped in Italy, many centuries 
before the Christian era, and all images of her, with the infant 
Horus in her amis, have been adopted, as we shall presently see, 
by the Christians, even though they represent her and her child 
as Hack as an Ethiopian, in the same manner as we have seen that 
Devaki and Crishna were represented. 


FIG. 19 

The children of Israel, who, as we have seen in a previous 
chapter, were idolaters of the worst kind worshiping the 
sun, moon and stars, and offering human sacrifices to their god, 
Moloch were also worshipers of a Virgin Mother, whom they 
styled the " Queen of Heaven." 

Jeremiah, who appeared in Jerusalem about the year 625 B.C., 
and who was one of the prophets and reformers, rebukes the 
Israelites for their idolatry and worship of the Queen of Heaven," 
whereupon they answer him as follows : 

"As for the word that thou hast spoken unto us, in the name of the Lord, we 
will not hearken unto thee. But we will certainly do whatsoever thing goeth 
forth out of our own mouth, to burn incense unto the Queen of Heaven, and to 
pour out drink offerings unto her, a* we have done, ice, and our fathers, our kings, 
and our princes, in tJie city of Judah, and in tlie streets of Jerusalem : for then we 
had plenty of victuals, and were well, and saw no evil. 

"But since we left off to burn incense to the Queen of Heaven, and to pour 
out drink offerings unto her, we have wanted all things, and have been consumed 
by the sword and by the famine. And when we burned incense to the Queen of 


Heaven, and poured out drink offerings unto her, did we make her cakes to wor 
ship her, and pour out drink offerings unto her, without our men ?"* 

The " cakes " which were offered to the " Queen of Heaven " 
by the Israelites were marked with a cross, or other symbol of sun 
worship. 9 The ancient Egyptians also put a cross on their 
" sacred cakes." 3 Some of the early Christians offered " sacred 
cakes" to the Virgin Mary centuries after. 4 

The ancient Persians worshiped the Virgin and Child. On 
the monuments of Mithra, the Saviour, the Mediating and Kedeem- 
ing God of the Persians, the Virgin Mother of this god is to be seen 
Buckling her infant. 6 

The ancient Greeks and Romans worshiped the Virgin Mother 
and Child for centuries before the Christian era. One of these 
was Myrrha, 6 the mother of Bacchus, the Saviour, who was 
represented with the infant in her arms. She had the title of 
"Queen of Heaven." 7 At many a Christian shrine the infant 
Saviour Bacchus may be seen reposing in the arms of his deified 
mother. The names are changed the ideas remain as before. 8 

The Eev. Dr. Stuckley writes : 

" Diodorus says Bacchus was born of Jupiter, the Supreme God, and Ceres 
(Myrrha). Both Ceres and Proserpine were called Virgo (Virgin). The story of 
this woman being deserted by a man, and espoused by a god, has somewhat so 
exceedingly like that passage. Matt. i. 19, 20, of the blessed Virgin s history, that 
we should wonder at it, did we not see the parallelism infinite between the sacred and 
the profane history before us. 

" There are many similitudes between the Virgin (Mary) and the mother of 
Bacchus (also called Mary see note 6 below) in all the old fables. Mary, or 
Miriam, St. Jerome interprets Myrrha Maris. Orpheus calls the mother of 
Bacchus a Sea Goddess (and the mother of Jesus is called Mary, Star of the 
Sea. ") 1 * 

Thus we see that the reverend and learned Dr. Stuckley has clearly 

1 Jeremiah, xliv. 16-22. (See Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 314, and Inman s 

a See Colenso s Lectures, p. 297, and Bon- Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 253); the mother of 

wick s Egyptian Belief, p. 148. Buddha was Maya ; now, all these names, 

8 See the Pentateuch Examined, vol. vi. p. whether Myrrha, Maia or Maria, are the same 

115, App., and Bomvick s Egyptian Belief, p. as Mary, the name of the mother of the Chris- 

148. tian Saviour. (See Inmau s Ancient Faiths, 

4 See King s Gnostics, p. 91, and Monumen- vol. ii. pp. 353 and 780. Also, Duulap s Mys- 

tal Christianity, p. 224. teries of Adoni, p. 124.) The month of May 

6 SecDupuis: Origin of Relig. Belief, p. 237. was sacred to these goddesses, so likewise is 

6 It would seem more than chance that so it sacred to the Virgin Mary at the present 

many of the virgin mothers and goddesses of day, She was also called Myrrha and Maria, as 

antiquity should have the same name. The well as Mary. (See Anacalypsis, vol. i. p. 304, 

mother of Bacdins was .Myrrha ; the mother of and Son of the Man, p. 26.) 

Mercury or Hermes was Myrrha or Maia (See 7 lliggins : Anacalypsis, vol. i. pp. 303, 

Ferguson s Tree and Serpent Worship, p. 186, 304. 

and Inman s Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 25o); the 8 Prof. Wilder, in " Evolution," June, 77, 

mother of the Siamese Saviour Somuiona Ca- Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. 

dom was called Maya Maria, i. e., " the Great Stuckley: Pal. Sac. No. 1 p. 34, inAnac- 

Mary ;" the mother of Adonis was Myrrha alypsis, i. p. 304. 


made out that the story of Mary, the " Queen of Heaven," the 
" Star of the Sea," the mother of the Lord, with her translation to 
heaven, &c., was an old story long before Jesus of Nazareth was 
born. After this Stuckley observes that the Pagan " Queen of 
Heaven " has upon her head a crown of twelve stars. This, as we 
have observed above, is the case of the Christian " Queen of 
Heaven " in almost every Romish church on the continent of 

The goddess Cybele was another. She was equally called the 
" Queen of Heaven " and the " Mother of God." As devotees 
now collect alms in the name of the Virgin Mary, so did they in 
ancient times in the name of Cybele. The Galli no\v used in the 
churches of Italy, were anciently used in the worship of Cybele 
(called Galliambus, and sang by her priests). " Our Lady Day," 
or the day of the Blessed Virgin of the Roman Church, was here 
tofore dedicated to Cybele. 1 

Minerva, who was distinguished by the title of " Virgin 
Queen," 2 was extensively worshiped in ancient Greece. Among 
the innumerable temples of Greece, the most beautiful was the 
Parthenon, meaning, the Temple of the Virgin Goddess. It was 
a magnificent Doric edifice, dedicated to Minerva, the presiding 
deity of Athens. 

Juno was called the " Virgin Queen of Heaven." 3 She was 
represented, like Isis and Mary, standing on the crescent moon, 4 
and was considered the special protectress of women, from the 
cradle to the grave, just as Mary is considered at the present 

Diana, who had the title of " Mother," was nevertheless 
famed for her virginal purity.* She was represented, like Isis 
and Mary, with stars surrounding her head. 8 

The ancient Muscovites worshiped a sacred group, composed 
of a woman with a male child in her lap, and another standing by 
her. They had likewise another idol, called the golden heifer, 
which, says Mr. Knight, " seems to have been the animal symbol 
of the same personage." 7 Here we have the Virgin and infant 
Saviour, with the companion (John the Baptist), and "The Lamb 
that taketh away the sins of the world," among the ancient Musco- 

1 Higgins : Anacalyppis, vol. i. p. 305. See Monumental Christianity, p. 308 Fig. 

3 See Bell s Pantheon, and Knight : Ancient 144. 
Art and Mytho., p. 175. See Knight : Anct. Art and Mytho., pp. 

* See Roman Antiquities, p. 73. Anacalyp- 17.5, 176. 

ifi, vol. ii. p. 82, and Bell s Pantheon, vol. ii. See Montfaucon, vol. i. plate xcii. 

P. 160. 7 Knight s Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 147. 



mtes before the time of Christ Jesus. This goddess had also the 
title of " Queen of Heaven. 1 

The ancient Germans worshiped a virgin goddess under the 
the name of Ilertha, or Ostara, who was fecundated by the active 
spirit, i.e., the " Holy Spirit." 2 She was represented in images 
as a woman with a child in her arms. This image was common in 
their consecrated forests, and was held peculiarly sacred. 3 The 
Christian celebration called Easier derived its name from this 

The ancient Scandinavians worshiped a virgin goddess called 
Disa. Mr. R. Payne Knight tells us that : 

"This goddess is delineated on the sacred drums of the Laplanders, accom 
panied by a child, similar to the Horns of the Egyptians, who so often appears in 
the lap of Isis on the religious monuments of that people." 4 

The ancient Scandinavians also worshiped the goddess 
Frigga. She was mother of " Baldur the Good," his father being 
Odin, the supreme god of the northern nations. It was she who 
was addressed, as Mary is at the present day, in order to obtain 
happy marriages and easy childbirths. The Eddas style her the 
most favorable of the goddesses. 5 

In Gaul, the ancient Druids worshiped the Virgo-Paritura as 
the "Mother of God," and a festival was annually celebrated in 
honor of this virgin. 6 

In the year 1747 a monument was found at Oxford, England, 
of pagan origin, on which is exhibited a female nursing an infant. 7 
Thus we see that the Virgin and Child were worshiped, in 
pagan times, from China to Britain, and, if we turn to the New 
World, we shall find the same thing there ; for, in the words of 
Dr. Inman, " even in Mexico the Mother and Child were wor 
shiped." 8 

This mother, who had the title of " Virgin," and " Queen 
of Heaven," 9 was Chimalman, or Sochiquetzal, and the infant 
was Quetzalcoatle, the crucified Saviour. Lord Kingsborough 

"She who represented Our Lady (among the ancient Mexicans) had her 
hair tied up in the manner in which the Indian women tie and fasten their hair, 

1 Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 109, 110. Celtic Druids, p. 163, and Taylor s Diegesis, p. 

3 See Knight s Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 21. 184. 

See Prog. Kelig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 374, and 7 See Celtic Druids, p. 163, and Dupuis, p. 

Mallet : Northern Antiquities. 237. 

Knight : Anct. Art and Mytho., p. 147. 8 Ancient Faiths, vol. i. p. 100. 

See Mallet s Northern Antiquities. See Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 33, and Mex- 

See Higgins : Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 108, lean Antiquities, vol. vl. p. 176. 
109, 259. Dupuis : Orig. Relig. Belief, p. 257. 


and in the knot behind was inserted a small cross, by which it was intended to 
show that she was the Most Holy." 1 

The Mexicans had pictures of this " Heavenly Goddess " on 
long pieces of leather, which they rolled up. a 

The annunciation to the Virgin Chimalrnan, that she should be 
come the mother of the Saviour Quetzalcoatle, was the subject of a 
Mexican hieroglyphic, and is remarkable in more than one respect. 
She appears to be receiving a bunch of flowers from the embassador 
or angel, 3 which brings to mind the lotus, the sacred plant of 
the East, which is placed in the hands of the Pagan and Christian 

The 25th of March, which was celebrated throughout the 
ancient Grecian and Roman world, in honor of " the Mother of 
the Gods," was appointed to the honor of the Christian " Mother of 
God," and is now celebrated in Catholic countries, and called 
" Lady day." 4 The festival of the conception of the " Blessed Vir 
gin Mary " is also held on the very day that the festival of the 
miraculous conception of the " Blessed Virgin Juno " was held 
among the pagans, 6 which, says the author of the " Perennial 
Calendar," " is a remarkable coincidence." 8 It is not such a very 
" remarkable coincidence " after all, when we find that, even as 
early as the time of St. Gregory, Bishop of Neo-Caesarea, who 
flourished about A.D. 240-250, Pagan festivals were changed into 
Christian holidays. This saint was commended by his namesake 
of Nyssa for changing the Pagan festivals into Christian holidays, 
the better to draw the heathens to the religion of Christ. 7 

The month of May, which was dedicated to the heathen Virgin 
Mothers, is also the month of Mary, the Christian Virgin. 

Now that we have seen that the worship of the Virgin and Child 
was universal for ages before the Christian era, we shall say a few 
words on the subject of pictures and images of the Madonna so 

The most ancient pictures and statues in Italy and other parts 
of Europe, of what are supposed to be representations of the Virgin 
Mary and the infant Jesus, are Hack. The infant god, in the arms 
of his black mother, his eyes and drapery white, is himself perfectly 
black. 8 

Godfrey Higgins, on whose authority we have stated the above, 
informs us that, at the time of his writing 1825-1835 images and 

1 Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 176. Quoted in Ibid. 

a Ibid. i See Middleton s Letters from Rome, p. 

1 Ibid. 236. 

4 Higgins : Anacalypsia, vol. i. p. 304. 8 Higgins : Anacalypsis, TO,, i. p 138. 

Ibid. vol. ii. p. 82. 



paintings of this kind were to be seen at the cathedral of Moulins ; 
the famous chapel of "the Virgin " at Loretto; the church of the 
Annunciation, the church of St. Lazaro, and the church of St. 
Stephens, at Genoa ; St. Francis, at Pisa y the church at Brixen, 
in the Tyrol ; the church at Padua ; the church of St. Theodore, 
at Munich in the two last of which the white of the eyes and 
teeth, and the studied redness of the lips, are very observable. 1 

" The Bainbinc? at Rome is black," says Dr. Inman, " and 
so are the Virgin and Child at Loretto." 3 Many more are to be 
seen in Rome, and in innumerable other places ; in fact, says Mr. 

" There is scarcely an old church in Italy where some remains of the worship 

of the black Virgin, and black child, are 
not met with;" and that "pictures in 
great numbers are to be met with,where 
the white of the eyes, and of the teeth, 
and the lips a little tinged with red, 
like the black figures in the museum 
of the Indian company." 4 

Fig. No. 20 is a copy of the 
image of the Virgin of Loretto. 
Dr. Conyers Middleton, speaking 
of it, says : 

" The mention of Loretto puts me 
in mind of the surprise that I was in at 
the first sight of the Holy Image, for 
its face is as black as a negro s. But 
I soon recollected, that this very cir 
cumstance of its complexion made it 
but resemble the more exactly the old idols of Paganism." 5 

The reason assigned by the Christian priests for the images being 
black, is that they are made so by smoke and incense, but, we may 
ask, if they became black by smoke, why is it that the white drapery, 
white teeth, and the white of the eyes have n